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due regard to the foregoing considerations can rarely be comprised 
within the limits allowed to etymological inquiry in our ordinary- 
dictionaries, and it would be far better to make it the subject of a 
separate work, apart from the regular lexicography of the language. 
We have only to look at Ihre's excellent Lexicon Suio-Gothicum 
to see how interesting a work of this nature might be made by the 
study of our own language with even a somewhat superficial know- 
ledge of the cognate tongues. In such a work there would be 
ample room for many contributors, and a field peculiarly adapted, 
as the author conceived, for the cooperation of the members of the 
Philological Society. It often happens to the philological student 
in the course of his reading to make out to his own entire satis- 
faction the origin and explanation of detached expressions, which 
become lost to science solely from the want of a convenient means 
of communication. To give an instance : the author a short time 
back was struck with a passage in Pepys' Diary*, in which he 
speaks of the '* coal harbour" among the outhouses of the Tower. 
The moment it appeared that the place where fuel was kept was 
formerly known by this name, it occurred at once that we had here 
the origin of those innumerable " cold harbours" which have caused 
so much discussion, being everywhere scattered over the face of our 
county maps in such abundance, that Hartshome, in his ' Salopia 
Antiqua,' has been able to enumerate no fewer than seventy-one. 
When wood was the only fuel, the wood-yard for the supply of the 
surrounding district must have been an important object in every 
neighbourhood. If it were known that the Society invited such 
communications, we might perhaps be the means of preserving 
much valuable knowledge, and might gradually accumulate mate- 
rials for an etymology of the English language, for which, at the 
present day, we have little tctshow beyond the uncertain guesses of 
Junius and Skinner. 

In the following specimens the author has endeavoured to exem- 
plify his own idea of what is wanting in this department of science, 
and at the same time to show how much satisfaction may frequently 
be attained without digging very deep beneath the surface. For 
this purpose he has taken a few examples of words at the commence- 
ment of the alphabet, ill understood or insufficiently accounted for 
in the standard authorities, and has thought it better to support his 
views by such positive evidence as he could produce, with as little 
criticism as possible on the speculations of preceding authors. 

Abandon. — The word " ban " is common to all the languages of 
the Teutonic stock in the sense of proclamation, publication ; remain- 
ing with us in the expression " banns of marriage." Passing into the 
romance tongues, this word became " bando" in Italian and Spanish, 
an edict or proclamation ; *' bandon" in French, in the same sense, 
and secondarily, command, orders, dominion, power : h, son bandon, 
at his own discretion. 

• " He went into several little cellars and then went out a-doors to view, and to 
the Cole-Harbour, but none did answer so well to the marks which was given him 
to find it by, as one arched vault."— Pepys, i. 329. « 

Great loos hath largesse and great prise, 
For both the wise folk and unwise 
Were wholly to her bandoti brought, 
So well with yeflis has she wrought — Chaucer, R. R. 1 160. 
In the original, 

Les saiges avait et les fols 
Communement k son bandon. 

(She had them at her command.) 
Alangst the land of Ross he roars, 
And all obeyed at his bandown^ 
Even frae the north to suthren shoars. 

Battle of Harlaw in Jamieson. 
Sone thei raised strif, brent the kynse's townes. 
And his castles took — held them in their bandown. — R. Brunne. 

Hence, to abandon or embandon is to bring under the absolute 
command or entire control of any one : to subdue> rule, have entire 
dominion over him. 

Of^ syss quhen it wald him like, 

He went till huntynge with his menye, 

And swa the land abandoumyt he 

That none durst wame (refuse) to do his will. — Bruce, iv. 391 . 

And he that thryll (thraU) is is nocht his 

All that he has embandoumyt is 

Unto his lord, whatever he be. Id. i. 244. 

The hardy Bruce ane ost abandoumyt 

Twenty thousand he rewllyt be force and wit 

Upon the Scottis his men for to reskew. Wallace, x. 3 1 7. 

The king rycht weill resawyt he, 

And wndretuk his man to be, 

And him and his on mony wyss. 

He abandownyt till his service. Bruce* iii. 130. 

He that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese God by his werkes and 
abandon himself with all his might well for to do. — Chaucer in Richardson. 

Kenneth exhorted his folkis to assailye feirsly their ennymes and to per- 
seveir in fervent battail, that it may be discussed be the day quhidder the 
Scottis shall abandown the Pichtis, or the Pichtis the Scottis. — Bellenden in 

Now as that which is placed at the absolute command of o\ie 
party must by the same act be entirely given up by the original 
possessor, it was a very easy step from the sense of conferring the 
command of a thing upon some particular person, to that of re- 
nouncing air claim to authority over the subject-matter, without 
particular reference to the party into whose hands it might come; 
and thus in modern times the word has come to be used almost ex- 
clusively in the sense of renunciation or desertion. 

The adverbial expressions " at abandon," " bandonly," " aban- 
donly," so common in the ' Bruce' and 'Wallace,' may be understood 
by reference to the French " It son bandon," " k bandon," pro 
arbitrio, at his own will and pleasure, at his own impulse, uncon- 
troUedly, impetuously, courageously, determinedly. 

B 2 

The Sotlierons saw how that so bandowulut 

Wallace abaid ner hand their chivalry.— Wallace, v. 881. 

The Scottis men dang on sa fast, 

And schot on thaim at abandoum, 

As ilk man were a canipioun, 

That all their fayii tuk the flycht. Bruce, xv. 59. 

The king that had thar with him then 

Weill fyve thousand wycht and worthi 

Saw thai twa sa ahandownly 

Schut amang thaim and come sa ner 

He wyst rycht weill withoutyn wer 

That thai rycht ner suppowall had. Bruce, ii. 105. 

Abash. — ^This word was formerly used in the sense of putting to 
confusion from any strong emotion, whether of iear, of wonder, 
shame, or admiration : — 

And with that word came Drede avaunt, 

Which was abashed^ and in great fere 

When he wist Jealosie was nere : 

He was for drede in such affray 

That not a worde durst he say. Chaucer, R. R. 

In modem times the use of the word has been confined to the 
emotion of shame, and this restricted sense of the word has thrown 
etymologists on a wrong scent in seeking for the derivation. 

Abash is an adoption of the French eshahir (to which it has often 
been referred) as sounded in the greater number of the inflexions, 
esbahissons, esbahissez, esbahissant. 

To convert the word thus inflected into English, it was natural to 
curtail merely the terminations ons, ez, ant, by which the inflexions 
differed from each other, and the verb was written in English to 
ahaisse, or abaish. 

So we render ravir, ravish / polir, polish ; fQumir, furnish, &c. 
Many verbs of this form derived from the French were formerly 
written indifferently with or without a final sh, where custom has 
rendered one or the other of the two modes of spelling obsolete. 

Thus in Chaucer we find burnish written "bumy"; astonish, 
"astony"; betray "betrash"; obey, "obeisse" (or "obeyshe" in 
Robert of Gloucester). Speaking of Narcissus stooping to drik 
the poet writes : — 

In the water anon was sene 
His nose, his mouth, his eyen shene. 
And he thereof was all abashed^ 
His owne shadow had him betrashed ; 
For well he wened the forme to see 
Of a childe of full grete beaut^. R. R. 1520. 

In the original — 

Et il maintenant s'ebahit, 

Car son umbre si le trakit, 

Car il cuida voir la figure 

D'ung enfant bel k dem^sure. 
In like manner abash was formerly written *' abay" or " abaw" as 
well as *' abaysse" or " abaish" :— 7 


I saw the rose when I was nigh, 

It was thereon a goodly sight — 

For such another as I gesse 

Aforne ne was nor more vermeille, 

I was abawid for merveille. R. R. 3645. 

In the original — 

Moult m'ebahis de la merreille. 

Yield you madame on hicht can schir last say, 
A word scho could not speak she was so ahayd. 

K. Hart in Jamieson. 

Custom,, which has rendered obsolete betrash and obeish, has exer- 
cised her authority in like manner over abay or abaw, bumy, astony. 
The origin of esbahir itself is to be found in the old French 
** baer," " b6er/* to open the mouth, an onomatopoeia, from the noise 
most naturally made by the lips in that action. Hence " baer" or 
" b^r," in a secondary application, is used to signify the doing of 
anything the natural tendency of which is to manifest itself by an 
involuntary opening of the mouth ; to be struck with wonder ; to 
be intent upon anything ; and esbahir in the active form, is to strike 
with feelings of such a nature, to confound, to set agape : — 

In himself was all his state 
More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits 
On pruices when their rich retinue long 
Of horses led, and grooms besmear'd with gold, 
Dazzles the crowd and sets them all agape, — Milton, P. L, 

Accoutre. — ^To equip with the habiliments of some particular 
office or occupation^ -an act, of which, in catholic countries, the fre- 
quent change of vestments at appointed periods of the church ser- 
vice would afford a striking and familiar example. 

Now the person who had charge of the vestments in a catholic 
church was the sacristan, in Latin custos sacrarii or ecclesite (barba- 
rously feminized into custrix when the office was filled by a woman), 
in old French, " cousteur" or *' coustre," *' coutre." German 
" kiister," the sacristan or vestry-keeper. — Ludwig. 

Ad custodem sacrarii pertinet cura vel custodia templi — vela vestesque 
sacra ac vasa sacrorum, &c. — St. Isidore in Ducange. 

We see accordingly in the year 1473 an inventory of the jewels, 
ornaments, hangings, vestments (parenttns), books and other goods be- 
longing to the church of Notre Dame at Bayeux, taken in the presence 
of the servants and procurators of the ** grand cousteur de la dite 

The primitive idea in accoustrer would thus be to perform the office 
of sacristan to any one, to invest him with habiliments analogous 
to those employed by the priest in performing public service. 

Afford, Affere. — ^We find the word " forum" in Ducange in 
the sense not only of market, but also .of market-price, in old French 
feur or fuer. 

Hence afforer or affeurer, to tax or appraise a thing. Afforer or 
affeurer le vin, was to set a price at which, after payment of the 

droit d'afforage to the feudal lord, the wine might lawfully be sold 
by retail. 

From affeurer we have " to affere/' in the same sense. Our offerors 
were persons whose duty it was to tax or assess the fines imposed 
by the courts upon individuals according to their means : — 

£t quod amerciamenta prsedictorum tenentium afferetiluret taxenturper 
sacramentum pariuni suorum. — Charter of 1316 in Ducange. 

From "afforer," the more original mode of spelling the word, comes 
our " afford." Merchandise would be qffbred upon which a certain 
price was set : and '< to affor*d it" would be to allow it to go at the 
price affored. In support of this view of the origin of the final dy 
we may cite the two following examples, quoted by Richardson in 
his Dictionary : — 

[There is] no such offering of Christ in the Scripture where you will find 
it once afford for all. — Sheldon in Richardson. 

ParoUes, I would the cutting of my garments wold sen'e the tume, or 
the breaking of my Spanish sword. 

\8t Lord, We cannot affoor*d you so. — All's well that ends well, Act. iv . 

In the first of these examples, " afford" is obviously used as a past 
participle, implying that the offering was valued as an offering for 
all, thought worthy of that price. 

In the other example, though used as a verb, ** affoor'd" is written 
as a participle with an apostrophe before the d, 

Attercop, Cobweb. — Attercop is still in use in the North of 
England for a spider. A. S. ator-coppa, from ator, venom ; Isl. 
eitr. £itr-orm, a poisonous snake, an adder. 

The remaining element cop or cob, which survives in our cobweb, 
and in the Dutch " spinne-kop," has not been satisfactorily ex- 
plained. It is interpreted cup by Jamieson, Aearf by Boucher, but 
neither poison-cup nor poison-head would be a very appropriate de- 
signation of a spider, and still less spin-cup or spin-head, to which 
we should be led by the Dutch expression. 

We find however in Frisian, " kop, " a bubble, blister, ** bleb, " 
pock, of which latter indeed it seems to be a mere inversion, just as 
our pot is the German ** topf." *• Twaer kopet," the water boils ; 
"borne koppar," Isl. the small-pox. Atter-cop would thus be 
equivalent to poison-pock, venom-bag. 

In the old Swedish, according to Ihre, kopp was used to desig- 
nate a hee ; the word being probably in the first instance honey-kopp, 
from whence the honey was dropped in the course of time, in the 
same way that the initial '*atter" has disappeared in Flanders, leaving 
kopp, koppe, as the designation of a spider. I'he contrast between 
the bee and the spider as collectors, the one of sweets and the other 
of poison, is of very old standing. 

2. •• On the Ellipsis of the Verb in English Syntax." By Edwin 
Guest, Esq. 

The word ellipsis will be used on the present occasion with the 
same latitude of meaning as in a former paper. Cases of real 
ellipsis are comparatively rare, and it often requires a very minute 

acquaintance with the history of grammar, to determine whether a 
sentence apparently defective has or has not originated in one more 
perfect. If we confine our attention to what has heen termed logical 
ell^sis, we soon find ourselves entangled in all the refinements of 
metaphysical distinction ; and metaphysics, though they have often 
afforded a very convenient shelter to the philologist, have hitherto, 
it is apprehended, done little to advance the science of philology. 
The first ohject of this, as of every other science, is arrangement ; 
and if we cannot attain to a natural arrangement — if our knowledge 
will not enahle us to draw the line which separates the real from 
the merely apparent ellipsis — we may show our wisdom by follow- 
ing the example of other grammarians, and not clogging ourselves 
with conditions which nobody has yet succeeded in carrying out 
consistently. An ellipsis, therefore, as the term is here used, will 
include the real or historical ellipsis, the logical ellipsis, and also 
any construction which, according to the present usage of our lan- 
guage, may be considered as defective. 

In present usage, our language rarely admits an ellipsis of the 
copula, unless where the predicate is transposed so as to come before 
the subject, and the latter is preceded by the definite article or pos- 
sessive pronoun. In such cases of transposition the ellipsis is too 
common to need examples, but there is a peculiarity in Milton's use 
of the idiom which may perhaps deserve notice. After this ellipsis, 
he very generallydn the next clause of the sentence omits the per- 
sonal pronoun :— 

1 . Dagon his name : sea-monster, upward man 
And downward fish, yet had (he) his temple high 

Rear'd in Azotus. P. L. 1. 462. 

2. — cruel his eye, but (it) cast 

Signs of remorse. ' P. L. 1. 594. 

3. Vain wisdom all and false philosophy. 

Yet with a pleasing sorcery could (it) charm. P. L. 2. 565. 

When the words follow in their natural sequence, the omission 
of the copula is much less frequent, though instances of it are occa- 
sionally to be met with : — 

4. Meats for the belly, and the belly for meats; but God shall destroy 
both it and them. — 1 Cor. vi. 13. 

5. — many rivers clear 

Here glide in silver swathes, 

And what of all most dear, 

Buxton's delicious baths, 

Strong ale and noble cheer. Drayton. 

6. — by law thou art condemned to die*— 

Yet this my comfort : when your words are done, 

My woes end likewise, &c. Com. of Errors, 1.1. 

7. — what noise there f ho— 

No noise, my lord, but needful conference. W. T. 2. 3. 

In the earlier periods of our language, this ellipsis was common 
in such clauses as began with the conjunction copulative ; and after 

the conjunctions " continuative" yet and though, it kept its ground 
in our literature till comparatively recent times : — 

8. po fis strong men was slawe, })at so strong was in fyjt 

IS men. bi gonne to fle, andfayn \at heo wiyjt. Rob. Glou. 121 • 

9. — a prince, as hit were, 

By nom hym ys housewyf and heeld hire hym self 
And Abraam nat hardy ones to letten hym, 

yis.>de Dowel, pass. 4. p. 215. Whit ed. 

10. — semivivus he semede, 

And naked as a neelde, 4md non help ahwiie hym. 

Vis. de Dobet, pass. 3. p. 324. Whit. ed. 

1 1 . My son shulle in a mad}^ light ^ 
Agens the feynd of helle to fight, 
Withoutyn wem, as son thrugh glas 

And the madyn, as she was, Townl. Myst 73. 

12. — drevin to the seis, quhare ane part of thaime eschapit be fischear 
batis, and the residew vincust and slane, — Bell. Chron. 2. 19. 

13. So may he ever do! and ever flourish 

When I shall dwell with worms, and my poor name 
Banished the kingdom. Hen. VIII. 4. 2. 

14. Worst in this royal presence may I speak. 

Yet best beseeming me to speak the truth. Rich. II. 4. 1. 

15. Youth to itself rebels, though none else near. — Hamlet, 1. 3. 

16. — you, whom I could pity thus forlorn. 

Though I unpitied. P. L. 1. 374. 

17. — the mind and spirit remains 
Invincible, and vigour soon returns, 
Though all our glory extinct and happy state 

Here swallowed up in endless misery, P. L. 1 . 139. 

When a sentence, or clause pf a sentence contains some general 
assertion, it frequently opens with one of the pronouns indeter- 
minate in construction with the^verb substantive, — it is, there are, &c. 
Our older writers, in such cases, sometimes omitted both verb and 

18. Lewede men cunne French non 
Among an hondryd unnethis on, 
And nevertheles with glad chere 
Fele of hem that wolde here 

Noble justis. R. Cceur de Lion, 26. 

19. I see toppys of hyllis h^^ many at a sight 

Nothing to let me, the wedyr is so bright. — Townl. Myst. 32. 

20. ' — there was a noise — 

That *R verity; best stand upon our guard. Temp. 2. 1. 

When the infinitive of the verb substantive, in construction with 
an accusative, follows certain verbs, we may at our option insert or 
omit it ; thus we may say, you . thought him honest, it made me un- 
well, &c., or you thought him to be honest, &c. In the earlier stages 
of our language the infinitive was omitted after many verbs which 
no longer allow of its ellipsis ; for instance, after the verbs to do, to 
know, to show, to hear, &c. : — 

21. An oratorie— 

In worship of Diane of chastite, 

Hath Theseus done wrought-m noble wise. 

Chau. The Knightes Tale, 1065. 

22. — quit his fortunes here 

(Which you knew grea()y and to the certain hazard 

Of all uncertainties himself commended. W. T. 3. 2. 

23. Let Fergus goist knaw us good men, luffaris of verteWf and not un- 
mindful ofguddedes, — Bell, Chron. 2. 1. 

24. — desiring— to have support aganis the auld inhabitantis of Ireland^ 
and shawand thame, ane wild pepW, impfimient, &c.— Bell, Chron. 1. 3. 

25. The residew of the Bntoni9—herand thair king slane, and thair army 
discomiist send an herald, &c. — Bell, Chron. 1. 10. 

26. — sought in vain. 

And nowhere finding, rather /(far *c^ her slain, — Dryden. 
Hath done wrought in ex. 21. is equivalent to hath caused to he 

Some of the most curious instances of ellipsis are found in cases 
where the auxiliaries enter into combination with the verb. The 
verb is generally the subject of the ellipsis, but the auxiliary have 
was omitted both in the past tense infinitive and also after the 
auxiliaries may, can, will, shall, &c. 

27. If I had had the giftes of grace, 

I never would have sought, 
By any meanes such worldly trashe 
With brother's bloud to bought. 

Higgins, M. for M. Ring Ferrex, 1st edit. 

28. — I bed like to been drownt. — Wheeler's Westm. Dial. 

29. — teak freet an ran oway, br^ oa'th gear, fearfully l^aamd his 
showder an like to kilt me. — Wheeler's Westm. Dial. 

30. She'd a good mind to went, — Bachelor's Bedfordsh. Dial. p. 132. 

31. J wald sum clerk of conyng wald declerde, 
Quhat gerris this warld be turnyt up so down. 

Merser, Ballade against the Times. 

32. Your lege ye layd and your aly. 
Your franticke fable not worth a fly, 
Frenche king, or one or other 
Regarded ye should your Idrd, your brother. 

Skelton, Against the Scottes. 

33. I am that Malin, one of M^dan's sons. 

Which thought to raigne ahd rule this noble isle, 

And would so done, but&c. — Higgins, M. for M. King Malin, 5. 

34. If he had bene a God (as sots him nam'd). 
He could not of us Bretaynes taken foUe, 

Higgins, M. for M. Lord Nennius, 31. 

35. Yet if / might my quarrel try*d* with thee. 
Thou never had'st retournde. 

Higgins, M. for M. King Nennius, 27. 

* Niccols'g edition reads " I had," and the edition of 1575 " have tried." It is 
thus our editors pare down our vernacular idiom. Even Milton's English has been 
" corrected " ! 


36. Yet would to God he had retiirnde again. 
So that / might but once the dotard spyde, 

Higgins, M. for M. King Nennius, 33. 

37. Mar>' ! / wad full fain heard some question tween you twain. — 
Hen. V. 3; 2. 

38. And frae his harp sic strains did flow 

Might rous'd the slumbering dead. Bums's Vision. 

39. What further clish-ma-clavers might been said, 

No man can tell. Bums's Brigs of Ayr. 

40. — a ribbon at your lug 

Wad been a dress completer. Burns's Dream. 

This ellipsis is common in the Swedish. With ue it seems to have 
prevailed chiefly in our northern dialects, and Shakespeare, in the 
only place where he uses it (ex. 37), puts it into the mouth of a 
Scotchman. It must however have been known to our other dia- 
lects, for Higgins, who employs it so frequently, was a West-of- 
England man. 

In the far larger proportion of these cases, the auxiliary is ex- 
pressed, and the supplementary part of the verb omitted. For 
example, when the past tense is coupled with the future, or with 
some combination of the verb expressiog future time, the auxiliary 
have is often used without its participle : — 

41. — like silly beggars 

Who sitting in the stocks refuge their shame 

That many have and others must sit there. Rich. II. 5. 5. 

42. — my loyalty, 

Which ever has and ever shall be growing 

Till death, that winter, kill it Hen. VIII. 3. 2. 

43. — for your highness' good I ever labour'd 

More than my own ; thatam, Aao^, and shallbe. — Hen. VI II. 3. 2. 

44. This dedication may serve for almost any book that has, is, or shall 
be published. — Boliugbroke. 

Again, the infinitive is often omitted after the auxiliaries may, 
can, will, shall, &c., when another form or combination of the verb 
occurs in the same sentence : — 

45. Aungel, 1 sey to yow 

In what manere of wyse xal this be ? 
Ffor knowing of man I have non now, 
/ have evermore kepi and xal my verginite. Cov. Myst. 113. 

46. But it is said and ever shall 

Betwene two stooles is the fall. Gower, fol. 2. 

47. Ich am sory for my synnes and so shal ich evere. 

P. Plouhman, pass. 8. Whit. ed. 

48. And he that mover is of all 
That is or was or ever shall, 

So give hem joy. ^ Chau. H. of Fame. 

49. Men dreme of thing that never was nor shall. 

Chau. The Nonnes Preestes Tale, 430. 

50. You were as flowers new wither*d, even so 

These herblets shall, which we upon you throw. — Cymb. 4. 2. 


51. — garland — which I feel 

I am not worthy yet to bear, / ahall 

Assuredly. Hen. VIII. 4.2. 

52. Emperour he was^ 

pe noblest >at my^te bote ><it he Cristine nas. R. Gl. 71. 

53 i — he wole al out hem brynge of >e daunger of Rome, 

And deliuer ]>is land of Roma}'nes and of stronge men ech on, 
pat so fre lond as ]?is, M schulde nower non. R. Gl. 78. 

54. A ! ho had evyr suche a chylde ? 

Nevyr creature jit that evyr was bore ! 
Sche is so gracyous, sche is so mylde — 
So xulde childyr to fadyr and modyr evyr more. — Cov. My st. 8 1 . 

55. • — he io yourself. 

As you would to your friend. Hen. VIII. 1. 1. 

In ex. 53. we have an ellipsis of the verb in both clauses of the 
sentence ; and perhaps the idiom we have been considering may be 
looked upon as merely a particular case of one more general, which 
may be ^us defined : after the auxiliaries may, can, will, shall, &c., 
the infinitive may be omitted whenever the construction of the sen- 
tence is such as readily to suggest it. 

A very common ellipsis omits the verb when it signifies the per- 
formance of some act referred to or suggested in the sentence. In 
the following examples, the verb supposed to be the subject of the 
ellipsis is placed within brackets : 

56. — I am taught to be filled and to hungre and to abound and to sufire 
myseiste. I may (do) alle thingis in him that comforteth me. — Wicl. Fil. 4. 

67* — he that most may when he syttes in pride 

When it comes on assay is kestendowne wyde. — ^Townl.Myst. 84. 

58. I have seen myself and sesved against the French, 

And they can (do duty) well on horseback. Hamlet, 4. 6. 

59. Mecaenas and Agrippa, who can most 

With Caesar, are his friends. Dryden. 

60. Swete systeres to juw alle I knele 

To receyve I beseche your charite — 
They xal (yield it) dowtere. Cov, Myst. p. 86. 

61 . "^rhe mason sware grete athes hikn to 
That he sold (do) whatsom he wolde 

And never tel man on this molde. — Tlie Sevyn Sages, 30.55. 

' An ellipsis of the verb to go is exceedingly common after the 
auxiliaries will, shall, would, &c. when coupled with some adverb or 
preposition signifying motion to or from a place. 

62. Desolate, desolate will I hence and die. Rich. II. 1. 2. 

63. Then buckling close, doth not at random hack 
On the hard cuirass on his enemies back. 
But under 's belly (cunning) finds a skin 

Where (and but there) his sharpen'd blade will m. 

Sylv. Du Bartas, 6th day. 

64. — he beheld aboute 

pe dures were so sperd, he myght in no sted£ oute, — R. Br. 93. 


65. — they will out of their burrowt, like conies after rain, and revel all 
with bim. — Cor. 4. 5. 

66. — I wote wheder I shalle ; 

In helle I wote mon be my stalle. Townl. Myst. 16. 

67. I yet remember 

Some of these articles, and out they shall. — Hen. VIII. 3, 2. 

68. — per nas so god kny^t non nower in France, 
pat in joustes scholde at sitte ye dynt of ys lance 

Pat he ne sehulde a doum. ' R. Gl. 137. 

69. Than by my lay Y dare well swere 

They sehull a down, " Octov. 1722. 

70. If I bad a thunderbolt in my eye, I can tell, who should down. — As 
You Like It, 1.2. 

71. Constantin walde after and warpen him ^eonne, 
Constantine would after and drive him thence. — StCatherine,18. 

72. You must to Pomfret, not unto the Tower. — Rich. II. 1.2. 

The infinitive of the verb to have seems to have been omitted after 
the auxiliaries will or would ; at least the idiom, according to the 
present usage of our language, would be considered as defective. 

73. \ — corouned Dufhald, Sir Malcolme broker. 

His sonnes yd ne wald, >e ton no >e to>er. R. Br. 90. 

74. Yei dele aboute the, for I wille none. Townl. Myst 16. 

75. / wol no woman thirty yere of age. 

It is but bene straw. Chau. March. Tale, 177. 

76. Anne Bullen ! no ; / 7/ no Anne Bullens for him. 
There is more in it than fair feature, — Bullen, 
-SoyWe'UnoBuUens. Hen. VIII. 3. 2. 

77. Peace ! foolish woman — 

/ will not peace. Rich. II. 5. 1. 

The above are the most usual cases in which the verb is omitted 
after the auxiliaries, but other instances of its ellipsis are sometimes 
met with. The following may serve as examples : — 

78. The kynd of the shalle sprede wide 
From eest to west on every syde. 
From the southe unto the northe 

Alle that I say / shaUe (bring) forth. Townl. Myst. 45. 

79. To the fare wiU I (betake) me. Townl. Myst. 85. 

80. English John Talbot, captains, calls you forth. 
And thus he would (say) — Open your city gates. 
Be humble to us, call my sovereign yours. 

And do him homage as obedient servants. 

And rU withdraw me. ] Hen. VI. 4. 2. 

The verb to go, when accompanied with an adverb or preposition 
signifying motion to or from a place, is sometimes omitted, even 
though there be no auxiliary ; — 

81 . Out of my doors, you witch, you hag. — Mer. W. of Windsor. 

82. — he 's gone to serve the duke of Florence, 

We met him thitherward. All's Well that £nds Well, 3. 2. 


83. — to him again, entreat bim. 

Kneel down before bim. M. for Mean. 

84. With that she to him again, and surely would have put out his eyes, 
&c. — Sydney's Arcadia. 

Shakespeare also employs other idioms, which at the present day 
would require the infinitive of the verbs to go or to come, and which 
may remind us of the idioms ad ccsnam condicere vel promittere, or 
of the Ciceronian phrases tit Pompeianum vel tit suburbamtm cogitare. 

85. I would desire 

My famous cousin to the Grecian tents, T. and Cr. 4. 5. 

86. Desire him home. T. and Cr. 4. 5. 

87. Good sometime queen, ^w^pare thee hence for France, — Rich. II. 5. 1. 

The verb to say, like to go, is omitted not only after an auxiliary 
(ex. 80), but also occasionally under other circumstances : — 

88. But off the town the chef amyrayle 
(His name was callyd Tryabaute) 
Lord ar thou geve us assawte, 

A fie the folk of this toun 

Proffer hem to knely adoun. Rich. Coeur de Lion, 2858. 

This English idiom seems to have authorized the ellipsis which 
Milton uses so frequently : — 

89. To whom thus Jesus, " What concludest thou hence," &c.— P. R. 
though the classical associations connected with it were probably its 
chief recommendation in the eyes of the poet. 

A change from the third to the first or second pronoun personal, 
without any of the usual introductory phrases, he said, &c., was very 
common in our earlier literature ; and the use of this figure in our 
classical poetry has been very unnecessarily traced by Addison and 
others to a Greek or Roman originaL A deeper insight into the 
history of our language will no doubt greatly lessen the number of 
Milton's ** Latinisms." 

90. Conscience knelynge, to ]»e king loutede 

To wite what his will were, and what he do sholde : 

Wolt thou wedde ]»m maide, if ich woUe assente^ 

For hue ysfayne of \y felauship, and for to he \ymahe, &c. 

P. Plouh. pass. 4. Whit. ed. 

91. A gret fawchin in hand he bare, 

Comefyte with me now who that dare, — Rich. C. de Lion, 4510. 

92. pe kyng hym bisouht, als clerk of dignite, 

To coroune Helianoure, that biseke I \e, R. Br. 73. 

93. — adored 

T|ie God that made both sky, air, earth and heaven 

Which they beheld, the moon's resplendent lamp, 

And starry pole ; thou also madest the nighty 

Maker omnipotent, and thou the day. 

Which we, &c. P. L. 4. 723. 

This ellipsis however in our older dialect was more generally in- 
troduced by one of the conjunctions, ac or aitS : — 


94. pe Romaynes seide eke ^t heo nolde in no maner so wende 
Out of here land hiderward, ne beore power so sende, 

Ac 3^ achulde of oure yongefolke techefor iofi^te^ &c. 

R. Glou. 99. 

95. Tho were fai tours aferede and feynede hem blinde — 

And maden here more to Peers, how thei mowe nat wirche 
Ac we prayethfor ^ou Peers, and fore ymre plouh bothe, 
pat God for kus grace, y)ure grain muUipUe, 

P. Plouh. pass. 9. Whit ed. 

96. Treuthe sent hym a lettere, 

And bad hym bygee baldly, what hym best lykede, 
And sitthen sellen nit a ;ein, and save ^e W3mnynges 
Amenden Meson dieux J^er with, and myseyse men fynde— 
And ich shal sende ^ow myselue Seynt Mychel myn aungel 
That no devel shal ^ow dere, P. Plouh. pass. 10. Whit. ed. 

97. The kynff commanded knygtes tho 
To the cite for to goo 

And take the palmeres alle three 

And bring hem her before me. Rich. Cceur de Lion, 698. 

In similar constructions, we sometimes find the verb to ask 
omitted : — 

98. And ich a roos right up with fat, and reverencede hym fayre, 
And if hus wU were, he wolde hus name telle. 

Vis. de P. Plouh. pass. 4. Whit. ed. 

When some act has been idone in order to determine that which 
is doubtful, the clause which explains the motive is generally in- 
troduced with some such phrase as to know whether, to see if, &c. 
Our older writers generally used the conjunction without the verb : — 

99. Thus thei vysyted the Holy Land 

How they myght wynne it to her hand, — Rich. C. de Lion, 646. 

100. — in meekness instructing those that ^pose themselves, if God 
peradventure will give them repentance, &c. — 2 Tim. ii. 25. 

101. — as a wolf, that hunting for a prey. 
And having stol'n at last some lamb away, 
Flyes with down-hanging head, and leareth back. 
Whether the mastif doo pursue his track, 

S}lv. Du Bartas, 5th day. 


Vol. IL DECEMBER 13, 18441 ^ . - jfo. 2?. 

The Rev, Dr, Hawtrxy in the Chair. 

A Grammar of the Persian Language, by Duncan Forbes, A.M. 
second edition: London, 1844, was laid on the table, — presented by 
the author. t 

The following papers were read : — 

1. "On the I^guages and Dialects of the British Islands :"— 
Continued, By the Rev. Richard Garnett. 

In proceeding to give some account of the dialects which imme- 
diately succeeded, and to a considerable extent supplanted the 
British Celtic, it is proposed to commence with those peculiar to 
our Northern provinces, not as being necessarily first in order, but 
as those which upon the whole are tiie most susceptible of classifi- 
cation and illustration. 

As the invading Saxons consisted of several different tribes, it is 
reasonable to presume, from known analogies, that diversities of 
dialect already prevailed among them ; and this presumption is con- 
firmed by incidental expressions of Bede and other early writers. 
The Mercians of the midland provinces, the three divisions of East, 
Middle and North Angles, and the Northumbrians, extending from 
the Humber to the Forth, are distinctly stated to have been descend- 
ants of the Angli, who were a powerful tribe on the continent as 
early as the time oi Tacitus. We know that those northern tribes 
kad their popular and religious poetry, and, in process of time, ver- 
nacular translations from 8ie Scriptures and other devotional works, 
entirely or chiefly in their own dialect. For example : the poems 
of Csedmon, a native of the north-east of Yorkshire, were not, we 
may presume, originally in the ordinary West-Saxon dialect, in 
which we now have them, but in the form exhibited in the specimen, 
unfortunately very brief, printed by Wanley from an ancient manu- 
script. An elaborate analysis of the peculiarities of this fragment, 
by Professor Halbertsma, will be found in the introduction to Dr. 
Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. The Runic inscription on 
the Ruthwell Cross, illustrated by Mr. Kemble, and the verses 
said to have been pronounced by Bede on his death-bed, as given 
m the St. Gallen manuscript of Cuthbert's letter, relating his 
last moments, present the same peculiarities of form and ortho- 
graphy, but they are too scanty to afford us anything approaching 
to a view of the dialect as a whole. Some monuments have how- 
ever survived the general wreck of the Northumbrian and Anglian 
literature, of considerable value in a philological point of view. The 
first in time and importance, but which has not hitherto met with 
the attention that it deserves, is the Cotton MS. in the British 

VOL. II. c 



Museum, Vespasian A.I., a Latin Psalter of the seventh century, 
with an interlineary Anglo-Si^on gloss, apparently of the nintii 
century, or possihly still earlier. A short comparison of this gloss 
with the Psalter published by gpelman, or any other of the ordinary 
West- Saxon texts, will show that it differs from them considerably 
in orthography, in grammatical forms, and, not unfrequently, in its 
vocabulary also. In short, it is not West-Saxon, but belonging to 
the Anglian class of dialects ; and its general correspondence with 
other known monuments, to be noticed hereafter, renders it highly 
probable that it emanated either from Northumbria or some adjoin- 
ing locality. A regular specification of all its peculiarities would 
occupy too much space, and would require a fuller examination of 
the MS. than it has hitherto received. Occasionally too the MS. 
fluctuates between common West- Saxon and Anglian forms; but 
the latter have such a preponderance as to give a decided character 
to the text. Among orthographical peculiarities, the most promi- 
nent is the regular substitution of oe for the broad e of the West- 
Saxon, coiTCsponding to no in Old High- German and the accented 
6, and occasionally ae in Icelandic : e. gr. 

boen, prayer y West- Saxon, b€n. 

boec, books; ■. „ b6c. 

coelan, to cool; „ c61^. 

doeman, to judge; „ d6man. 

foedan, to feed; „ £§dan. 

spoed, fortune ; „ spM. 

swoet, sweet; „ sw6t. 

woenan, to think ; „ w§nan. 

The analogy of the cognate dialects e^ows that the Anglian is the 
more original form. 

Other variations in vowels and diphthongs, though pretty frequent, 
are not so constant as the above. There is a general tendency to 
substitute simple sounds for complex ones : e. gr. a for the West- 
Saxon ea: all, omnis, W.-S. fall: e for « : deg, day, W*-S. dieg ; 
fet, vessel, V/.-B.ftet : ^so for eo : leht, light, W.-S. leohi: occa- 
sionally oforu: thorh, through, W.-S. thorh. A thoroi]^h exami- 
nation of the MS. might perhaps enable us to discover and classify 
other peculiar forms. 

The grammatical inflexions also present noticeable variations from 
the ordinary type. The plural of feminine nouns in the sixth form 
of Rask commonly ends in e : theode, populi, W.-S. theoda. Femi- 
nines in u preserve that vowel throughout the singular : e. gr. gi/u, 
gift ; gen. dat. ace. gifu, instead of W.-S. gtfe. The same vowel 
occurs in many adjectives and participles feminine, where tiie ordi- 
nary disJect has more frequently e : as micelu, magna, W.-S. mycle. 
In the personal pronouns, the accusatives mec, thee, usic, eounc, an- 
swering to the German mich, dich, euch, are of regular occurrence. 
In the demonstrative pronoun or article, the nom. fem. is generally 
sie instead of seo, and in the oblique cases^ takes place of a: e. gr. 
gen. thes, there, W.-S» th^es, thiere. The dative masc. and neut. in 
both numbers is uniformly thorn, a form deserving of notice for its 


correspondence with the Mseeo- Gothic thaim. Passing over a num- 
ber of other minute variations in nouns and pronouns, we may ob- 
serve that the most marked characteristic of the dialect appears in 
the first person singular of the present indicative of regular verbs, 
which uniformly terminates in u oro, presenting a close analogy to 
the Old Saxon and Lithuanian, but long obsolete in the West- 
Saxon. Thus getreowu, I believe ; cleopiu, I call ; sellu, I give ; 
mubretk, I fear ; sitto, I sit ; Mneo, I drink ; ageldu, I pay or yield, 
where a later hand has added T. [teT] o frige ; getimbru, instruam ; 
gloss a seeunda manu, W laere ; according to the ordinary dialect. 
The .second person generally ends in s instead of st, both in the 
present and imperfect : neosas^ thou visitest ; acerres, thou tumest 
away ; gesettes, thou placest ; lufedes, thou lovedst ; gewonades, thou 
diminishedst ; neiuacks, thou visitedst ; smiredes, Uiou didst anoint ; 
where it will be observed that edea or odes is substituted for the or- 
dinary ending of the second person imperf. odest. TThe diird pers. 
pi. imperf. also frequently ends in un—fuledun, they became corrupt, 
W.-S. fulodon, — another point of agreement with the Old-Saxon. 
The verb substantive has also several peculiarities, the most remark- 
able of which is the plural of. the present indicative earun (sumus, 
estis. sunt), the original of the English are, but totally unknown in 
West-Saxon. Another important characteristic of the dialect is 
the frequent omission of tiie prefix ge in past participles : hered, 
praised, W.-S. geherod; bledsad, blessed, W.-S. gebleisod; soht, 
sought, W,'S,gesoht; thus approximating in some degree to the 
Norse tongaes. The importance of this characteristic will appear 
when we come to classify the more recent dialects. 

The documents which we have next to consider belong to a pe- 
riod when lapse of time and external causes appear to have affected 
in some degree the purity of the dialect ; but, in recompense, we 
have the advantage of knowing pretty accurately to what locality 
and what age they are to be referred. We here allude to the gloss 
of the celebrated Durham Gospels (Cotton MS. Nero, D. 4.), and 
that of the ' Ritumle Ecclesise Duiielmensis,' lately edited for the 
Siurtees Society by Mr. Stevenson. A chronological note in the 
latter document fixes the date of a portion of the MS. in a.d. 970, 
and the identity of the dialect, and it is also believed of the hand- 
writing in both, conspire with all the external evidence which we 
possess, ta induce us to refer the whole Anglo-Saxon portion to 
Durham or its vicinity, in the tenth century. These texts agree 
with that of the Psalter in the general cast of the orthography : 
«. gr. in substituting a for the West- Saxon ea: all, omnis; arm, 
brachium : eforeB: feger, pulcher ; and for eo : leht, lumen : oe for ^ : 
doema, judicare. On the other hand, there are various peculi- 
arities sufficient to give a distinct character to the text ; one of 
the most remarkable of which is the frequent substitution of t 
for e both in simple syllables and diphthongs : gilef for gele/, nuegi 
for nuege, thiostrum for theostrum, hiara for heara [W.-S. heora], 
iwer for ewoer. The differences in grammatical forms may be attri- 
buted partly to the effect of time and partly to extraneous influ- 



encea. In the first person of verbs, o is much more frequent than 
u : fehtOt pugno ; heto, castigo ; wuldrigo, glorior. The plural 
^ is commonly softened down to s : biddaSy precamur ; giwoedes, 
induite ; vyrcas, facite. The final n is generally dropped in infi- 
nitives : gimersiga, celebrare; cuoetha, dicere; inngeonga, intrare. 
The oblique cases and plurals of weak noims (Rask's 1st class) 
drop the final n in all genders i^hearia, corda; earthe (dat.), terrd; 
nome (W.-S. naman), nominis ; and not unfrequently an is converted 
into or tt ; ego, oculi ; witgo and witgu, prophetae (gen. sing, and 
nom. plur.) . The last two peculiarities approximate to the Icelandic, 
which also drops the final n, and as they do not occur in the older 
text of the Psalter, they may possibly be the results of an inter- 
mixture with the Northmen. The writer has not met with purely 
Scandinavian words, either in the Gospels or the Ritual; but a 
friend, well- acquainted with the former MS., informs him that by, 
a town or village, and at, the prefix to the Norse infinitive, occur 
once or twice. It is proper to observe that two of the above sup- 
l)osed indications of a more recent age also occur on the Ruthwell 
Cross, namely the infinitive in a : halda for hyldan or healdjan ; and 
the termination of weak nouns in u for an : an galgu for on gealgan. 
If therefore this monument is to be referred to the ante-Danish 
period, which the history of the district would rather incline us to 
suppose, those peculiarities, and perhaps some others, must be con- 
sidered as belonging to this particular subdivision of the dialect. 
Possibly the Ruthwell and Durham texts may be Northumbrian, in 
the strict sense of the word, and the Psalter, Anglian or Mercian. 

The last considerable text of this class is the gloss to the Bod- 
leian MS., commonly called the Rushworth Gospels, respecting the 
locality of which we can form at least a probable presumption. The 
gloss was the work of two scribes, Owen and Farmenn, the latter 
of whom describes himself as priest at Harawuda or Harewood. The 
only Harewood specified in the Domesday survey is the well-known 
place of that name in Wharfdale in Yorkshire ; and the analogy of 
the dialect to that of the Durham texts enables us to fix the origin 
of it with tolerable certainty in a northern county, as likely York as 
any other. Wanley, who was a good judge of the age of MSS., 
refers the Saxon portion of it to the end of the ninth or the begin- 
ning of the tenth century. It appears indeed, from the grammatical 
forms, to be somewhat older than the Durham Gospels, but in all 
material points the dialect is the same. A connected specimen, in 
which the discrepancies from the ordinary West- Saxon are specified, 
will show the nature of the text more satisfactorily than the enume- 
ration of isolated words. It is observable that the earlier portion of 
the gloss, executed by Farmenn, approximates in several points to 
the ordinary dialect, where that of his coadjutor Owen agrees 
closely with the Durham texts. For example, in the Gospel of St. 
Matthew, the present indicative commonly ends in e and the infini- 
tive in an : sprece, loquor; sprecan^ loqui. Phenomena of this kind 
may be attributed to the political and literary preponderance of the 
West- Saxon branch ia the ninth and tenth centuries. 


The result of the foregoing investigation is, that there exists a 
class of documents exhibiting a marked difference in orthography 
and grammatical forms from the ordinary West-Saxon tongue. Two 
of these, the Durham Gospels and the Ritual, may be referred with 
certainty to the heart of Northumbria; and another with great 
probability to the West Riding of Yorkshire, in a locality where,- at 
this day, a river forms the boundary between the Northumbrian and 
North-Anglian dialects. The remaining one, the Cotton Psalter, 
cannot with certainty be proved to be of Northumbrian origin, 
geographically speaking; but the general agreement of its forms 
with tliose of the other monuments enables us to pronounce with 
tolerable confidence, that it belongs to that Anglian division of 
which the Northumbrian was a branch. It is moreover the oldest 
and purest considerable specimen of that class, and therefore occu- 
pies an important place among the Teutonic dialects, to the general 
grammar and analogies of which it affords many valuable illustra- 
tions. It is hardly necessary to say that all the documents of which 
we have been treating are of the highest importance for the study 
and elucidation of our vernacular dialects ; and we may be allowed 
to express a hope that they will ere long be rendered more* avail- 
able to the public than they have hitherto been. 

Our Lord's dialogue with the woman of Samaria is given as a 
specimen of the Rush worth text, from which it will be seen to agree 
more generally with the Durham monuments than with the Psalter. 
A comparison of the corresponding passage from the Hatton Go- 
spels will show that the latter text, though upwards of two centuries 
later, preserves, with but slight deviations, the grammatical forms of 
the West- Saxon ; thus proving that the leading peculiarities of the 
glosses are inherent in the dialect, and not the corruptions of a 
more recent period. 

John iv. 1 — 26. Want of access to the Rush worth and Hatton 
MSS. has made it necessary to trust to a transcript, occasionally, it 
is feared, of doubtful accuracy. The Hatton text is that of the 
ordinary Anglo-Saxon Gospels, with slight verbal and orthogra- 
phical variations. The Rushworth gloss, like all others of the same 
character, adheres servilely to the order and phraseology of the 
Latin, of which it frequently mistakes the true sense. Consequently 
it is totally subversive of the vernacular idiom, and is chiefly valu- 
able for its grammatical forms. 


John, chap, iv, - John, chap. iv. 

Tbaet forthon [the haelend] ongaBtt Tha se baeleiid wiste that tlia 

[thaette] ^therdon tha aide wearas Pharisei ge hyrden thset he haef'de 

thaette the haBl[ehd] monige thegnas ema [ma] leoniing-cnihta thonne 

wyrceth and fulwath thonne loh' Johannes: theah se haeJend ne fiiJ- 

[annes] : theh the, 1* swa he, the hsel* lode ac hys leorning-cnihtas : Tha 

ne fulwade ah thegnas his : forleort forlet he Judea land and for eft on 

Judeam eortho and foerde efter sona Galilea. hymgebyvede thaethe scolde 

* The writer may be allowed to state that the Psalter is now printing for tbf 
Surtees Society, under the superintendence of the Rev, Joseph Stevenson. 



in Galileam. waes gi dsefendlic wu< 
tudl'[icQ] hine thsette of '[er] foerde 
therh tha burig [Samaria], coin for^^ 
thon in tha caestre Samar', thio it 
^tcweden Sicbar,- neb thter hyri^ 
tbaette salde Jacob Josepes suno biaj 
waes wutudl' tber wsslla Jacobes» 
The haer fortbon woerig w«8 oC 
gonge, sitende wses, V sat, swa ofeS 
tbaem walla i tid wss swelce tkk^ 
sexta. wif [com] of thter byrig to 
hladanne tbst wseter, cwsth him the 
hael'; aelme drinca, tbegnas wutudl'. 
foerdun in caestre tbaette mete bohtun 
hira. cwaetb f 'thon to him thaet vfifthio 
Samaritanesca, bu thu Judesc mith 
thy arth drincende from megiowes tu 
tha the mith thy vrif's [sie?] Samari- 
tanesc? ne for thon pibyrelic bith 
Judea toSamaritaniscum. ^tondswa- 
rade thehsdV and cwaeth bim,gifthu 
toisfea bus [^domum, Lat] Godes and 
bwelc were se the cwaetb the sel me 
drinca thu wutudl'. 1* woenis mara^gif 
thu georwades [giowades ?] from hiijof 
and [he] gisalde the waeter cwicwelle. 
cwaeth to him thaet wif, driht[en] ne 
m [in ?] bwon tha blado baefest thu, 
and the pytt neb is : bwona, V hwer, 
fortbon baefest thu waeter cwic welle ? 
ah ne arthu mara feder usum Jacobe 
sethe salde us thiosne pytt, V wiella, 
and he of him dranc and suno bis and 
feothor fota, 1' neaeno [netenu], bis? 
^tondsworade the hael' and cwaetb, 
eghwelc sethe drinceth of waetre this 
[♦thaet ic seld^ [selo ?] in ecnisse ; 
sethe wutudl' drinceth of waetre thaet 
ic seld him ne thyrstae in ecnisse. ah 
waeter thaet ic seld him bith in tham 
waella waetres ealtes in life ecum. 
cwaetb him thaet wif, drib' sel me this 
waeter thaet icne thyrste,ne ic ne cymo 
hider to hladanne, 1' to fyllanne. 
cwaetb him the h'[aelend], ceig were 
thinum and cym hither, ondsworade 
thaet wif and cwaetb him ne hafo ic 
wer. cwaetb to bir the hael' wel thu 
cwede thaette ic ne hafo wer. fife 
fortbon weoras thu hifdes and nu 
i\ioiiT\Qhafes ne is thin wer. this soth- 
lice thu cwede. cwaetlrbim thaet wif 
drib' ic gisiom fortbon wifgu arth thy 
[thu]. faedres ures on more thissum 
^f worthadun and gie cweothas thaette 

faran tburh Samaria land, witelice 
be com on Samarian cestre the ys ge- 
nemned Sicbar neah tham tune the 
Jacob sealde Josepe his sune. thaer 
wses Jacobes wylie, se haelend saei 
aet tham welle, tha be wses werige 
gan : and by t wses mid-dayg. tha 
com thaer an wif of Samaria wolde 
water feccan. Tha cwaeth se haelend 
to byre, gyf me drincan. hys leom- 
ing^cnihtes ferdon tha totbare ceastre 
woldon beom mete beggen. Tha 
cwaeth thaet Samaritanisse wif to 
hym^hu metebydst thu at me drink en 
thonne thu ert Judeisc and ic em Sa- 
maritanisc wyf ? ne brucath Judeas 
and Samaritanisce metes aetgadere. 
Thaanswerede se haelend and cwaeth 
to byre, gif thu wistes Godes gyfe 
and hwaet se ys be cwaeth to the, 
sele me drinken, witodlice thu bedQ 
byne thaet he sealde the lyfes waeter. 
tha cwaetb thaet wif to by m, leofne, thu 
nafst nan thing mid to hladene, and 
thes pett ys deop : hwanen bafst thu 
lyfes waeter ? cwest thu thaet thu mare 
sy thonne ure fader Jacob se the us 
thisne pyt sealde, and he and hys 
beam and hys ny tanu of tham drun- 
can? Tha andswerede se hael' and 
cwaetb to byre, aelc thare therst eft 
the of thisse waetere drinketh; witod* 
lice aelc thare the drinctb of tham 
watere the ic hym sylle beoth on him 
wylla forth faerendes waeteres on ece 
ly f. tha c waeth thaet wif to him, hlaford 
sele me thaet me ne therste, ne ic ne 
thurfe her water fecchan. tha cwaeth 
sa [se] balend to byre, ga and clype 
thinne cheorl and cum hider. tha 
hym answerede thus thaet wif and 
cwaetb, nabbe ic naenne cheorl. tha 
cwaeth se balend to byre, wel thu 
cwethe thaet thu naefst ceorl. witod- 
lice thu bafst fif cbeorles, and se the 
thu nu bafst nis thin ceorl : aet tham 
thu segdest sotb. Tha cwaetb thaet wif 
to hym, leof, thas me thinctb thu ert 
witega. ure faderes hyo gebeden on 
tbissene dune and ge secgeth thaet on 
Jerusalem syo stow the thaet man on 
gebydde. Tha cwaeth se balend to byre ; 
la wif, gelef me thaet seo tid cymth 
thonne ge ne biddeth tham fader ne 
on thisse dune ne on Jerusalem, ge 

* A blunder for thyrsteth. 


in- hieru8'[alem] is ihio stow ther gebiddeth thaet ge nyten. we gebid- 

^iworthadege^tdsefiiathis. cwseth deth tbet we witon; for tham the 

hire the haeP la wif gtief me forthon hale is of Judeum. ac seo tid cvmth 

com thio tid thonne ne on morum and nu ys thonne sothe ge*beamen 

thissum ne in hierusal' to worthai/am biddeth thonne father on gaste and 

thone feeder, gie wrlhigas thsette we on BothiseetnyMe. witodlice se fader 

[gie] ne umtun, we wordigath thfette secth swiice the hyne gebiddeth. 

we wutunwe'f thaette f 'thon haelo of gast ys God and tham the hine bid* 

Judeum. ah com thio tid and nu is aeth gebyretb theet hyo gebidden on 

thone sothliceweonhigasge-wortha- ^atte and on sothfaestnysse. Thset 

dun thon feeder in gaste and mith wifcw8ethtohim,icwatthEetMe8sias 

sothf8e8t'[ni8se].fthon and the feeder cymth, thaet ys ffe-nemned Crist, 

hise soeceth thuaUco f'thon gewor- thonne he cymth ne cyth us ealle 

thigas hine. in gaste and soUifaest- thing, se haelend cwaeth to byre, ic 

nisse us ^idsefnath to worthanne. byt em the with the sprece. 

cweeth to him thaet wif, ic wat thsette > : 
the ^tcoma com ♦ ♦ • ♦ • 
^t8»geth €Me, cwaeth hir the hael' 
ic am sethe ic apreco thee mith« 

2. " Suggestions on the Critical Arrangement of the Text of the 
Medea." By the Rev. O. Cockayne. 

In the critical arrangement of the text of the Medea, not much has 
been done since Person, Elmsley, aitd Hermann's review, a period of 
some thirty years. New editions hUve appeared, but they consist 
chiefly in delivering verdicts upon the old suggestions, and drawing 
us back to the testimony of the manuscripts. The vigorous and in- 
structive speculations of those formet days are examined but not 
imitated, and instead of presenting the reader with new matter for 
Inflection, the page is occupied with what need not have been said at 
all, or wluit, biassed by self-love and negligence, is not well said. To 
give an example of error arising from superficial views, let us take 
lines 317, 318:— 

\iyeis iiKovffai fwXd&K, dX\* eitria f^pevQv 
o^^Bla fju)t, fifi n /3ovXev0i}s Kaxov, 

This is the reading of the MSS. and is a correct reading, but 
Elmsley has invented, Hermann ratified, and others have followed a 
new reading, (iovXev^s, in the present tense. When we say /i?) 
j3ovXev<rpff, we say in an aorist or indefinite way, lest you plan ; on the 
other hand, fiij 0ov\€vys, in the present, signifies lest you be planning. 
The distinction has been long since worked out, and amounts to this : 
the one marks a plan of which no more is said ; the other speaks 
of a plan, and tells us it is as yet incomplete and still in progress. 
It was on similar grounds that Elmsley based his conjecture, which 
was in a high degree plausible and attractive. Creon says to Medea, 
\iyeis cLKovtrai fjiaXOaKa, you speak smooth words, but, it misgives me, 
you are all the while plotting mischief. That seems a very fit and suit- 
able mode of expression, and if that was what the poet meant to say, 
he must of necessity have used the present (iovKevris, as Elmsley 
says. But the conjecture, though plausible, is not valid ; the ma- 
nuscript reading has a diflerent sense and quite as good a one, which 
will appear as soon as we recall attention to some words that have 


been forgotten. Creon, wheu ^he took the resolution of sending 
Medea out of Corinth, had beenanfluenced by a fear of her schemes 
of revenge, and so he says, vers^ 282, 

hi^oiKo. ff\ oh^^.v l^*irapaixiei(r\€tv \6yov8, 
fill fJLoi Ti dpaaris ttHII' ayiiKearoy KaK6y ; 

and in the lines now considerea> he declares that this former dread 
remains unshaken by her pleading ; it still lives eiaut <l>p€yiiiy, deep- 
rooted in his heart. And those words, e«aw (l>p€ytiy, are emphatic ; 
they imply that his distrust is there, notwithstanding all efforts to 
remove it, and in despite of the smooth words she bestows. Con- 
sequently the idea of duration, expressible by " whilst," does not 
enter into the sentence, and the present tense is improper. Elmsley 
himself has noticed d^doiKa 2* ajirrlv fiii ti fiovXevari yiovy but very 
justly, in his view of the passage, denied the parallel. As the inter- 
pretation is now given, however, the parallel stands good. Whether 
the words citro) appeydiv are always emphatic we need not inquire, but 
they are so in Philoctet. 1309 :^^ ' 

KOI TavT kirifTTd) KiA ypa<^ov ifperwy itru). 

There is a single word cyrifx^xo, in line 264, 

Toy Zdyra t avTfdpyaTip\ rjy t eyrifiaro, 

which has surprised every one, and elicited from Hermann an explana-* 
tion that is certainly very unsatisfactory. Few seem willing to alter the 
pronoun fjy, because an error in that word would be obvious to every 
correcting hand ; but it may perhaps be permitted us to conjecture 
that the original word was kyeiyaro, and that the great similarity of 
the characters led to a corruption of the text. Here is an instance in 
which a known and flagrant solecism will probably maintain its place 
in future editions, simply because it is too bad to be charged on the 
copyists. Its defenders may say, solcecismum liceat fecisse poeta ; to 
which it may be replied, that there was no pressure either of metre, 
diction, or tumultuous passion to call for such a breach of common 
phraseology; and it may be laid down for an axiom, that Euripides 
would not commit a solecism without some reason. Nor can sarcasm 
have place, for that owes its sting to certain preconceptions of the 
hearers, and in this case there has been nothing to suggest that 
Jason was too submissive to his new wife, or to provide before-* 
hand a right apprehension of the concealed gibe. Illustration is not 
the object of this paper, but we may be permitted to quote one to our 
purpose from Dio's account of the emperor Elagabalus : — *:ac wepl 
TtLy yafiuy avTov wy re eya/if i, liy re iyfji^aro, avrUa XcX^fcrai* Kal 
yap ifylpi^cro koX kdfiKvyero. — Dio, Ixxix. 5. 

While on this topic of the trustworthiness of the manuscripts, 
we may record our regret that no editor has ventured to make room 
in the text for the emendation of Elmsley on 1086 : — 

wavpoy hk yiyos, [/c/av] ey iroWais 

evpois ay ^itrws 

ovK anofiovaey to yvyaiKwy. 


Let us proceed to examine in their order some parts of the play 
which seem to offer scope to correction. 

At line 216 is a passage that well deserves our attention. It has 
heen a stumbling-hlock to the critica» but they have managed to get 
over it by assigning to the words a sigiiification they do not, and never 
could possess. The lines are given as they stand in the books : — 
KopivBiai yvydiKes, e^ri^Sov do^v 
fiil fiol Ti fiifupritrff' ol^a yap iroKKovs fipoTkty 
ff€fJtyovs yeyw-as, tovs f^ky oyLfiar^v ino, 
Tovs ^ ky Ovpaiois' oi ^ aif iitrv\ov wolos 
IvoKKeiay kKriioavTO koi p^6vfiiay. 
diKfi yap ovK eveoTiy ofjtDf^Xfwis fiporwv, 
OffTis, irply 6.ylp6s trvXay^yoy cKfjtaOeiy aa(^ws, 
OTvyei lelopKiis^ ovZky ^iiKrffAiyos, 
j(pit ^€ ^iioy fiky Kapra irpo<T\iap€iy tc6\€i, 
ov^ uoToy yyetT, Saris ahOahfjs yeyus 
viKpos ifoXirau ktrrly a^aOias vro. 

It would give rise to nothing but confusion, were we to examine 
into the methods proposed for accommodating some intelligible 
meaning to these lines and to point out the fsdlacies : it is better 
to say at once, that there is no ccpnected sense whatever. The 
most formidable circumstance is that Ennius, in a play of his, has 
imitated the thoughts, and his authority is one that deserves defer- 
ence. The parts of his drama that present themselves here have 
heen preserved by Cicero in a letter to Trebatius, and they contain 
a set of ideas which do not belong to the words of Euripides, and 
which are altogether foreign to the subject he treats of. If this be 
capable of proof, we shall not allow ourselves to be led astray by a 
parallel, but not identical place, of the Latin poet, leaving it rather 
for inquiry how it came to pass that he should differ from his Greek 
model. The deviations in such lines of the whole play as exist, are 
so numerous that some critics have thought Ennius wrote twoMedeas, 
and some that Euripides had done ^o. But even from that single 
letter to Trebatius, it is plain that in the passage before us, Ennius 
was not servilely discharging the office of translator, but only using 
for his own purposes the rhetoric of his predecessor. One of the 
lines given by Cicero is this — Multi suam rem bene gessere et publicam 
patria procuL This sense it js contended could never have entered 
into the meaning of Euripides, as it is wholly irrelevant. The 
poet is assigning a cause for the compliance of Medea in appearing 
at all in public instead of nursing her indignation within; and she 
says, k^rjXOoy hofxiay ^ti fioi ri fikfuprftrdei and goes on to speak of the 
respect due to public opinion, and the danger of setting it at de- 
fiance. How then could she introduce any mention of a successful 
foreign policy ? llie topic might be available to Ennius, but it could 
have no significancy to Euripides. The corresponding Greek is this : 
oTSa yap iroWovs (^porQy '^cfjiroi/s yeyutTas, tovs fiky oyniartay &no. 
The meaning of these expressions must be arrived at by looking at 
the words themselves, and at the bearing of the whole train of thought; 


Medea is talking of acoessibilityl and that idea is the staple of the 
"whole. What reference then to accessibility do we find in ol fAcv 
ofi/iOTMv oiro ? Plainly the negation and reverse — retired habits. 
Surely if Ennius thou^t th&tjmtria procul were conveyed here, the 
copies he used must have been oonrupted in the same way tus our own* 
Let us then take for proved, by^e connexion of the sentence, that 
ofjL^cLTutv dro implies privacy and retirement ; if so, it follows neces- 
sarily that iy Ovpalou must designate the other sort, the men of 
public life. This latter phrasemight, in a different association, be 
equivalent to patria procul, but in this place it cannot be so, because 
that notion is not in anywise germane to the rest. Ennius says : Multi 
9uam rem benegessere et puhlicam patria procul ; multi qui domi atatem 
agerent propterea sunt improbati. Here the topics are active service 
abroad and indolence at home, and what have those things to do with 
Medea, who is speaking of her willingness to hold converse with the 
Chorus, and her reasons for this compliance ? It seems therefore 
clear, that the words of the Latin poet are not a translation of the 

Take next for a moment the word trefivovs, and notice how it con- 
nects itself with the general current of thought. Medea was a 
haughty and self-willed character, and here the poet introduces her, 
with a sort of reluctance, apologizing to her own consistency for the 
condescension of appearing at ail, and longing all the while to defy 
mankind and to involve herself in her own ffefxvorrjs. The link then 
that binds this word to the rest is, that to remain within would 
bear an aspect of greater dignity. 

Photius here takes tre^vos, not for aUwfjtariKos, but for vTcpi/^ai'os : 
but it must contain a sense to which approbation may be applied^ 
because of the opposition tp SvoricXeiav. 

The next phrase that occurs is oi d^* fitrvxov iroios, and here too 
we must keep up the main thread of the discourse and expect some 
reference to accessibility. It is obvious then, that men of easy ac' 
cess are hereby signified, and to them no share of oe^virris is allotted : 
their familiar manners are regarded with contempt, UaxXetav kKrii" 
<ravTo Kal pqQvixiav. If there were any doubt, the explanation now 
given might be supported by a passage of the Hippolytus, in which 
the same association and contrast occur, though with a different 
distribution. Hippol. 90:— , 

A. oiaff ovv (ipoToltriv ps KaOiarfiKey pofws ; 

B. oifK olha' Tov hk Kai ji ayiaropeis wipi ; 

A. fAitrely to oefxyoy icai to jirl irdaiy (fUXoy, 

B. opdkis ye' Hs h* ov trefiyos a\S€iy6s fipoTiSy ; 

A. cv ^ effirpotrriydponriy ^<m tis xapis ; 

B. TrXe/flTiy ye, Kal K€pho& ye trvy fjt6\6f ftpa^el. 

Here the progress of the thoughts .being somewhat different, the 
poet has put the ehirpocrtiyopot, or affable, for oi d^* fitrvxov irodos, the 
accessible ; but they are a closely kindred genus, and either passage 
may throw light upon the other. 
The sense then appears to be in some degree ascertained : the 


oefivoi are the a^fal and venerated^ thoee ofAfiaTMv Awo are the retired 
and unseen, the Ovpaioi are such as lived in the busy world, and oi d^' 
flffvxpv 'jTodos are the facile and familiar. In building up grounds for 
a conjectural emendation it would not he prudent to neglect anything 
that can strengthen the argument ; w« may therefore notice that much 
the same remark has been made by another Greek writer : Isocrates 
ad Nicoclem, p. 21. § 34. ehpiiireis iwhro 'jrdkv tovs fikv tre/JiyvyofUyovi 
jj/vxpovs oyrai, rovi h^ fiov\Dfiivovti':iLffT€lovs elyai raweiyovs ^cvo- 
fiivovs : where raircii^ovs correspondrwith ^wncXeiay in the poet, and 
the iLffTcioi or urbane are much the same with oi k<f iiavypv 7rol6s, 

Now if we take the ideas that we have thus collected and place 
them in juxtaposition, we come upon the chief difficulty of the pass- 
age. Medea tells the chorus she would not incur censure by reserve, 
and yet attaches to this same reserve; under the name of (re^vorris, 
the homage of the people, and applies censure to the accessibility 
which rules her own conduct. To remedy this contradiction, we 
would venture to amend the present reading by a transposition, 
which we shall endeavour to defend by additional arguments ; and 
this being done, a new protasis and apodosis will furnish the means of 
removing the difficulty and of restoring evenness and sense to the 
context. The order in which it is proposed to read the lines is as 
follows: — ^ 

KopiyOiai yvyaiKes, k^^Boy ^6/nay 

fifl fwl n ^i/jupriffff' ol^a' yap voXXovs PportSy 

ccfxyovs yeywras, rovs /lev onfiartay &irOf 

Tovs ^ ey dvpalots' oi t* &^' fiavxov voids 

hvffKXeiay kKriitrayTo Koi pqBvuiav. 

Xph i^ ^^yoy fjkky K&pra irpoirxji^peiy irdXet, 

<A^ iL<rT6y*^y€ff\ Saris ahddBris yeyits 

wiKpos iroXiTais Itrriy hfiaOias viro. 

3f«ci7 yap oifK iyeariy 6<l>6a\fwis fipoTiavt 

offTis, Trply iiy^pus <nr\&yx^oy cKfiaOeiy aat^uis, 

OTvyei telopKtas, ohiky i]htK7iyikyos, 
If the lines be read in this order, xph ^^ livo%' is the apodosis to 
oiha [/lev] iroXkovs trefiyovs' and Medea uses such language as this : 
/ am come forth to avoid censure : for while I know that reserve is often 
more calculated to secure respect than i$ complaisance, yet my situation 
as a foreigner imposes on me compliance with the wishes of the people 
among whom I live. This contrast is fully conveyed in the words 
oUa [fc^v], on the one hand I know, and xph ^^* ^^^ on the other hand 
it is the duty, and if ^ky had been expressed, it is probable that the 
sentence could never have become obscure. Though perhaps unne- 
cessary, it cannot be quite useless to cite a similar sentiioient from 
Eur. Supplices, 893 : — 

vpuiroy fJiey its XP^ '''ovs ^erotKovyras ^iyovs, 

Xvvripos oifK fjy, ovh* eirl^oyos iroXei. 

That transpositions of lines have often occurred in the dramas of 
the ancients as handed down to us, will probably be admitted ; but 
since the device, considered as a sanative process, is far from ingenious. 


and does by no means recomo^nd itself to our approbation at first 
sight, it may be desirable to piirsue our investigation of the text be- 
fore us somewhat further. In «the words hUri yap ouk cieorci', the 
connecting particle marks beyond dispute or mistake that there ex- 
ists a reference to what precedes : a reason is rendered for some- 
thing said previously. But as ithe lines stand in the editions and 
manuscripts, no one has sati9factorily shown, how and whereby 
this retrospective relation subsists : on the contrary, if, as now sug- 
gested, we restore the order, we not only see the difficulties vanish 
in the lines already considered, but there arises also a natural and 
easy transition and a perfect connexion of thought between 'jriKpos 
TToXhais in the former member and ffrvyel ^e^opicws in the latter, be- 
tween iifiaBias vko in the one and wply eK^adeiv aai^Qs in the other. 
So that the transposition has cQred a twofold disruption. 

It would detract from the interest of the passage, and would im- 
pair the support which the present interpretation and emendation re- 
ceive from parallel places, (for the Hippolytus at least dates nearly 
with the Medea,) if we were td pass over its historical aspect. The 
favourite imagery, the frequently recurring sentiments of a poet, may 
often be traced to the facts of -his private life, the events that most 
nearly touched him : and this *is more especially true of minds in 
which the range of fancy is bikt circumscribed, as was the case with 
Euripides. If we remember that this play was acted in the spring 
of 431 B.C., a few months after the trisd of Anaxagoras and Aspasia, 
the friends and intimates of Pericles, we may conceive it probable 
that these circumstances suggested the reflection. That a foreigner 
should in prudence accommodate himself to the prejudices of his 
adopted countrymen would be an observation arising naturally out of 
the banishment of Anaxagoras, and the gentler censure applied to a 
native may be supposed to glance at Pericles. These persons were 
no less remarkable for their personal characteristics than for their po- 
sition as statesman and philosopher. Neither of them ever relaxed 
into laughter, and Pericles was very singularly reserved in his ordinary 
habits, careful to retain an evehness of exterior, and self-possessed 
amid the tumults of the popular assembly. Plutarch is very parti- 
cular in describing these minuter points, and he gives us a reproof 
addressed by Zeno of Velia to some who carped at this high bearing 
of the minister : to make pretension to lofty things has an effect, said 
he, towards elevating the soul itself. 

529. A passage which has been pretty much neglected by the 
commentators stands thus : — 

ao\ h* eoTi fikv rods Xctttos, aW* Mi^Bovos 
\6yos heXdeir, ^{"Eputs a iivayKatre 
robots cKjiVKTOis ToiffjLov iKnQtrai Bifias, 
a\\* ovK aKptfiiSs ahro Oiitro/Jiai Xiay, 

The grammatical construction here seems to labour under serious 
embarrassment. A difficulty had been seen by the Scholiast, who 
proposes several different explanations. Musgrave's Latin is as fol- 
lows: Tibi vcro — Est quidem locus suhtilis sed invidiosus oratione 


tractari, quod amor ie coegerit sa^tis inevitahilihus meum eripere 
corpus. With this may be compared a suggestion of the Scholiast : 
ifios \6yos, (frjarl, Xenros pkv, eiri<l>0($i'os H, Tovreari t^dovridritrofjLevos 
fikv, ^vya/xevos ^k ^la^vevOai irarros irov lo\vov. It is no very easy 
matter to understand these interpretations. As far as appears, locus 
is the translation of vovs, perhaps in \he sense of topic : and Mus- 
grave points, trol 3', ^ari pky yovs Xeinos, while notwithstanding Sari 
seems to be no more than a copula, wfith Xctttos for a predicate : and 
what becomes of trol ? On the other hand, the Scholiast reverses the 
position of the two members of the sentence, and gets, as fieu* as we 
can see, no tolerable sense after all ; for would Jason say he was using 
a wire-drawn argument ? A recent German editor has translated 
more plausibly — Tibi quidem subiilismens est, ut intelligere hoc atque 
agnoscere facile possis, sed tamen infidi^ plena oratio est, si ipse ex- 
plico te amore motam esse, ut me servures. Here we have two good 
reasons from Jason for hinting only at the subject in hand : first, 
Medea is an acute person and can readily understand him ; and, se- 
cond, to do more than hint would be ungracious in the speaker. The 
connecting particle between these two very compatible and uncon- 
flicting motives should be koX, and to the Scholiast with equal can- 
dour and boldness suggests : hvvafa^ Zk naX ovrus voriBiivai, KAI 
iiri<l>6ovos o Xoyos firjOfjvai, Notwithsjbanding all this, the connect- 
ing word in Euripides is &XXd, a very unfit and improper mode of 
joining two concurrent reasons for one thing; If we had found 
ovKovy aic/9tjScJs ahro Ofiaopai Xiay ; or if that line were eliminated ; 
or if we had something to mark an oratio abrupta with a sudden 
transition: thus — 
• ooi 5* ^trri pey vovs Xeirrds, aXV— -' 

or if we could suppose the same thing reiterated, with aXXa twice, 
there would be less difficulty. A little negligence or boldness in 
the author might be sufficient to produce what we now read, and 
then we should suppose the break to take place after 

croc 5' ioTi pky vovs Xeirros — 

for although for the most part some few words expressed give an 
indication of what was going to follow, as '* Quos ego — sed prsestat 
motos componere fluctus," yet in this case the dropped clause is 
nearly contained in the words "^las a ijvdyKatre, and no further 
intimation is required. This explanation however is not satisfac- 
tory, by reason of the awkward repetition of iiXXa with equivalent ' 

Verse 733. Tovtois 5' opKioiai pky (vyels 

&yov<ny oh peOeT av €k yodas ipt 

Xoyois Zk ovjjifids xal dewy ayitporos 

tpiXos yivoC ay KawiKrfpvicevpaoiy 

ovK av iridoio. 

Rejecting the reading pedeis av as a singularity in form backed by 
no necessity, and assuming as a matter of course hv^poros to the 
exclusion of evbiporos, such appears to be the text of the manu- 


scripts that have come down to us. But since lirucrfpvKeviJLara are 
diplomatic messages sent in all iorm by a Kfipv^, the critics have by 
degree3 arrived at the correction rax' ciy nidoio, which, putting an 
affirmative in place of a negative, introduces the sense required by 
doing a mere violence to the te^{^. It appears however from the Scho- 
liast, that in the age of Didymu^ the copies had K&vtiaipvK€vfiara (r^ 
^ evdel^ avTi ^Tucrjs xixpv^^)^^ reading which, from the very em- 
barrassment it afforded, must %ve had its origin in the copies and 
not in the emendations of th^^ grammarians. The restoration of 
this ancient and attested fonn would overthrow anew the equili- 
brium imposed upon the text, ,aud it is plain that the scholars of 
the age of Augustus read KawncppyKevfiara ovc, where Porson, by a 
twofold deviation, has printed Kf^iriKfipvKev^atny rd')^. 

It may without hesitation b^. assumed as a canon of reasonable 
criticism, that an hypothesis winch leaves old and difficult readings 
as they stood, is to be embracefd rather than alterations which re- 
store sense to the text, while they bid defiance to the testimony of 
manuscript or grammatical tradition. The change of case and re- 
moval of the negation are means of so little ingenuity and so much 
coercion, that we may be allowed to offer a solution in which the 
case shall remain and the negation shall stand, and yet a suitable 
signification be restored to this"' passage, and this we think may be 
done by imagining a line to hstVe been lost. In place of the miss- 
ing words, we may insert an im%inary line that shall serve to show 
the possibility of supplying the lacuna according to the mind of 
the poet, though we can scarcefy expect ever to arrive at the exact 
truth of the matter. 

Xoyots hk (rvf(/3as Kal Oeiay iLvutfJLoros • 

<l>(\os ykvoC av, KaviicvipvKevfiara 
[rovTutv TrpoTifitSy, rijaie rXiffioyos Xirais'] 
ovK ay iridou). 

At verse 1246 we have Dochmiac metre, which being tolerably 
well understood, enables us to detect metrical errors and to pro- 
nounce upon their existence with some degree of certainty. There 
are several lines in the strophe and antistrophe which do not suffi- 
ciently correspond, even after i^e pains bestowed on them by the 
learned, and tibere are also some interruptions of the Dochmiac metre 
not easily rendered acceptable to the observer. The metre there - 
^ fore assures us that our manuscript copies are here faulty. 

The same conclusion may be drawn from the abruptness of the 
diction, which is little suitable to the manner of the author now 
before us. Two deities have been invoked, and suddenly we come 
upon the word trds, thine, which refers, of course, to only one of 
them. Campbell, in his version of this chorus, has escaped the 
awkwardness by separating the single invocation 'lit Td re icat 
^afi<l>arfs iLicrU 'AeXlov into two, first addressing the goddess Earth 
and next the Sun. 

'* Hallow'd Earth, with indignation 

Mark, oh mark the murderous deed ! 


Radiant eye of Turide creation. 
Watch th' accursed homicide !" 

The harmony of construction and propriety of expression require, 
then, that before the word trds we^ should have a name of the sun 
repeated. This therefore directs our general suspicion of error tt 
one particular defect in our editions. 

Again, in the antistrophe we hear the question asked, why is 
Medea enraged ? r/ coi ippevdiv fidpvs ^oKos wpocnrlrvei ; Such a 
question however. is not aptly asked' at tliis stage of the story; a 
cause was not to be sought for her anger so late as this, and indeed 
the reason of her wrath had been often mentioned, even by the 
chorus itself, as in verse 1000, ^veicev Xex^wv. What question then 
could aptly be put in nearly the satne words ? we would venture to 
write tU for ri. What is this aiger? how dreadful! how un- 

For the end of 8uppl3ring a vocative before vdst we may perhaps 
be allowed to suggest a restoration which is founded upon tiie Doch- 
miac metre, and the probability that it prevails throughout, 
[ican^e, ^oTjSc] trds yap &xo \pvaia$, 

^Gt the lacuna being admitted, it ne^ becomes requisite to supply 
it in the completest manner. What is mentioned is given rather with 
a view to show that there exist Xx^ce& of a once unbroken series of 
Dochmiac lines, than as containing the best approach to the original. 
Perhaps then, in the strophe, we may be further permitted to offer for 
consideration, until something nearer the truth be struck out, 

[icarcSe, ^olfie] vds yap airo ^pvcrias 

yovds ifiXaffrey' vlrveiv 5* alfxa deiSy 

t^dfios VTT* dyipiMtv. 
In the antistrophe, 

tU, [J] ^€c\a/a, t^pevwy [rW] ftapifs 

XoXos irpotnrlrvei aoi koi fvvfieyrjs 

<^6yos dfjieiiierai; 

A serious objection however to these hypothetical corrections is 
found in the circumstance, that the lines of the strophe and anti- 
strophe do not sufficiently, Byllable by syllable, correspond. 


Vox. II. JANUARY 24 

7^ rr , 

Professor Wilson in the Chair .^"---^ ^^ " "! — ^-^^^ 

The followiDg gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : 

Thomas Dyer, Esq., Kenton Street, Brunswick Square. 
Rev. D. W. Marks, Burton Street, Burton Crescent. 
Trevethan Spicer, Esq., Gerrard Street, Soho. 

Two papers were then read : 

1. "Miscellaneous Contributions to the Ethnography of North 
America." By R. G. Latham, M.D. 

The present state of American Ethnography is the excuse for the 
miscellaneous character of the following notices. What remains 
just now to be done consists chiefly in the addition of details to an 
outline already made out. Such communications, however, are 
mainly intended to serve as isolated points of evidence towards the 
two following statements : — 

1 . That no American language has an isolated position when com- 
pared with the other tongues en masse, rather than with the lan- 
guages of any particular class. 

2. That the affinity between the languages of the New World, as 
determined by their vocabularies, is not less real than that inferred 
from the analogies of their grammatical structure. 

Modifications of the current doctrines, as to the value of certain 
philological groups and classificatipns, are involved in the positions 
given above. 

The Sitca andKenay Languages. — That these languages are Esqui- 
maux may be seen by reference to the comparative vocabularies in 
Lisiansky's Voyages and Baer's Statistische und Ethnographische 
Nachrichten, &c. 

The Ugalyachmutsi. — In the work, last quoted this language is 
shown to be akin to the Kenay. It is termed Ugaleftz, and is spoken 
in Russian America, near Mount St. Elias. It has hitherto been too 
much disconnected from the Esquimaux group. 

The Chipewyan and Nagail. — ^That these were Esquimaux was stated 
by the author in the Ethnological subsection of the British Associa- 
tion at York. The Tacuili is also Esquimaux. The Sussee, in the 
present state of our knowledge, is best left without any absolute 
place. It has several miscellaneous affinities. 

The bearing of these notices is to merge the groups called Atha- 
bascan and Kolooch in the Esquimaux. 

It has been communicated to the Ethnological Society, that a ma- 
jority of the languages of Oregon and New Caledonia are akin to 
each other and to the Esquimaux ; a statement applying to about forty- 
five vocabularies, amongst which are the three following, hitherto 
considered as isolated : — 

VOL. II. \i 


1. The Friendy Village vocabulary of Mackenzie, See Travels.— 
lliis is a dialect of the Billechoola. 

2. The Atna of Mackenzie. — This is a dialect of the Noosdalum. 

3. The Salish ofDuponceau. See Archaeologia Americana. — This is 
the Okanagan of Mr. Tolmie. See Journal of Geographical Society. 

TJie Ahnenin, — In this language, as well as in two others hereafter 
to be noticed (the Blackfoot and Crow), I have had, through the 
courtesy of Dr. Prichard, an opportunity of using valuable vocabu- 
laries of Gallatin's, collected by Mr. Mackenzie, an agent for the 
American fiir-company on the Yellow-stone river; by whom also were 
drawn up the shorter vocabularies, in Mr. Catlin's work on the Ame- 
rican Indians, of the Mandan, Riccaree and other languages. The 
table also of the Natchez language is chiefly drawn from the compa- 
rative catalogues of Mr. Gallatin. That the MS. vocabulary of the 
Ahnenin represents the language of the Fall Indians of Umfreville, 
and one different from that of the true Minetares (with which it has 
been confounded), may be seen from the following comparison. 

English. Fall-Indian of Umfreville. Ahnenin. 

eye nunnecsoon araythya 

knife warth wahnta 

pipe pechouon einpssah 

tobacco cheesouon kitchtawan 

dog hudther uhttah 

fire usitter .... 

bow hart 

arrow utcec 

one karci 

ttbo neece nethiyau 

three narce 

four nean • yahnayau 

five yautune ^ 

six neteartuce 

seven nesartuce 

eight uarswartuce 

nine aiiharbetwartuce 

ten mettartuce netassa 


The Ahnenin language, without being at present referable to any 
recognized group, has numerous miscellaneous affinities. 

\ English God. 

Ahnenin esis — sun, 

Sheshatapoosh shayshoursh. 
Passamaquoddy saisos. 









pitsa — head. 

pseotan — head. 






































Old Algonkin 




Massachusetts wutch. 

















































Passamaquoddy apass — tree. 




abassi— ^rce. 









Sack and Fox nenanah. 












neehato — white 






watamahat — black ? 




Sheshatapoosh attung. 
Abenaki attie. 




















musuoh — deer, 
mousoah — deer. 









weetachnong — 







wetongah— - Wj^/er. - 














hahut — handsome. 

Passamaquoddy nes. 


me, mine» 
nisto — /. 






nees. ' 












































Old Algonkin 




















nigouta waswois 















The Blackfoot, — Of this language we have three vocabularies ; a 
short one by Umfreville, a short one in Mr. Catlin's work, and the 
longer and more important one in Mr. Gallatin's manuscripts. The 
three vocabularies represent the same language. Its affinities are 
miscellaneous ; more however with the Algonkin tongues than with 
those of the other recognized groups. 

Old Algonkin 










Sauki ' 













































Sack and Fox 




English brother. 
Blackfoot nausah. 
Passamaquoddy nesiwas. 
Abenaki nitsie. 



Old Algonkin 





English Mose. 

Blackfoot okissid. 

Menomem oocheeush* 

English neck, 

Blackfoot ohkokin. 

Miami kwaikaneh. 

Sack and Fox nekwaikaneh. 





English leg. 

Blackfoot ohcat 

Ojibbeway okat. 

Knistenaux miskate. 

Sheshatapoosh neescatch. 

Massachusetts muhkout. 

Menomeni oakauut. 


















Sack and Fox 




















seeke — toes. 




























SAetAdi^pootA neepun. 









Smek and Fox 











f neeaypeenayway- 
\ wah. 





Skeskaiapoosk shashaygan 

English Jire, 

Blackfoot esteu. 

Mokicam stauw. 




























omah sekame. 




mmae— water. 

minnepeshu — w- 

Old Algonkin 

I Passamaquoddy 

\ Abenaki 

j Mohican 

i Delaware 

; Miami 
! Menomeni 

\ English 
Old Algonkin 








Sack and Fox 










Old Algonkin 


















rock, stone. 


















ahneepeeoakunah . 















































neen, nin. 



Old Algonkin 



partridge. - 











^ English 












^ English 



keen, kin. 



Old Algonkin 














this, that. 



Old Algonkin 




Sack and Fox 








"^ English 











































Old Algonkin 































Old Algonkin 




Passamaquoddy kesipetai. 



















The Blackfoot numerals, as given by Mackenzie and Umfreville, 
slightly diflfer. The termination in -um runs through the numerals 
of Fitz-Hugh Sound, an Oregon language. 


Blackfoot of 

Blackfoot of 














































2. nekty, Tuscarora ; ticknee, Seneca ; teghia, Oneida ; dekanee, 
Nottoway ; tekini. Otto, 

3. noghoh, Mohican ; ndkhdi, Delaware, 

5. nthsysta, Mohawk ; sattou, Quappa ; satta, Osage, Omahaw ; 
sata. Otto ; sahtsha, Minetare, 
. 7. tzauks, Kawitchen, Noosdalum, 
10. kippioi Chimmesyan. 

The Crow and Mundan Languages. — Of the important language of 
the Upsarokas or Crows the Archseologia Americana contains only 
thirty words. Of the Mandan we have, in the same work, nothing 
beyond the names of ten chiefs. In Gallatin's classification these 
tribes are dealt with as subdivisions of the Minetare nation. Now 
the Minetare are of (the Sioux or Dacota family. 

Between the Mandan vocabulary of Mr. Gatlin and the Crow vo- 
<;abulary of Gallatin's MSS. there are the following words in com- 
mon. The affinity seems less close than it is generaUy stated to be : 
still the two languages; appear to be Sioux. This latter point may 
be seen in the second table. 











esto menakha 










makkoupah — hail^ 
















































































mones waroota 













































































ll. Mandan. 















































manoh — light. 





















Otto 8;C. 








Mandan . 



hampah eriskah. 

Sioux passim 








Sioux passim 




































































































































ho, hough. 














































nompa, noopa. 


















, mahha. 




mong, ma. 






topah, tuah. 






































































The Riccaree Language, — In Balbi and in the Mithfidates, the 
Riccaree is stated to be a dialect of the Pawnee ; but no words 
are given of it : hence the evidence is inconclusive. Again, the 
term Pawnee is equivocal. There are tribes called Pawnees on the 
river Platte, and tribes called Pawnees on the Red river of Texas. Of 
the last nation we have no vocabulary ; they appear however to be 
different from the first, and are Pawnees /afoe/y so called. 

Of the Riccaree we have but one vocabulary (Catlin's North Ame- 
rican Indians, vol. ii.) ; it has the following words common with the 
true Pawnee list of Say in the Archaeologia Americana, vol. ii. 




































































































s canoe 




















































Tbe special affinities of tbe Riccaree are not very decided. It is 
an3rtbing ratber tban an isolated language, and will, probably, be 
definitely placed wben we obtain vocabularies of tbe Indian lan- 
guages of Texas. 













evil spirit, 












Englisb night, 

Riccaree enagbt. 

Esquimaux oonooak. 


Massachusetts nukon. 














tegg — night, 
toowa — night, 
































eeneek— 50». 




head, hair. 


pabgb, pabi. 


pah, pan. 

Massachusetts pubkuk. 





Englisb eye, 

Riccaree cheereeco. 

Tuscarora ookawreb. 

Esquimaux eerruka. 

Englisb foot, 

Riccaree abgb. 

Choctaw iya. 

Chiccasaw cay a. 
















































oski noki. 





















































The Creek and Choctaw Languages. — That the question as to the 
affinity between the Creek and the Choctaw languages is a question 
of classification rather than of fact, may be seen from the Archseologia 
Americana, vol. ii. p. 405 ; where it is shown that out of six hun- 
dred words, ninety- seven are common to the two languages. 

The Caddo, — That this language has affinities with the Mohawk,. 
Seneca, and the Iroquois tongues in general, and that it has words 
common to the Muskoge, the Catawba, the Pawnee, and the Cherokee 
languages may be seen from the tables of the Archaeologia Americana. 
The illustrations however of these languages are to be drawn from 
a knowledge of the dialects of Texas and the Oregon districts, 
tracts of country whereon our information is preeminently in- 

The Natchez. — ITiis language has the following miscellaneous 
affinities, insufficient to give it a place in any definite group, but 
sufficient to show that it is anything rather than an isolated lan- 

English man, I Cochimi tamma. 

Natchez tomkuhpena. | St, Xavier tamma. 


St. Borgia 






















St, Antonio 

St, Antonio 









tomme apoo. 
















tenth — lip. 

quassin — stars, 
quassin — stars. 




tukycha napucha. 


En^sh river, 

Natchez wol. 

Pima vo — lake. 

Cathlascou emalh. 

St, Juan Ca- 





















I Oneida 

! Yancton 

\ English white, 

Natchez bahap. 

Shahaptan hipi. 
Attacapa cobb. 

Old Angonkin wabi. 


> kahui. 













. tza. 




, fi^h, 

r hone kustamoane 
\ — salmon, 











Long Island 








Natchez ^ 












































English friend. 

Natchez ketanesuh — my. 

Chetimacha keta. 






waigh — paddle. 









































f koosilkhuhhug- 
l gheh. 







J pooloopooloolun 




• kowa. 





St. Diego 































The Uche, Adaize, 8{C. — See Archseologia Americana, vol. ii. p. 306. 
For these languages, tables similar to those of the Natchez have been 
drawn up, which indicate similar affinities. The same can be done 
for the Chetimacha and Attacapa. 

New Calif omian Languages, — The dialects of this district form no 
exception to the statements as to the unity of the American lan- 
guages. In the Joumaloof the Geographical Society (part 2. vol. ii.) 
we find seven^ocabularies for these parts. Between the language 
of the diocese of San Juan Capistrano and that of San Gabriel, the 
affinity is palpable, and traces of a regular letter change are exhi^ 
bited, viz. from / to r : 

English. San Juan Capistrano. 

moon mioil 

water pal 

salt engel 

Between the remaining vocabularies, the resemblance by no means 
lies on the surface ; still it is unquestionable. To these data for 
New California may be added the Severnow and Bodega vocabula- 
ries in Baer*s Beitrilge, &c. These last two, to carry our compa- 
rison no further, have, amongst others, the following terms in com- 
mon with the Esquimaux tongues : 

San Gabriel, 






kowdlook, ko\\'^ 








Ugalyachmutsc kai. 



tadleek, dallek — 




Ugalyachmutsc thlesh. 







Fox Island. 













matsiak— 5WII 











Ugalyachmutsc khatl. 




English 9tar. 

Sevemow kamau* 

Greenland kaumeh— moon. 

St Barbara 


Greenland niackoa. 





The concluding notices are upon languages which have already 
been placed, but concerning which fresh evidence is neither super- 
fluous nor misplaced. 

Sacks and Foxes. — Cumulative to evidence already current as to 
the tribes of the Sacks and Foxes belonging to the Algonkin stock, 
it may be stated that a few words collected by the author from the 
Sack chief lately in London were Algonkin. 

The Ojihheways. — A fuller vocabulary, taken from the mouth of 
the interpreters of the Ojibbeway Indians lately exhibited, identifies 
their language with that represented by the vocabularies of Long, 
Carver, and Mackenzie. 

The loway* — Of the loway Indians, Mr. Gallatin, iu 1836, writes 
as follows :^-** They are said, though the fact is notfmy ascertained, 
•• to speak the same dialect," i. e. with the Ottoes. Again, he writes, 
" We have not that [the vocabulary] of the loways, but nineteen 
•* words supplied by Governor Cass seem to leave no doubt of its 
" identity with the Ottoes." — Archaolog, Amer, ii. 127, 128. Cass's 
vocabulary is printed in p. 377. 

In 1843, however, a book was published in the loway language, 
bearing the following title-page, ** An Elementary Book of the loway 
" Language, with an English Translation, by Wm. Hamilton and S. 
•* M. Irvine, under the direction of the B. F. Miss : of the Presbj^erian 
" Church : J. B. Roy, Interpreter ; loway and Sac Mission Press, 
•* Indian Territory, 1 843." In this book the orthographical principles 
are by no means unexceptionable ; they have the merit however of 
expressing simple single sounds by simple single letters : thus v = 
the a in fall ; x = the u in tub ; c = the ch in chest ; f= th; g ^ 
ng ; j =- sh, Q however is preserved as a double sound = qu. 
From this alphabet it is inferred that; the loway language possesses 
the rare sound of the English th. With the work in question I was 
favoured by Mr, Catlin. 

Now it is only necessary to pick out from this little work the 
words selected by Balbi in his Atlas Ethnographique, and to com- 
pare them with the corresponding terms as given by the same 
author for the Sioux, the Winebago, the Otto, the Konza, the 
Omahaw, the Minetare, and the Osage languages, to be convinced 
the loway language belongs to the same class, coinciding more 
especially with the Otto. 



































pah — head. 





pah — head. 














ninah, nih. 










yih, ih. 























































































































































































With the book in question Cas 

s's vocabulary coincides. 

Hamilton and Irvii 

le. Cass. 






































2. *' On the English Verb do and the Latin da-re, and on the For- 
mation of the English Weak Perfects.** By Professor Key. 

The little syllables or letters which constitute the suffixes of lan- 
guage were no doubt originally possessed of as full a form as those 
syllables which are dignified by the name of root syllables, and were 
in fact themselves roots also. The degradation which they have 
suffered is readily accounted for by the two considerations, that when 
used as suffixes they are performing a secondary office, and also oc- 
cupy that place in a word which is most likely to suffer by careless 
pronimciation. Under these circumstances it is nearly always a 
most difficult task to trace them up to their original form. But in the 
weak perfects of the Teutonic languages, such as our English loved, 
, no such difficulty presents itself. So far as mere form is concerned, 
the process is complete with those who trace the d of this formation 
up to the weak perfects of the Anglo-Saxon in de and the Gothic in 
ded. That these syllables in reality form the suffixes of the perfect 
tenses here spoken of, is at once seen in a comparison with the per- 
fects of the strong conjugations* Thus in Grimm's ' Deutsche Gram- 


matik/ vol. i. pp. 840 and 845, we have the followiug skeletons of 
the two tenses for the Gothic : — 

GOTHIC 'preterites. 
Strong Conjugation. Weak Conjugation. 

Ist pers. 2nd pers. 3rd pers. Ist pers. 2nd pers. 3rd pers. 

Sing, -t -da -d^s -da 

Dual. -uts -dfiduts 

Plur, -um -uf -un. -dMum -d6duj) -d^dun. 

Here a comparison of the duals and plurals at once points out the 
syllable ded as the distinguishing characteristic of the weak conju- 

ANGLO-SAXON PRETERITES (Grimm, pp. 895, 903). 

Strong Conjugation. Weak Conjugation. 

Ist pers. 2nd pers. 3rd pers. Ist pers. 2nd pers. 3rd pers. 

Sing, -e -de -dest -de 

Plur. -on -on -on, -don -don -don. 

The singular is here a clearer guide than the plural, as it exhibits 
the suffix in the form de rather than (/alone. 

Grimm has pointed out (p. 1042), that this form ded bears a close 
resemblance to our modem auxiliary did, which performs the very 
same office ; and there cannot be much hesitation in treating them 
as one and the same word, if there be found an independent origin 
for did itself. For it would be reasoning in a vicious circle if we 
ons i dered did to be formed from do, with the same suffix which 
attaches itself to loved. 

Now a theory proposed for consideration by the German scholar 
is to treat did, or rather ded^ as a perfect of reduplication. This 
suggestion we believe to be more valid than its proposer implied. 

That did was not formed on the principle of the weak conjuga- 
tions seems to be determined by the suffix of the participle done. 
The German forms corresponding to did and done are that and ge- 
than. Now of the one hundred and eighty- six irregular verbs in the 
German grammar there are fourteen which have a perfect participle 
in t, every one of which fourteen l^ave the preterite of the indicative 
formed in te, while the one hundred and seventy-one verbs remaining 
have all their participles in ^en, and of these not one forms its pre- 
terite in te. The probability that results from this combination 
seems to approach very nearly to certainty, but the antiquity of the 
verb do has other evidence in its favour. It is one of the very few 
verbs which have preserved the pronominal suffix in the first person 
of the indicative in several of the dialects. Thus the Old German 
(Grimm, p. 885) has for the singular of the indicative, tuom, tuos, tuot, 
and the Old Saxon (p. 894), d6n or d6m, d6s, ddd or ddt. Thus we are 
compelled to put our verb in the class of the most irregular, that is 
the oldest verbs of the language, just as sum and inquam claim a si- 
milar position in the Latin language for the same reason ; and am in 
our own tongue. 

It might perhaps be argued on the other hand, that the perfects of 
do in the several Teutonic languages connect themselves with the 


weak verbs by their personal endings. For example, the Old Ger- 
man perfect in the first and third person is teta, agreeing in the final 
letter with the weak verbs. So again, the Old Saxon is,— sing. 1 . 
deda ; 2. dedds ; 3. deda ; precisely like the termination of the weak 
perfects in that language, and differing in each of the three forms 
from the perfect of the strong verbs. But this argument is one 
which on examination will be found in our favour. It establishes, 
it must be admitted, only the more closely the connexion between 
the perfect did and the suffix of the weak perfects. But this simi- 
larity is accounted for on our theory just as well as on that which 
explains it by classing do among the weak verbs. If the weak verbs 
were actually formed by affixing the auxiliary did, then all the pe- 
culiarities of that verb would naturally go with it. Let it be observed 
too, that the personal endings of the perfects of weak verbs are more 
complete than those of the perfects of the strong verbs. For ex- 
ample, the s of the second person of the perfect is retained in the 
weak perfects of the Gothic and Old Saxon, although it has been 
lost in the strong perfects. Now it is commonly admitted that the 
more complete forms belong to the older formation. Our theory 
explains this ; for we contend that do stands out among the strong 
or old verbs as one of the very oldest, and that the greater complete- 
ness of the personal endings of the perfects in the weak conjugations 
as compared with those of the strong conjugations is due solely to 
the great antiquity of the suffix. 

But the doctrine that did is a perfect of reduplication is greatly 
strengthened by a comparison with the Latin dedi. It is true that 
an Englishman is at first startled at the idea of an English perfect 
being formed on the principle of reduplication, however ready to 
admit the doctrine in the classical languages. But the pages of 
Grimm's grammar would soon quiet his surprise by the exhibition of 
one hundred and twenty-six verbs in the Gothic whose perfects are 
so formed, and indeed with a closer observance of the principle than 
even the Latin. Thus from hdit call, we have the perfect hcLihctit, 
which is more accurate than momord-i from morde-o, or spopond-i 
from sponde-o, or scicid-i from scind-o, or stet-i from sta-re. 

The Anglo-Saxon it is true exhibits, as Grimm observes, but a 
faint trace of reduplication in h^ht (Jtissit) from hdtan, contracted 
probably from A^M (D. G. p. 898), while the general practice of 
this language is to distinguish the preterite by a modification of the 
vowel. Now it is difficult to suppose that a change in the internal 
structure of a word was ever an original mode of denoting a change 
of sense ; it seems more probable that those changes called inflection 
or motion are at the outset the mere physical results that follow from 
the attachment of a suffix to a root; and as the changes depend 
upon the letters which constitute the suffix, they are in fact (to 
use a mathematical phrase) a function of those letters, and therefore 
in some measure calculated to represent and so supplant the suffix 
itself. In other cases two syllables are compressed into one, and 
under this principle it has often been proposed to explain the for- 
mation in Latin of the long vowel perfects, as though /ec-t, eg-i. 


vtfrr-i were redaced from reduplicated perfect8/<?/fc-i, agig-i, veverr-i. 
Now if this doctrine be admissible for the Latin, there seems little 
ground for rejecting it in Anglo-Saxon. 

We have compared our English did from do, with the Latin ded-i 
from da-re, and we will now venture to go a step farther and assert 
the identity of the words both in form and meaning. We will take 
the question of form in the first place. Now the Latin dare is at 
once distinguished from the great mass of verbs in the a conjuga- 
tion of the Latin language by its short quantity and its so-called 
irregularities. Among these irregularities none is more striking 
than the passage of its leading compounds into the third conjuga- 
tion, as abdere, condere, &c. If these compounds be stripped of both 
prefix and infinitive- suffix, we have nothing left but the consonant d, 
which of course cannot be the whole of the root. The question is, 
what vowel followed that consonant ? The infinitive dare suggests a, 
while the old subjunctive duim pleads for u, and the Greek equiva- 
lents in didwjjii, ^otris, -^otos, ^orrjp, hwpov, assert the right of the 
vowel, which in the vocal gamut* occupies the intermediate place, 
viz. 0. The Latin donum supports this claim. Now it is remarkable 
that the same variety prevails in our own tongue and its kindred : 
we write an o in e^o and done and pronounce a u, while the German 
prefers u in the infinitive and present indicative, a in the preterite 
and perfect participle, as thu,n, tku,e, that, gethan. We may add 
that the Sanscrit is dadd'tni, the Lithuanian du-mi, and the Old 
Slavic damj. (See Bopp's V. G., pp. 628, 629.) 

Secondly, the meaning of the English do and the Latin da seems 
to have been originally the same, and to have answered to our En- 
glish word put. To commence with the Latin. The idea of to give 
is not well suited for the primitive meaning of a word, if the con- 
veyance of a title to possession be included in it ; and if that notion 
be excluded, we have in fact nothing left but what is expressed by 
the very word put : Do tibi in manum, " I put into your hand." But 
the compounds of a word often rptain a primitive meaning after the 
simple verb has lost it : accordingly, we have the meaning of the 
Latin dare most distinctly exhibited in its numerous compounds. 
We will take the monosyllabic prepositions in their alphabetic order, 
and observe the power of the root when compounded with them. 

ab'dere, to hide ; that is, put away, certainly not to give away. 

ad'dere, to add ; that is, put to. 

con-dere, to build ; that is, put together. 

de-dere, to give up or surrender. (See below.) 

di-dere mufiia, to distribute parts or offices. 

e-dere, to. utter ; that is, put forth. 

in-dere nomen, to affix or put a name on anything. 

per-dere, to waste, destroy. (See below.) 

ob'dere pessulum, to put the bar to, which fastens a door. 

pra-ditus, endued with. (See below.) 

♦ », e, a, 0, ti. See Mr. Willis's paper, Cambr. Phil. Trans., vol. ill. 


prO'dere, to put away, abandon, betray. 
red'dere, to restore ; that is, give or put back. 
suh'dere calcar, to put up the spur to the horse. 
trans- dere, to transfer. 

1 he majority of these most distinctly exhibit a sense in agreement 
with the idea of putting, and at variance with that of a gift, A few 
still demand some words of explanation. Dedere is commonly trans- 
lated by the phrase give up, but those who think that the word give 
tells against the present hypothesis, must be called on to justify the 
translation of de by what is just the contrary to its true significa- 
tion, up. The truth is, that the idea commonly conveyed by this 
word is the surrender of arms, and the phrase dedere arma is more 
correctly translated by laying down one*s arms. When a Roman sol- 
dier heard his opponent call for quarter, he did not go up to him 
while he had yet his sword or pike in hand, but expected him to 
throw that weapon down, that he might more safely make him his 
prisoner*. This done he approaches him: the latter, dat manus, 
" holds his hands behind him" to be bound, and the Roman, pulling 
a cord out of his pocket, binds them together. Hence perhaps the 
close connexion in form between vincire and vincere ; and the deri- 
vatives from the former — vinculum, vinxi, vinctus — in deserting the i 
conjugation, bring the resemblance still nearer. The signification 
of " perdere" recedes as much from giving as from putting ; but this 
word again will be found to a£ford the strongest evidence in favour 
of the connexion between the Latin and English verbs in question ; 
for the prefix per, which gives to so many Latin words the idea of 
destruction, — as in perire, perimere, perfidus, perjurare, — is acknow- 
ledged to be the representative of th^ English/or^ or for, when used 
with the same sense as in our vfordsforswear, forbid, forget, forlorn, 
and our old writers have preserved the compound/orrfo with precisely 
the sense of "perdere." 

This is the very extasie of love, 

Whose violent property fordoes itself. — Shaksp., Hamlet, II. 1. 

The obsolete verb pradere would signify, on the present theory, 
•*to put at the end" (^compaxe praustus, praacutus), and might have 
been used in such a phrase as pradere ferrum hasta (dat.), or by a 
change of construction very common in Latin, pritdere hastam ferro 
(abl.), ** to arm a shaft with an iron barb." The term " endued " 
with us is used only in a moral sense, and we know that the physi- 
cal always preceded the metaphysical notion. Now the expression 
armed is well suited for metaphorical use in the samie sense as en- 
dued. But there are still some compounds left. Vendere is one, as 
is proved by its perfect ven-didi, also by the longer form venum-ddre, 
which together correspond to ven-ire and venum^ire ; and it may be 
observed, that the compounds with ire are often used as passives by 
the side of the active compounds of dare. Thus we have just seen 

• The phrase sese dedere may also be explained literally, ** by throwing ourselves 
down at the feet of the conqueror." 


perdere and perire corresponding to one another. Then as regards 
meaning, there is strong reason for suspecting that the words used in 
connexion with venum signify rather " exposure for sale" than ** sale" 
itself. The translation of venum ire in Forcellini is, esser esposto alia 
vendita ; and the vior^venditare, in its sense of ** exhibiting," " set- 
ting off to advantage," supports the same doctrine. What the ori- 
ginal meaning of venum itself was it is difficult to decide ; but there 
seems to be no better solution of this difficulty than the conjecture 
that the noun venus or venum meant window, that is, the place where 
things for sale are ordinarily exposed. The very forms, too, of the 
words agree. As men, the radical syllable of mens, appears in En- 
glish as mind, so ven would be wind. Moreover it is highly probable 
that the opening in a house called by the name of window, owes its 
name to the fact of its admitting air or wind, for in Italy at any rate 
the practice of glazing was not an early habit. The word fen-estra 
seems by its shape to have been at first a feminine adjective, and to 
have signified a something belonging to the window rather than the 
window itself. Its radical syllable fen bears a very strong resem- 
blance to the ven with which we have been dealing. That venum is 
the accusative of a noun denoting the place or instrument of sale, 
seems certain from the phrase venum ire*, for the original power of 
the accusative case was motion to : we ourselves tsdk of property 
going to the hammer; but the phrase venum ire also denotes the 
offering for sale rather than the sale itself. 

We have another compound of dare in credere, as its perfect credidi 
and old subjunctive cre-duim unite in proving. Now " to believe " is a 
moral signification, and therefore not so likely to be the first sense 
of the word, as the idea of placing a valuable article with a person 
as a deposit for safe custody ; and the construction. Hoc tibi credo, 
confirms this view. Thus the idea of putting is quite as visible in 
this word as that of giving. 

Pessumdare and circumdare still remain. The first stands, accord- 
ing to the principle already spoken of, in connexion with pessum ire, 
and in pessum we have again the accusative of a noun whose signifi; 
cation is obscure. It is enough for our present purpose to say, 
that dare in pessumdare is virtually a facilitative of the ire in pessum 
ire ; but the very word to put means to cause to go. Again : circum- 
dare, both by its sense and by its construction, justifies our transla- 
tion of dare\ for circumdare urbem muro (abl.), "to surround a city 
with a wall," must be deemed a construction of later use than that 
of circumdare urbi murum, that is, *' to put a wall round a city." 

Before we leave the Latin language we must point attention to 
the two verbs induo and exuo, which one is tempted at first to divide 
so as to leave only uo, or rather «, for the simple verb, ind being the 
preposition ; as in ind-igeo, indu-perare, indi-gena. But of such a verb 
there seems no other trace, and we have already had grounds for 
assigning a « to the early form of the verb dare. In this way m- 
duere has the sense of "putting on," and the early construction, in- 
duere vestem alicui, is explained. There is however something 
* The dative venui also exists. 


violent in the idea, that ec-duere* should have heen degraded into 
eX'Uere, But if this alteration of form he considered not insuperahle, 
then exuere, by its sense io put off, is another argument in confirma- 
tion of my doctrine. Nay, we might even claim the Greek verb cic- 
dvfii as of similar origin. 

We next proceed to our own tongue. One compound of do, viz. 
fordo, has already been dealt with. We have, besides this, don for 
" put on,*' doff for *• put off," douse or doutf for " put out," with the 
familiar substantive douters for the extinguishing nippers. The 
practice of sufiixing instead of prefixing prepositions to a verb, di- 
stinguishes our language from tiie Latin and most other languages. 
It of course makes little difference that the preposition is commonly 
printed apart from the verb, as in put off, put on, &c., the two words 
are pronounced as one. Indeed, in some of the provincial dialects we 
have such forms as gout, goff, for go out, go off. 

Beyond our own language it will be perhaps sufficient to place 
together the following list of German words, the evidence of which 
is strongly confirmatory of what has been said : — 

Ab-thun, put away. 
An-thun, j?«^ on. 
Auf-thun, put up, open. 
Aus-thun, put off (exuo). 
Ein-thun, put in. 
Her- thun — hersetzen . 

Hin-thun, put away. 
Nach-thun, copy. 
Um-thun, put round. 
Weg-thun, put away. 
Zu-thun die augen, to close. 
HervoT'thun, put/orward (sich). 
Ver-thun, destroy. 

* We are justified in giving the preposition that form by the Greek CKdiSiOfii, &c., 
ecfugere, ecferare, &c. Besides, the Bacchanalian inscription has EXDEICERE, 
i. e. ech-deicere, not eks-dicere, the X having its primitive power as in the Greek 

f To these may perhaps he added the vcib dup for do up, one of the readings in 
Hamlet ; *.* and dupt the chamber door." 


Vol. II. FEBRUARY 14, 1845. No. 29. 

P. I. Chabot, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following works were laid on the table : 

" Abyssinia ; a Statement of Facts relative to Transactions be- 
tween the Writer and the British Political Mission to the Court of 
Shoa," by C. T. Beke; presented by the Author. "The Phreno- 
typic Journal for 1842, 1843 and 1844," presented by Isaac Pit- 
man, Esq. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society : 

Rev. John Jebb, M.A., Rector of Peterslow, near Ross, Here- 
Henry Warburton, Esq. 

A paper was then read : — 

"On Mistakes in the Use of obsolete Greek Words by Attic Wri- 
ters." By Professor Maiden. 

In any language which has a long existence, it is an event, not 
only possible, but almost certain to occur, that the etymology of some 
words will be forgotten, or the principle of some rare formation be 
lost sight of, and that false forms will be introduced according to ^ 
some false analogy ; and again, the meaning of some rare words used 
by old authors will be mistaken, and they will be used in a wrong 
sense by a modem writer, llius in modem English we spell thi 
words sovereign and foreign, as if their last syllable were connected 
. with the noun reign derived from regnum ; but Chaucer wrote /oratu 
or foraine, and Spenser wrote soveraine, and Milton sovran, in ac- 
cordance with the French souverain and the Italian sovrano. Again, 
we spell colleague as if it were compounded from our word league, 
instead of coming to us at once from the Latin collega. As an ex- 
ample of mistakes in the meaning of words, we may mention the use 
which our newspaper writers make of the word transpire. They talk 
of a business or an event transpiring, when all they mean is, that the 
business was transacted or the event happened. In consequence of 
the familiar phrase " is no more,** we sometimes see "no more" used 
as a aynonymn for di^ad; and a certain newspaper article, on occa- 
sion of the death of George III., spoke of "the gloomy towers of 
Windsor, where our revered monarch lies no more." 

But examples more serious, and more to our purpose, are errors 
committed by Lord Byron in 'Childe Harold,' in consequence of his 
affected imitation of ancient diction. Lord Byron having, it may be 
supposed, the word ruthless in his head, and not thinking of the 




■Mttusg of the last feyUable, in the first edition of * Childe Harold ' 
used ruth in the sense of cruelty. It was in his description of Ali 

— those ne'er-forgotten acts of ruth, 
Besepming all men ill, but most the man 
In years, that mark him with a tiger*s tooth. — Canto ii. tt. (63)62. ' 

The blunder was ridiculed in the ' Rejected Addresses,' though 
there the misuse of the word is less flagrant than in the original : 

Who can redeem from wretchedness and ruth 

Men true to falsehood's voice, false to the voice of truth ? 

The error was cortrected in subsequent editions. 

Lord Byron, apparently, had never seen, or did not remember, the 
phrase "kibed heels," which he might have found in old writers; 
but he had a vague recollection of Hamlet's remark, that " the toe 
of the peasant comes so near the heel of the courtier that he galls 
his kibe," and he ^Eincied that kibe meant heel, instead of meaning a 
crack or chap in the skin of the heel, or a broken chilblain, and he 
describes a scene of mirth, in which 

Devices quaint and frolics ever new 

Tread on each other's kibea — Childe Harold, i. 67. 

And this expression still stands in the poem. 

These examples of error in the use of obsolete words are rather in 
caricature, but they will serve to indicate the general drift of the 
following remarks. 

Similar phaenomena are likely to present themselves in any lan- 
guage, the literature of which has existed long enough to allow words 
or forms of words to become obsolete. In Grecian literature we find 
a class of poets, — the learned poets of the Alexandrian period, — who 
set themselves to imitate the diction of the epic poets of the early 
ages. Apollonius Rhodius endeavoured to write in the language of 
Homer ; but Apollonius and Homer were separated by more than six 
centuries ; and it is not surprising that he should sometimes mistake 
the meaning of Homeric words, or, in venturing to imitate Homeric 
forms, fall into a false analogy. Several such errors might be pointed 
out in Apollonius, and Callunachus, and Theocritus ; not merely in- 
stances in whidi the language in general use had suffered a change, 
but instances in which there is a real error, arising from the misap- 
prehension or the mistaken ingenuity of the individual poet. This 
assertion probably will not startle classical scholars; but they are 
likely to be scandalized by the assertion, that even to the great Attic 
writers the language of the Homeric age was so different from their 
own that such mistakes were possible. This, however, seems to be 
the case in the use of a few words ; and scholars are invited to con- 
sider the following instances. 

In ' The Peace ' of Aristophanes, when Trygaeus has drawn up the 
goddess Peace from the bottom of the.well in which she has been 
hidden for years, he is beset by the manufacturers of "the pomp 
and circumstance of gloripus war," who revile him for spoiling their 


trades. And first a manufacturer of military crests complains; t* 

Oi/ioc kfs ir(Hide\vfiv6v fi* cJ TpvyaT iiT^fXeiras, 

npodiXvfiyoy is an Homeric word, the root of which is lost from the 
luiguage, or, at least, is not obvious ; and the meaning of it is to be 
determined from the sense of the context in the passages in which it 
occurs. There can be no question that in this line Aristophanes 
meant to make the Crest-maker say, " Alas ! how utteriy hast thou 
destroyed me, Trygssus !" and understood the word to mean literal^, 
" torn up by the roots." The Scholiast on the passage says, 6 i^rirt 
ip^iiy airifXetras fit, rj)r elprivify vpoieviitrus, ^a/rercu 2^ kqI oStqs 
Kol &k\oi iroXXoc TO irpoBiXvfjuov dvri rov vpoppi^ov auovctv. The 
rest of the Scholium I shall qtiote presently. Aristophanes has uaed 
the word elsewhere, and must be supposed to have given it the aaoM 
sense. In the ' Knights,' v. 526, with a bold metaphor, or rather 
simile, he describes the torrent of wit and invective with which Cia- 
tinus, in the days of his popularity, 

ToXXf ptvaas iror* cira/iy 

k<^6p€i ras ^pvs Kal ras vXaTdyov$ arai rovs €\Opovs irpoOeXvfivovs, 

Here also the Scholiast explains the word Tpoj^liovs, And this 
meaning is caught up, hastily indeed, but not without a semblance 
^^^f trutii, from passages in Homer. Phoenix, in his description of the 
Calydonian boar (II. I. 537), says, 

woXXu ^ Sye irpoBeXvfiva xafial fiaXe iivZpea fiaicpa 

And again, in the description of the distress of Agamemnon at the 
beginning of book R (v. 15), it is said, 

iroXXas €k nefaX^s irpoOeXvfivovs iXxero xairas. 

In both these passages, the translation, '* up by the roots," would 
seem to give a sufficient sense, although in ^t it would make the 
former passage tautological ; and it is one of the explanations for- 
nished by the Scholia of the Pseudo-Didymus. The Scholium on 
the latter passage, indeed, tries to furnish an etymology, and adds, 
BiXvpva ^k Kvpitas ol defjiiXioi ; but the etymology is invented out of 
the supposed meaning. OiXvfiyov is not to be found as a separate 
word, not in this sense at least, and is made identical with dcfiiXioy 
by such transpositions and changes as the Greek etymologers seem 
fond of imagining, but which the truth of language refuses to recog- . 
nise. Hie process however is plain by which, ^om these passages 
of Homer, Aristophanes might deduce the meaning which he has 
^ven to tiie word vpodiXvfiyos ; and it is likely ^enough that other 
careless readers of Homer in his day did the same, as we find from 
the Scholia and modern commentaries and lexicons (e.g* Schrevelius) 
^at many others have done since. 

Netertiieless, there can be no doubt that tMs is a fedse interpre- 
-tatimi t^ 13M» w<Hrd. Hie etror was pointed out long ago by- the 



priQce of ancient critics, Aristarchus ; for the Scholiast on. the pas?-* 
age in * The Peace ' goes on, after the remarks quoted before, to 
say, *Api(TTap\os Sc to trvve\ks Kai &\\o eir &\\ip ^ijXovarOai tpriffi : 
and that acute scholar quoted the passages from Homer, which are 
decidve evidence of the true meaning. In N. 130 we read that a 
select body of the bravest of the Greeks awaited the attack of Hec- 
tor and the Trojans, 

^pa^avres Sopv ^ovpt, aruKos aaicei TrpoOeXvfiyaf, 
The description goes on, 

affiris ap atnri^* epeidcf Kopvs KopvVy avipa l" uyi'ip' 
\j/avoy 5' iiriroKOfioi Kopvdes Xafiirpoiari (j>a\oi(Ti 
vevo^Tuty' ws wvKyoi kc^earaaay aXXi/Xoieri. 

Here it is plain that irpodeXv/jiy^ must mean " overlying," ** lying 
one on the other." And the meaning is made yet more clear, if pos- 
sible, by the occurrence of another compound from the same root. 
In O. 479, where T^cer drops his bow, and arms himself with the 
usual arms of a warrior, we are told, 

ahrdp 6y a/i^' tafioitri vaKos dero rerpadeXv/Ltvov ; 

and the line is repeated with little difference in Od. x- 122, 

avTOS B* aiiff &noiai oraKos Oiro TeTpadiXvfivoy. 

TeTpaSiXvfipoy can mean nothing but "overlaid fourfold," or "covered^ 
with four layers " of hide and metal ; and so Aristarchus explained 
it, TovTcari, riaraapas err aXXrjXtay e\ov irrv^as ; and the same ex- 
planation is given in the common Scholia. 

Now then, if we go back to the passages of Homer which We cited 
first, and apply to them the interpretation of wpoOiXvfiyos which we 
have gained from the latter passages, we shall find that it suits them 
perfectly. In I. 537, 

TToXXa B* oye wpodiXvfiya \afjuil flaXe Mvipea fiaxpa 
avT^ai pi^ritrif 

the trees are described as thrown to the ground "one upon another ;" 
tuid in K. 15, 

iroXXds €K K€(j>aXrjs wpodeXvjjLyovs ^Xkcto yairaSi 

Agamemnon pulls out his hair by handfuls; literally, "many hairs 
put of his head one upon another pulled he." 

This meaning then, which suits all the passages, suiting even the 
one first quoted much better than the common interpretation, iepop^ 
pt(os, or " up by the roots," inasmuch as it expresses a different 
idea from ahrrjai pi^riai, and does not make Homer guilty of tauto- 
logy, and which moreover is consistent with the use of rer/oad^Xv/i- 
yov^ this is the true meaning; and Aristophanes was deceived by too 
hasty an induction, and has used the word in a false sense. 

The true interpretation, as well as the false one, is given in the 
.Scholia oil Homer (e»g* on I* 537, np6ppi(a* ^aXXi|Xa ital irvkya)^ 
We find alBo» tiiat tbpfii^ wpodiXv^yos in its ordinary \\fie wa9 obsQ" 

lete, yet either the adjective itself, or perhaps its root, remained in 
use as a technical term in the management of fruit trees ; and this 
technical use might have guided any Athenian who knew it to 
the true meaning of the Homeric epithet. The Scholiast on N. 130, 
explains rrpudeXvfjLiy by ttvicvw, and adds, *Aydp6fjia\os kv 'Ervfioko' 
ytKciis ij^riffi Kvpitas X^yeaBcu rd €7ra\\»/\oi;« KXahovs Itypvra devBpUf 
Bid TO OriXvfiat'e'iy, The derivation is good for nothing except to 
show what Niebuhr calls " that extreme spirit of absurdity which 
always came over even the most sagacious of the Greeks and Ro- 
mans the moment they meddled with etymology." 

The technical use is given also in the * Etymologicum Magnum,' 
perhaps on the same authority : OiXviAva Xeyerai rd iiraXXfiXun 
e^oi'Ta ToifS KXa^ovs SerSpcc. 

In the fragments of Empedocles (w. 73 and 139), the simple ad- 
jective OeXvfiyos appears to be used. In both passages the MS. of 
Simplicius, who has preserved the fragments in his * Commentaries 
upon Aristotle,' has OeXifiva, but deXvfiya is a probable correction. 
The first passage seems to be corrupt. The second passage is 

ev Tij Bfj (that is, iy <^t\ori}r«, the Empedoclean allegory for the 
chemical principle of affinity) 

ey ry 5j) rdde irdvra trvyip^erai ey fjioyoy elyai, 
ovK a^api aXXd diXvfiva ervyi<rraTai &X\oO€y &XXo, 

It appears that OeXvfiya here is used in the true sense of irpodiXvfjL' 
yos in Homer, viz. ** one upon another," or ** cumulatively." 

Before we proceed to another passage, in which it seems that a 
word of the older language has been mistaken, it will be well to ex- 
amine the family of words to which the argument relates. 

The adjective ^icriXos belonged to the old poetical language, and 
continued to be used by the later poets in succession, although, as 
we do not find it in prose, we may conclude that it became obsolete 
in the common spoken language. Theocritus applies it to persons 
in the sense of " inactive, idle" (Id. xxv. 100); and Apollonius uses 
it to describe the stillness of inanimate objects (iii. 969). But Buttr 
mann, in his 'Lexilogus,' has shown that these uses are erroneous; 
and that in Homer and Pindar (and he might have added, in the 
tragedians also) the word is applied exclusively to persons ; and ia 
the Iliad and Odyssey and by Pindar it is used to signify "quiet" 
or " tranquil," in the sense of " undisturbed," ** at one's pleasure," 
" according to one's will," so that it is applicable not only to per- 
sons in a state of repose, but to persons actively exerting themselves, 
if not opposed or interrupted. .Thus in II. Z. 70, Nestor exhorts the 
Greeks not to lose the opportunity of victory by throwing themselves 
on the spoils of the slain, 

aXX' aydpas Kreiyia/Jiey* eireira dk Kai rd eKtjXoi 
ycKpovs «/i T^dioy trvXiiaere TeOyeuSras* 

Again, in P. 340, Hector exhorts the Trojans not to suffer the Greeks 
to rescue the dead body of Patroclus ; * 



IlaVpOfcXoi' vffvinv neXatraiaTO redyeiwTQ, 

The tragedians, bs has been observed, apply the word only to per- 
sons ; and Sophocles does not depart from the Homeric meaning. 
In Elect. 786, he uses it as an adverb, but still, although the con- 
struction is different, the meaning is the same : 

— — vvy S* ^Kri\d irov, 
riay rrjffS* aneiXwy ovv€\, fjfjiepevtrofiey. 

The word does not appear in Euripides, ^schylus uses it once, 
and departs from the Homeric usage, making lici^Xos %adi signify " be 
still." Sept. c. Th. 220. eicriXos UOi, fjni^ ccyar vvtpt^^v. 

It is plam, both from the form and the sense (and this also Bntt- 
mann has pointed out), that ttKtiXos has a common root with the ad- 
jective €Kk»v, ** willing," and tKt}Ti (in the later Greek ikKan), which 
is commonly called a preposition, but which is more probably in ori- 
gin a noun, and which in Homer is joined only with a genitive case 
of persons, and signifies ** by the will of." In eic-i^Xos, lyXoj is an ad- 
jective termination, as in vipiyXoj, vfpiyXos, crtyiyXds (on the difference 
of accent see Buttmann) ; and kn is the common root of eici^Xos, eicwv, 
and ein^rc. 

It is clear in Homer that €ktjKos has lost an initial cocscnaAt 
The word occurs nineteen times : in fourteen of tkdfte passages the 
metre requires an initial consonant to prevent hiatus ; in one it ad- 
mits it, the preceding word being merely a dative case with a para- 
gogic y (ky fieyapoimv ^oyXot, Od. ir. 314) ; and three of the re- 
maining four may be very easily corrected*. It appears by a similar 
argument that cK&y and ^ktiti have lost an initial consonant, and 
also by their being compounded with the negative a, and not with 
the fuller form ay, in aiKtay and iiiicriTi, What the lost consonant 
was, whether F (vau) or er, is not so manifest; but the evidence 
tfrhich there is to determine the point is for the vau. It is well- 
known that in the glossary of Hesychius there are many words spelt 
with a gamma (y), in which the y represents an ancient F (probably 
by the same process by which the French garde and the English 
ward are connected, and gimhlet and wimble). Now in Hesychius 
occurs the gloss, F^yjcaXov, ijirvxoy; but it has been well pointed 

■ ^ II. 9, 512, fi^ fidv dtrrrovii ye veuiv evifiaiev eKtiXot, 
It 5irill be^seen by reference to the context, that the laws of syntax require the sub- 
junctive mood, eviPuiffi, PeKtiXoi, The contracted form of the verb is borne out by 
Od. (. 86, 

— otr* errl yaitis 
dXXorplri9 fiiS&iv, 
Od. p, 478, €<T9t €KfiXo9f U^ve, — : read ea9e P&ctjXot. 
In Od. 0, 289, oitK dyair^9 b& ejci|Xos virep^toXoiffi fM^' ^/icv 
<i *iKtiXo9 (i. e. *6 PUriXos) has been restored already. 
The passage, Od. j3. 311, is rather more difficult: 

$aivv(r9ai r* dxiovra^ Kal €iffpaXv€9Bai eic^Xor. 
Perhaps e^paivecrO* cvm^Xor. 


out by Mr, Donaldson (New Cratylus, p. 131) that the second y in 
ykyKoKov is due to an error of transcription, because the word stands 
in alphabetical arrangement after the word yei«tfpas. We are left 
therefoYe with yeireiXov, which will be a dialectic form of f^myXof. 
llie next word yeicaOa, which is interpreted h-overa, is probably 
corrupt ; but it points in like manner to a F in the old form of the 

root €K, 

We are now prepared to consider another form, evicf^Xof • EviciyXos 
is exactly synonymous with IektiXos ; and it was to show more clearly 
this identity of meaning that Buttmann's remarks on the signification 
of ^Krjkos were quoted. The form et^cf/Xos, in like manner, is used 
by the Alexandrian poets in the sense of " silent," or •• still," and ex- 
tended to inanimate objects ; by the tragic poets, with whom it is 
rare *, applied only with reference to persons (strictly as an adjec- 
tive by Sophocles, fvvvaiot/i* et/inyXoi, Elect. 241 ; adverbially by 
Euripides, its oh pXeweis cvki/Xov, Iph. A. 634); but in Homer used 
with the peculiar meaning of iKtiKos, Thus in II. P. 371. we are 
told, that while the warriors who fought around the dead body of 
Patroclus were enveloped in a thick mist, which impeded tiieir 

oi 2* aXXoc Tpwes koi ivicvlifxi^es ^Axo-iol 

€VKTi\oi iroXcfjiii^oy Iw* uWipi. 

The Scholiasts and the Gloss writers acknowledge with one voice 
^ the identity of the words. The author of the ' Etymologicum Mag- 
num,' for example, although he resorts to strange etymological de- 
vices to explain the connexion of the two forms, does not suggest 
for tvKTiXos any derivation which should separate it from ^ati^Xos. 
The learned grammarian Apollonius Dyscolus states expressly, " that 
evKi^Xof is related to IktiXos in the same way as evre to ore" (New 
Cratylus, p. 354), whatever he conceived that way to be. 

The V in the diphthong in evici^Xos represents the F in the other form 
PimiXos. Buttmann thought that e was prefixed to J^iicrjXos, as it is to 
many other words beginning with F, as ePeUoat, ePieros, epi^va, and 
that ipiicriXos was shortened into iPicriXos or evK'i^Xof . The objection to 
this hypothesis is, that in all the other instances the syllable to which 
c is prefixed is long ; and the dwelling of the voice upon the syllable 
seems the essential condition of its being introduced by a short 
vowel sound prefixed to it. We may rather consider the relation 
between eiciyXos and evci^Xos, or the change from PiKJiXos to ipmiXos, 
as a mere transposition. Perhaps there is no example precisely 
similar : but there are many examples of transposition in the oppo- 
site direction, when the F has become a mere aspiration. Thus iPade, 
the second aorist from the root pa^, is represented in Homer by 
et/a^c, the first syllable being long ; but in Herodotus it is ^a^e, the 
aspiration being transferred from the root to the augment. The 
aspiration in edXtav has the same origin. The name of the god of the 

* In the passage which we cited from ^schylus, Sept. 220, exriXos la9i, fxtfi* 
&yav ifirep^opov, the older editions have e^imfXos, and the MSS. vary between the 


.invisible world is manifestly derived from the root fid, see, and Was 
originally *APihris, but by contraction it becomes AUrjs, Eustathius, 
in his commentary on II. A. 554, observes that the connexion be- 
tween ^KTfXos and evKriXos is like that between the Attic noun opos, 
boundary, and the Ionic form ovpos, which is not aspirated. 

Such is the origin of the syllable tv ; and the fact of the con- 
nexion between the two forms was so clear, whatever difficulty there in explaining it, that, as Buttmann has observed, none 
•of the ancient grammarians thought of separating them by treating 
€VKriKoi as compounded from the adverb eu. Independently of the 
comiexion with cKf^Xo^, there is a difficulty in supposing the word to 
be so compounded, because there is no root which accounts satis- 
factorily for the second part of the word. It could not be said to 
be compounded from KrjKen), to soothe or charm \ the verbal com- 
pound could be nothing but evK^Xjjros ; but even if we imagine the 
existence of some lost noun, from which jcjyXtw and evKiiXos might 
both be derived, the derivation is inadmissible on account of the in- 
congruity of meaning. The verb KriKiu) is not found in Homer ; but 
the noun KtjXrjOfxos occurs twice in descriptions of the effect of the 
narrative of Ulysses on the listening Phaeacians : 

u}S €0tt0'' 01 ^' apa irnvres aKqy kyevovTO <ri(07ry, 
i:rjXr)tif.i^ o eayovro Kara jmeyapa aKwevra, — X. .334. v. 2. 

This notion is utterly alien from the meaning of evKtjXos in the 
passage already cited, 

evKTiXoL TroXejjii^ou vw* alOepi, 

or in the expostulation of Juno with Jupiter in II. A,. 554, 

dXXa ^aX evKiyXos ra ^joa^ecii aatr edeXpo'da. 

But although grammarians and critics did not think of compo- 
sition with the adverb cv, the authority of iEschylus is on the other 
side of the question. In the * Eumenides,' after the disappointed 
Furies have twice uttered imprecations upon the land of Attica, 
Pallas says to them (w. 788, 789), 

OvK ear arifioi, firfS' virepOvynas ayav 
QcaX (3poTO}y arriffrfTe SverfciyXov xdova. 

The word Suo-JciyXos does not occur elsewhere ; but it is impossible 
to read this passage without feeling that iEschylus intended it to be 
the opposite of evKjjXos, and therefore must have conceived evicrfXos 
to be compounded from ev. Scholars must judge whether the cri- 
tical and etymological arguments which have been adduced are 
sound ; but if they are, then iEschylus was mistaken in the etymo- 
logy (k evK-riXoSy and made a new compound upon a false analogy. 

A word has been mentioned incidentally in the foregoing discus- 
sion, the more exact investigation of which will lead us to the con- 
sideration of a second word, which has been used by ^Eschylus in 
an unusual sense. The word eKrjn in Homer signifies " by the will," 
or " by the good will or favour," and is joined with the genitive 


case of persons only. In Od. o. 318, we have *£p/i€/oo lvi;n ; in r* 
86, 'AiroWwyos ye eiciyri ; and in v. 42, Ulysses says to Pallas, 

ecTrep yap ncrei vac/it Atos tc er^Bey re lici/rc, 

ir^ ice J' vTreien-po^wyoc/it ; 
From the form and the meaning of ?iciyrt it is obvious that it was 
originally the dative case of a noun ; but that it had ceased to be so 
considered is also manifest from its being compounded with the ne- 
gative a, and our having &^Krjri, signifying " against the will of." 
" in despite of," as in II. A. 666, 'Apyelwv d^k'ijn, and dewy A^fciyri 
in O. 720. This word also is used only with persons. The use 
and signification of EKrjn is the same in Hesiod and in the Homeric 
Hymns, in a votive inscription of Simonides (72. Gaisf.), and in a 
fragment of Archilochus, except that in the last passage deiHy eici^rc 
means merely " by the will of the gods," where the object willed is 
the infliction of suflfering : 

ci^pv)(0Sy ^aXe7r^(7i detSy ohvytiaiy ^ktiti 
wcTrapfi^yos ^i oariwy, 
lliis then is the ancient use of the word ; but the later poets apply 
it to denote, not merely the will of an agent, but any species of 
cause, as if it signified merely " on account of," and were synony- 
mous with ^veica, and so join it with any noun. Thus in Pindar we 
have i^Kari <rT€<l>dywy (Pyth. x. 58), iKari rro^uty (Nem. viii. 47) : in 
iEschylus we have in the Persse (v. 309) wXfjOovs iSKari ; in the Aga- 
memnon (v. 848), 

Toiwy^ cKaTi K\fi^6yiay waXiyKoruty, 

and other similar passages ; and again others in Sophocles, and very 
many in Euripides, who seems fond of the word : for example, in 
Med, 1225, yafnay cKan T^y *laaoyos, and in Iph. Aul. 483, 

rj Twy efitjy ^Kari OvetrOai yafxtay 

Now in this case the word was not current indeed in the language 
of common life, but it seems to have been always in familiar use 
with the poets ; and although it changed its meaning, and the ear- 
liest extant example of the innovation is the first passage quoted 
from Pindar, yet it would be very rash to single out Pindar as the 
author of the change, and to impute to him in particular a miscon- 
ception or a neglect of the Homeric usage. 

There is however another word in Homer which is very nearly 
synonymous with emjrc, and that is the word lorijn. It occurs fre- 
quently in the phrase Oediy i6rriTi and in some others ; with a sin- 
gular noun as well as with a plural, as Kaicfjs ioTrfri yvrcuKos (Od. \. 
383). It signifies, •* by the purpose," " by the device," " by the 
contrivance "; and it differs from ^ktiti by expressing less of inclina- 
tion and more of the purpose of the understanding. A passage, 
which at first sight may seem a little different, is really in accord- 
ance with this interpretation : 

oh n^vToi ieivov ye Kai^'lpov fjiiSXos eTv^dri 

fiyriarriipiay Iotijti. (Od. tr, 232.) 


"the fray of the stranger and Irus was not however shaped by the 
purpose of the suitors," but turned out differently from what they 
intended. The word is used in the same sense in the Homeric 
Hymns to Apollo and to Venus (Ap. v. 484, Ven. v. 167). 

^loTTfTi even more plainly than ^ktiti is the dative case of a noun. 
The stem of it has the form of an abstract noun of quality. In one 
instance, and one only, another case is used. In II. O. 41, Juno 

f.iri ci* efiriv lorrfra IloiTeioatitv Ivotriy&tav, 
Trri/iaivei Tpuds t€ Kai "EicTopa, Toiffi h* «p//yei. 

With the exception of a fragment of Alcseus, and of the passage 
of iEschylus, to which these remarks are to be applied, the word 
does not occur in any intermediate poet, till we come to Apollonius 
Hhodius. AlcBBUs has deuiv loran (fr. 69. Mus. Crit.). Apollonius 
uses it, not strictly according to Homeric precedent, but without any 
wide departure from it as to sense, treating it as an ordinary noun 
synonymous with povX^. 

In the Prometheus of iEschylus, the chorus, after dwelling on the 
hopelessness of the sufferings of Prometheus' continue thus : 

TO Eia/juffldtop he fioi fjL€\o$ irpotriirTa, 

t6^\ €K€ir6 0* 6 T afifpl Xo€Tpa 

ical \i\os aov vfievaiovv 

iorari ya/xwr, ore rav ofAotrdrpiov 

eSvots &yay€s 'llaiovav 

TTiOtov ^d/iapra KoivoXcKTpov, 
Tlie Bishop of London in his glossary on this passage translates 
the word " Itstitia,'* but gives no authority or reason for his inter- 
pretation. Mr. Lin wood in his Lexicon to -^schylus arrives at the 
same interpretation. He says, "'loViys, will, pleasure ; idrijrc yifnov, 
P. V. 657, in pleasure at the marriage,'* There is ground for a sus- 
picion that Mr. Lin wood's process is a play upon words; that he 
translates Bewv Iottjti, "by the will of the gods," "at the pleasure 
of the gods," and so makes lorris mean " pleasure." But, though 
" by the will of the gods" would be a tolerable translation, " at the 
pleasure of the gods" would be a false one, and even if it were cor- 
rect would not prove that lorijs meant " pleasure." Mr. Linwood, 
at the end of his article, observes truly, after Passow, that " this 
dative is much the same in sense as the word eKrjn ;" and it seems 
probable that the true explanation of the passage is, that -^schylus 
conceived toViyri to be altogether synonymous with ckyiti, and so gave 
to the word the same sense which the incorrect usage of the post- 
Homeric poets had given to ckuti ; and that by torari ydfxwv he 
meant nothing more than " on account of your marriage." Thia 
perversion of the word, which has no precedent and has found no 
imitator, is clearly a different thing from using ckoti in a way which 
the general practice of the later poets sanctioned, and which was in 
fact a change in poetical language, like the changes which take place 
in common spoken language. ^Eschylus's use of tor an must be 
considered either as an error, or as an intentional innovation : either 


he did not perceive that the recent poets used Iran, and that he 
himself was using laran, in a sense which was not the sense of the 
words in the older language ; or he purposely, but unsuccessfully^ 
attempted to attach a new meaning to the word. 

Another error may be noticed, which is an error in spelling, like 
that pointed out in our own language in the words foreign and sove' 
reign ; and probably therefore it is not to be charged on the poet but 
only on his transcribers. In our text of Sophocles in the CEdipus in 
Colonus, v. 349, CEdipus describes Antigone as 

— iroXXct fikv KOT ayplav 
vXtiv AviTos vriKitrovs r dXcif/i^rf}, 

and the reading is old ; for the word viyX/irovs, spelt in the same 
manner, occurs in Suidas's Lexicon, with the interpretation avvTo- 
^TiTos, shoeless or barefoot ; and this is the true meaning of the word. 
But if vriKiTovs is supposed to be compounded in a similar way to 
barefoot, novs indeed, is foot, but the other part of the compound is 
utterly inexplicable. The true spelling is vrjXnros. In Apoll. Rhod. 
iii. 646. we have vriXtwosy oliayos ; and in Theocrit. Id. iv. 56. we 
find the good advice, 

eii opos OKy^ IpTp^i f»^ avdXnros epxeo, Barre' 
€V yap opei pdfjivoi re ical atnrciXaOoi KOfiowrrt, 

And the scholiast explains the word and gives the et3rmology; 
Hyovy hvvTroZrfTos' rfXtyj^ yap to VTo^ij/Lca. ^AvfiXmos and yffXiiros, 
therefore, are formed from ftXixj/ by the usual negative prefix, and an 
adjectival termination is added, as in yopywiros and other derivatives 
from (5\p. The syllable vos has been transformed into irovs by some 
one who was ignorant of the etymology, and strove to put some 
meaning into the word, or give it an appearance of analogy to known 
compounds. This change might be made the more readily, because 
in Homeric Greek there were true compounds of wovs in which the 
last syllable appeared as ires, — a spelling, it may be observed, 
strictly in accordance with the laws of the language, — ^but which, by 
the custom of later times, would have been made to end in vovs. 
Thus in II. 0. 409. we have, upro ^k ^Ipis aiXXoiros kyyeXkovaa, 
where a later poet would have said aeXXdwovs, However, as was 
said before, it is doubtful whether Sophocles wrote rriXiwovs by the 
false analogy, or whether the error is due merely to transcribers. 

// ^ i>! I ill- ■'/■ \ 


Vol, IL FEBRUARY 28, 1845. No. 30. 

P. J. Chabot, Esq. in the Chair. 

A paper was read — 

" On the Use of the Collective Noun in English Syntax." By 
Edwin Guest, Esq. 

In the earlier stages of our language, words of a general and in- 
definite meaning seem to have taken the neuter as their appropriate 
gender ; and as the change was easy from a general to a collective 
sense, the names of such objects as present themselves to our notice 
in their aggregate were also for the most part neuter : gters grass, 
heg hay, hlod blood, &c. We have already* seen, that when a 
mere general reference was intended, the neuter pronoun it was 
used not only as the representative of the singular pronouns he and 
she, but also of the plural they, 

A large proportion of Anglo-Saxon neuters have the nominative 
plural the same as the nominative singular ; and a great number of 
these nouns are the names of things which are generally viewed 
collectively : leaf leaf, ear ear of com, €dg e^, ban bone, gad 
goods, reaf garment, /«/ vessel, &c. It is not improbable that 
primarily these terms had a general and collective meaning, and 
were made to designate individual objects, chiefly by their construc- 
tion with words indicating unity. Other languages have obtained 
their name for the individual by adding a suffix to the collective 
term ; thus the Welsh adds a diminutive ending, and from moch hogs, 
pysgod fishes, blew hair, gwelt straw, &c., forms mochyn a hog, pys- 
godyn a fish, blewyn a hair, &c. The Anglo-Saxon nouns wif 
woman, beam bairn, cild child, &c. may have been treated as neu- 
ters, because the women and children of a family were from motives 
of delicacy referred to in general terms. In the East it is still con- 
sidered an indecorum to mention the individual members of the 
harem ; both Turk and Arab always inquire after their neighbour's 
** house." 

In modem English the collective noun is generally preceded by 
the definite article, and is sometimes construed with a plural verb, 
'" the enemy were routed." In our provinces it is still often used 
without the article : — 

1. — th' grit foulin did'nt ken what haoercake wor — Noa barn he leuk 
em &c. for round bits o' leather. — Cars Craven Dial. 300. 

This idiom was once common, and it seems to have been gra- 
dually driven from our written language, as being hardly consistent 
with that precision which is ever the first object of the prose- writer. 
Poetry loves the indefinite ; and general terms and idioms, which 

♦ See vol. i. p. 154. 


must have taken root in the very infancy of our language, were long 
preserved in our Anglo-Saxon and Old-English poems. In Anglo- 
Saxon poetry we find nouns of all the genders treated as plurals, 
and construed with plural verbs and plural adjectives, though they 
do not take the plural inflexions. This syntax seems to have ori- 
ginated in the same principle, which (as we have conjectured) gave 
birth to the neuter declension. The natural gender of the noun 
would probably be retained or give place to the neuter, accordingly 
as the noun was most used in its singular or collective signification : 

2. — '• mipg/^ ii^edon, 

fsemnan and wuduwan. freondum beslegene. 
from hleow-stole. hettend Iceddon, 
tit mid »htum. Abrahames mseg, 

— the maidens departed, 
Damsels and widows, shorn of their friends* 
From his place of refuge, the spoiler led 

Out with his goods Abraham's kinsman. Csed. 94. 

3. Da?r aefter him. folca J^ryiSum. 
Sunu Simeones. sweotum comon. 

There after them in peopled bands, 

llie sons of Simeon came in crowds. Cs&d. 1^0. 

4 — him on laste setl. 

wuldor spedum welig. wide stodan. 
gifum gro'wende. on godes rice, 
beorht and geblaedfast. buendra leas. 

— on their hinder path. 

Rich with glories, their seats stood widely, 

(With riches flourishing, within God's realm 

Bright and precious) — void of habitants. Csed. 5. 

5. eodon "Sa sterced ferh'Se heeh^. 

Went the stem-hearted heroes. Judith. 

An adjective connected with the noun was sometimes put in the 
singular number, as in ex. 4, and sometimes in the plural, as in 
ex. 5. 

An imperfect acquaintance with this idiom seems to have led 
Grimm into a serious error, which English writers have too hastily 
adopted. According to this grammarian (D. G. i. 647), masculine 
nouns of the first " strong declension" sometimes threw away their 
plural ending as, so that haleth might stand for halethas. But this 
hypothesis is too narrow for its object. It is true that masculine 
nouns forming their plural in as are mostly used in the construction 
we have been considering, but they are not used exclusively. In 
the examples above quoted, mag^ is feminine and has mceg^a for its 
plural; setl is neuter and has setlu; and sunu, though masculine, 
forms its plural in a, suna. 

In our Old-English jpoetrj the collective noun was used even 
more frequently tlian in the Anglo-Saxon. 

6. — toke he >e croune 

And purveied parlement o{erh and baroun, R. Br. 26. 


7. Of )('9t^< no «^ttt«r bold on liue non thei left. R. Br. 117. 

8. pe brouht kyng Athelstan present withouten pere. R. Br. 30. 

9. Dane the soudan, maister of kyng, 

Is strongly anoied of this tidyng. K. Alis. 1918. 

10. Noe my freend I thee command*— 

A ship that thou ordand of nayle 8e hord ful well. 

Townl. Myst 23. 

and in tliis stage of our language it is even found coupled with or* 
dmary plural nouns. 

1 1. And there michel wel geslogon ge Norweis*, ge Fleming. 

And there great slaughter made they, both of Norwavs and Flemming. 

S. Chron. a.d. 1066. 

1 2. po heo were l^orjout y mengd with swerdes and with mace^ 
Mid axef and mid aules so muche folk in ]^at place 

Me slew >at, &c. R. Gl. 26. 

13. pe route of |>are rascaille he did k rere and ryme, 
Normanz and Flemmyng taile he kutted many time. R. Br. 71. 

14. Valerian ^th home and £nt Cecilie 
Within his chaumbre, with an angell stende. 
This angel had of roses and oflilie 

Corones two. Chau. Seconde Nonnes Tale. 

15. The heraudes left hir prickine up and down, 

Now ringen Ironies loud anaclarioun. Chau. Kn. Tale, 2603. 

16. That bed was on the gate y set 

With trompeSf labours and comet, Oct. 1190. 

17. Thanne hem kiste kynges and Jcnyght, 

Erlys, barons and ladyys bryght. Oct. 1945. 

When a noun, indicating something which belongs to an indivi* 
dual, is joined in construction with a genitive plural, or with some 
substitute for such genitive — for example, with one of the posses- 
sive pronouns, our, your, their, — the present usage of our language 
requires that such noun should also be in the plural number : the 
men's bodies, their heads, &c. At an earlier period the singular noun 
was generally used in this syntax. 

18. —hi geopnedon ealne X heora mu^ for leahtre. 

— they opened all their mouth for wickedness. 

Paris Psalter, 34. 21. 

19. — ^me dide cnotted strenges abuton here haued, 

— ^they put knotted strings about their heads. 

Sax. Chron. 1137. 

20. Much they <t. e, women) desireth to shewe heore body, 
Heore faire heir, heore faire rody. 

To have los and praising. K. Alisander. 

* Norweis must represent the Anglo-Saxon plural Norwagas, 
. t Jxe in this place may possibly be the feminine plural. 
I Eaine has been corrected by the editor into edlle. 

H 2 



21 . Ye dainty nymphs that in this blessed brook 

Do bathe your breast. 
Forsake your watery bowers, and hither look 

At my request. Spens. April. 

22. •— our soul is brought low, even unto the dust ; our belly cleaveth 
unto the ground. — Ps. 44. Com. Prayer. 

23. So underneath the belly of their steeds, 

The noble gentleman gave up the ghost, 3 Hen. VI. 2. 3. 
Still more frequently do we find the singular noun taking a col- 
lective sense in construction with one of the numerals. This idiotn 
is to be met with in almost every one of the existing Gothic dia- 
lects. In our own language it may be traced from the time of the 
Anglo-Saxons to the present day. The phrase twegen fcRtelSt from 
which Grimm draws the inference that Anglo-Saxon nouns in els 
sometimes discard the plural ending as (D. G. i. 639), is clearly an 
instance of it. 

24. — he mette in the see 

^ritti schipful of men. R. Glou. 39. 

25. Four and twenty winter* lasted this sorrow. R. Br. 40. 

26. pritty thousand pounde vnto Suane he sent 

Pestohaf. R.Br. 41. 

27. He bare a schafte that was grete and strong, 

It vfSL8 fourtene foot long. R. C. de Lion, 287. 

28. — thou schalt pay ransoun 

For the and thy twoo baroun, R. C. de Lion, 1150. 

29. In twenty manere coud he trip and dance. Ch. Milleres Tale. 

After the beast had marcht some twenty pace. 

He sudden stops. Sylv. Du Bartas, 6th day. 

Instead of the numeral we sometimes have one of the adjectives, 
many,fele, sere, divers, &c. 

30. — as he sat at mete and m<my o^er kyn^t also. R. GI. 284. 

31. Knight and erl and mani baroun 

Kiste the emperours sonn. Seuyn Sages, 429. 

32. He fleygh away fro toun to toun. 

Thorough mony strong regioun, K. Alls. 123. 

33. pe bataile of Troie >at laste/e/« ^er, 

Many was >e gode body J^at y slawe w^s )^er. R. Glou. 9. 

34. Ten orders in heven were. 

Of angels that had office sere, Townl. Myst. 7. 

35. I have him sent 

Of many beestes sere present. Townl. Myst. 47. 

36. He was a man of myghty bond, 
With him broughte of divers lond, 
Nyne and twenty ryche kynges, 

To make on him bataylinges. K. Alis. 97. 

* According to Rask, the Anglo-Saxon noun winter remains unchanged in its 
nominative plural. But it may perhaps be doubted, if he bad any other authority 
for this statement than phrases like that in the text Such phrases are common in 
Anglo-Saxon, but of course prove nothing. 


In some of our provincial dialects we find the nu^ieral and its 
noun treated as if they formed a compound term : " I have not 
seen him these two seven years.** — Forby. These idioms may be 
traced to the Old-English : 

37. Aboute an ihre wouke there he gau bide. R. G1. 545. 

38. Ac kyng Wyllam \er byuore aboute an tuo ^er, 

Wende ageti to Normandye. R. Gl. 368. 

39. — this my posture, 

Wherein this three year I have milked their hopes. B. Jons. 1.2. 

40. — no tonge may devise, 

Though that I might a thousand winter tell, 

The peiues of thilke cursed hous of hell. Chau. Freres Tale. 

4 1 . Dorchester — that besyde Oxen ford ye, 

As in the Est South an sene myle y wys. R. Gl. 247. 

42. Within this three mile you may see it coming, 

A moving grove. Macbeth. 

43. For a thousand pound y tolde, 

Should not that one be sold. R. C. de Lion, 2325. 

44. I had but bare ten pound of my father, and U would not reach to put 
me wholly in the fashion. — B. Jons. £. M. out of his Humour, 2. 5. 

45. His lands a hundred yoke of oxen tilled. Dryd. Mn. 
This idiom often has its noun in the plural number, 

46. Jjhis three weeks all my advices, all my letters, 

They have been intercepted. B. Jons. The Fox, 2. 3. 

47. After Sein Thomas dethe, aboute an ^eres to, 

Ther spronk contek, &c. R. GL 477. 

48. Tis now a nineteen years agone at least. 

B. Jons. Case is altered, 1. 5. 

49. Here 's all the hope I 've left, one bare ten shillings, 

B. & FL Vfjf, without Money. 

50. — they found 

Of fioreins fine of gold y-coined round, 

Wei nigh an eighte bushels. Chau. Pard. Tale, 332. 

In the cases we have dealt with hitherto, the name of the indivi* 
dual object has been used in a collective sense. Ordinarily collec- 
tive nouns denote merely the aggregate : the people, the army, the 
priesthood, &c A large proportion of them were primarily abstract 
nouns ; and in our Old-English poems we find christente, heathennesse, 
f he paten lay, &c., treated as collective terms : 

51. Haldayn of Doncastre was chosen that ilk da}*. 

To here the kynges banere ageyn the paten lay, R. Br. 17. 

Corporate bodies were often referred to under the name of their 
patron ; and the names of places were used much more frequently 
than at present to denote the inhabitants. When thus used in a 
collective sense, these nouns are often found united in construction 
with plural verbs, nouns and pronouns : 


52. Ly tel had lordes a do. to ^eve loodes fro here mires 

To religion that hmn no reujic >aiih hit lyne on here aulera 
In places yet yei p'soms bef. by hemself at ese, 
Of the poure koM ^i no pyte. 

P. Plouhman, pass. 6. Whit ed. 

53. per londes and >er rentes were at his wiOe, 

He gaf S. Cutbert therof, jet tkei hold it stille. R. Br. 34. 

64. — as of late days our neigkbomrs^ 

The upper Germamg, can dearly witness. H. VIII. 5. 2. 

These nouns are sometimes united in the same sentence, and even 
in the same clause of a sentence, with yerbs and pronouns of difierent 
numbers : 

55. Alle ike North ende was in his kepyng, 

And alle ye South ende to Edward VA^' drouh, R. Br. 32. 

56. — O Lord, what shall I say, when Israel iumeth their backs before 
their enemies ! — Josh. 7. 

57. The frdse revolting Normans thorough thee 
Disdain to call us Lord, and Pieardg 

Hath slain their governors. 1 H. VI. 4. 1. 

and we often find them constraed with a plural verb, while their 
relative takes a verb singular : 

58. But this people f that knoweth not the law, are cursed.-* John 7. 49. 

59 The great supply, 

.That was exveeted by the Dauphin here, 

jire wreekea and cast away on Goodwin sands. K. John, 5. 3. 

60. — all that comes a near him 

He thinks are come on purpose to destroy him. 

Fletcher, Noble Gent 2. 

It is sometimes very difficult to say whether a particular word is 
used as a collective noun or as the representative of some Anglo- 
Saxon plural. The old neuter declension left traces behind it 
which have not, even yet, quite disappeared from our language; 
sheep, swine, deer, still have their nominatives plural the same as 
their nominatives singular, and horse was used as a plural word till 
the seventeenth century : 

[ 61. And all manner of hors he knew. Oct Imp. 1393. 

62. Then from the stable their bright horse Automedon withdrawes 
And Alcymus, put portrils on, and cast upon their jawes 
Their bridles, hurling back the raines and hung them on the seate; 
The faire scourge then Automedon takes up, and up doth get 
To guide the horse. Chapman's lluid. 

63. The wife of Anthony 

Should have an army for an usher, and 

The neighs of horse to tell of her approach. Ant. and Cleop. 3. 6. 

Hence we should not be justified in classing the following exam- 
ples with ex. 24, 25, &c. ; 


64. And for to lead him swithe and sraarte 
After the bright daies lawe, 

There ben ordained for to drawe 

Four hors his chare. Gower, Conf. Am. 

65. He let him drawe out of the pit; 
And his fet set faste i knit 
With trais an two stronge hors. 

And hete to Rome drawe his cors. Seuyn Sages, 1327. 

The declension of the Anglo-Saxon gear is involved in some un- 
certainty*, but we have ventured to consider year as a collective 
noun in ex. 33, 38, 39 : the same collective meaning we have given 
to the word breast in ex. 21 ; for though breost was certainly used 
in Anglo-Saxon as a plural noun, yet this plural must have been ob- 
solete some centuries before the time of Spenser. 

Anglo-Saxon nouns belonging to the n declension, as steorra 
a star, steda a steed, assa an ass, &c., generally formed their plural 
in an, steorran, stedan, assan, &c. But in the Northern dialect they 
substituted a vowel for the ending an ; and it is probable that these 
northern plurals are represented by the sterre, stede, asse of the fol- 
lowing examples : 

66. The fifte ger he gan argument 

Of the sierre and of the firmament. Seuyn Sages, 197. 

67. When kyng other eorl cam on hym to weorre, 

Quyk he lokyd in the steorre. K. Alis. 76. 

68. As y you sey bothe heore stede f 

Feollen to grounde dede. K. Alis. 2263. 

69. And afftyr fyftene hundryd asse 

Bar wyn and oyle, more and lasse. R. C. de Lion, 6453. 

The three works from which we have quoted are strongly marked 
with the peculiarities of the Northern dialect ; but Chaucer's dialect 
is essentially southern, and we must explain the lilie of ex. 14. on 
some other hypothesis, notwithstanding the Anglo-Saxon lilie be- 
longs to the same declension as steorra, steda and assa. 

Words which had become familiar as collective terms in some 
particular construction, readily took the same signification in other 
idioms. In Anglo-Saxon, a whole class of nouns — the participial 
nouns ending in nd — are peculiarly apt to take a collective meaning I ; 
and it is probably owing to this circumstance that freond a friend, 
K[Afeond an enemy have no suffix in their plural, though the vowel 
is generally found changed in that number— 3/ry»rf,^«rf. The same 
remark applies also to the Old -English nouns in nd\ 

* Grimm makes it neuter, though he probably had no other authority than is 
afforded by the analogy of the other Gothic dialects and such phrases as seofongear, 
&c., which abound indeed in Anglo-Saxon, but do not support the inference. 
English writers generally make it a masculine noun. We cannot readily find any 
passage which clearly decides the question. 

t Elsewhere in this romance we have the regular plural in en, stedent vid. v. 2415. 

I See ex. 2. 



70. So bat l^ys tueye breberen gode f rend vrere ^o ryjt, 

R. Gloii. 388. 

Heo nuste wich were here f rend, ne wych were here fon. 

R. Glou. 79. 6. 

71. Many were glade |>er of &r ful sore some 

pat heo schuld of lond wende & neuer eft here frend y se. 

R. Glou. 95. 15. 

72. — hold your hend. 

Ye se that I and he are frend. Townl. Myst. 48. 

And now er thise hot manshond, rascaille of refous. R. Br. 1 15. 

73. Whanne ]?e kyng wyst ]?at J^ei had taken land. 

For yo barons he sent ]?at were his wele willand, R. Br. 59. 

74. pat had kept the land ))orgh Maid the emperice # 

pat were hir wele toilland were put out of office. R. Br. 112. 


Vol. II. MARCH 14, 1845. No. SI. 

Professor Wilson in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the Society : 
Rev. B. Davies, Ph.D. of Leipsic, President of Stepney College. 
Frederick Schonerstedt, Esq., Professor of the German Language 
at Eton School. 

A paper was then read : — 

*'0n the Languages and Dialects of the British Islands:" — 
Continued. By the Rev. Richard G^mett. 

In a preceding paper an attempt was made to point out some of 
the characteristics of the Northumbrian dialect of the Saxon, as 
distinguished from the speech of the southern and western provinces 
of England. It would have been a matter of great interest and 
curiosity to trace the various steps of its progress towards the North- 
British dialects now current ; and this would have helped to solve a 
number of points relative to the formation of the English language, 
that are now involved in . a good deal of obscurity. Unfortunately 
there is a complete chasm of several centuries in the literary history 
and monuments of this class of dialects ; no considerable specimen 
being extant exhibiting its state in the eleventh, twelfth, or thir- 
teenth centuries. 

In the fourteenth we find abundant remains, and such as en- 
title it to rank as a leading literary dialect. It may be questioned 
indeed whether the productions of die northern bards did not exceed 
those of their brethren in the south in number and merit, prior to 
the appearance of Gower and Chaucer. Our present business how- 
ever is with their language, which, when compared with that of the 
Durham Gospels, will be found to have undergone a considerable 
change. Of the Saxon declensions of nouns little remains except 
the genitive singular ; the definite or emphatic form of the adjective 
has totally disappeared; the article (se, sie, fxt) appears in the 
form the in all genders ; the feminine pronoun of the third person 
{hie or hyo) becomes she or scho; the genitive plural heara or 
hiara (eorum, earum) is superseded by the possessive their ; and the 
first person of the present indicative in o or u, the most remarkable 
characteristic of the ancient dialect, is attenuated to e. The 
plurals of verbs ia« s, which in the Durham and Rushworth texts 
appear along with the more ancient form in th, are generally 
retained, especially in the imperative mood ; while the prefix ge, 
which there was already a tendency to omit in Northumbrian Saxon 
as early as the days of Bede, is scarcely to be met with in the 
fourteenth century, except in the single participle ihaten (called or 
named). Many words are also found which do not occur in the 




earlier texts, or in the West-Saxon dialect. Some of these were in 
all probability current among the Angles, but there are many others 
AVhich do not appear to have ever been Saxon, in the strict sense of 
the term. The history of the district would lead us a priori to 
attribute the inllroduction of them to the Northmen ; and we have 
both external and internal evidence that such a process actually took 
place. Giraldus Cambrensis and John of Wallingford assert in direct 
terms that there was a strong infusion of Danish in the population 
and the language of our northern provinces ; and, if confirmation of 
their testimony were needed, it would be abundantly supplied by 
the names of landed proprietors preserved in the Domesday Survey, 
by the present topographical nomenclatinre of the district, and by a 
multitude of words, unequivocally of Norse origin. The change of 
the local naine Streoneshalch to Hvitby or Whitby, consequent on 
the Danish occupation of the district, is well-ascertained, and it is 
believed that all the names of towns and villages in by in the north 
and east of England are of similar origin. Derby, for example, did 
not receive its present name till the ninth or tenth century, its 
original Saxon appellation being Northweorthig. 

A remarkable coeval monument, both of the state of the popula- 
tion and of the language, which there are good reasons for attri- 
buting to the age of Edward the Confessor, is still extant in Ald- 
burgh church, Holdemess, in the East Riding of Yorkshire; it is an 
inscription commemorating the foundation of the edifice, or more 
probably of a preceding one> in the following terms : 

Ulf het arterau cyrice for hanum and for Gunthara saula*. 
Ulf bid erect the church for him and for the soul of Gunthar. 

Waving the consideration of those points which more immediately 
concern the historian and the antiquary, it will be sufficient for us 
to observe that the name of the founder Ulf is unequivocally Norse, 
the Anglo-Saxon form being Wuif; and that the form of the dative 
pronoun hanum is unknown in all Saxon dialects, being in fact 
identical with the Old- Norse hanumf, Swedish honom. A com- 
parison of the Icelandic Landnama Bok or Roll of Proprietors 
with the Domesday Survey of Yorkshire would furnish many 
coincidences of names of general occurrence in the Scandinavian 
provinces, but not known as Anglo-Saxon or German. 

It appears that this admixture of the Northmen in the population 
of the Northumbrian projdnces had not produced its full effect upon 
the language in the tenth century ; as, with the exception of one or 
two isolated words, there is nothing that can be satisfactorily re- 
ferred to that class of dialects, either in the Durham texts or the 
Rushworth Gospels. In the fourteenth century the traces of this in- 

* Arcbseologia, vol. vi. p. 40. There is some doubt wbether the second name 
should be read Gunthar or Gunwar. Brooke, the author of the paper in the * Ar- 
chieologia,* translates "for hanum" **pro Hano,** as if it were a proper name, con- 
trary to all grammar. 

f As extant in Runic inscriptions. The present Icelandic form is honutn. 


fluence become much stronger. The ' Cursor Mundi ' and the North- 
umbrian metrical version of the Psalms abound with words totally 
unknown in the Saxon dialects, but of regular occurrence in Icelandic, 
Danish and Swedish. One of the most remarkable of these is the 
Scandinavian prefix to infinitives, at think, at do, instead of to think, 
to do ; which, as Mr. Stevenson justly observes*, is an unequivocal 
criterion of a purely northern dialect, and an equally certain one of 
the Scandinavian influence whereby that dialect has been modified. 
Its retention in the present local speech of Westmoreland f is a sufli- 
cient proof of its being truly vernacular. Another remarkable Scan- 
dinavianism is the particle sum in the sense of as, Danish som : e. g. 
"swa sum we forgive oure detturs," so as we forgive our debtors. 
This form appears to be now obsolete ; but war for was, Dan. var ; 
war, worse, Dan. vaerre; and 'the apparently ungrammatical in- 
flexions of the present tense singular, /, thou, he thinks, perfectly 
analogous to the Danish jeg, du, han taenker, are still regularly 
current in North Yorkshire. B^^Mes these we find, both in ancient 
and modem times, hraid to resemble, Swedish bruas ; " han braas 
pa sin fader ; '* in Yorkshire, ** he braids on his father," i. e. takes 
after or resembles him ; eldin firing, Dan. eld fire ; force waterfall, 
Isl. fors ; gar make or cause, Isi. gdra\ gill ravine, narrow valley, 
Isl. gil\ greet weep, Isl. grdta; ket carrion, Dan. kibd flesh; lait 
seek, Dan. lede^ lathe barn, Dan. lade\ Hie little, Dan. lille; with 
innumerable others, either totally unknown in Anglo-Saxon or 
found under perfectly distinct forms. It is proper to observe that 
some of those words and forms are not peculiar to the Northum- 
brian district, but are also current in the North-Anglian dialect of 
the West Riding of Yorkshire, where they were equally introduced by 
the Danes. 

It would lead us too far to discuss the distinctive peculiarities of 
the different subdivisions of the Northumbrian dialect. A form of 
speech, extending at one time from the Humber to the Forth, and 
from the German Ocean to the Irish Channel, could hardly be ex- 
pected to preserve a perfect uniformity under the various influences, 
both social and political, to which it has been subjected during eight 
or nine centuries. At present we find the Northumbrian proper, 
including North and East Yorkshire, the lowland Scottish of the 
Lothians, the Cumberland and Westmoreland dialects, and the 
North Lancashire, all to exhibit their respective features of difference ; 
chiefly consisting in minutiae that it would be difficult to make intel- 
ligible in a small compass. A little knowledge of those character- 
istics would however have proved very serviceable to our editors of 
ancient poetry and compilers of glossaries, who have created no 
small confusion by assuming many compositions to be Scottish which 
were in* all probability written between the Humber and the Tyne, 

* Boucher's Glossary, v. at. 

t Vide Wheeler's Dialogues, first published in 1794. The first paragraph of the 
prefatory discourse furnishes the two following examples : — " I hed lile et dea," 
" I had little to do;" "A wark ets fit for nin but parson et dea," " A work that's 
fit for none but a parson to do." 

1 2 



certainly to the south of the Tweed. Thus Jamieson cites as Scotch 
at least a dozen works which have no real claim to that character ; 
and Sir Walter Scott has grounded a variety of theories respecting 
the composition of Sir Tristrem on the supposed feet of its having 
been produced within the Scottish border. The writer has else- 
where* given his reasons at length for believing it to have been a 
Northumbrian poem, the only existing copy of which was transcribed 
and considerably altered in a midland county. The * Proces of the 
Sevyn Sages' was edited by Weber from the Auchinleck MS. under 
the gratuitous idea that it afforded the purest and most original 
text. He speaks disparagingly of the Cotton MS. (Galba, E. 9.), 
pronouncing it to have been cdtered by a Scottish transcriber. The 
truth is, that the Cotton text is not Scottish but pure Northumbrian ; 
and a careful comparison of the two wiU, it is believed, fiimish 
abundant evidence that the Auchinleck copy is a ri/accimento or 
adaptation of the original Northumbrian text to the dialect of the 
midland counties, not ^always very skilfully executed. The same 
process appears to have been exercised on ' Havelock the Dane,' 
though more of the northern character has been preserved; and 
there are also copies pf the 'Cursor Mundi' in Midland English, 
though it can be easily proved it was originally written in North- 
umbrian. This was in fact the literary d^ect of the whole North 
of England, and no native of that district would have written 
anything in Southern English which he meant to have currency 
^ among his immediate neighbours. A short extract h-om the 
'Cursor Mundi' will place this point in a clear light. Speaking 
of a legend of " our Levedi and Saint John," the author states : — 

** In a writte this ilke I fand ; 
. Himself it wrogkt I understand. 
In suthrin Englys was it drawn, 
And I have tumid it til ur awn 
Langage of the northern lede 
That can noh other Englis rede.'* 

The number of the literary monuments of Northumbria, from the 
fourteenth to the sixteenth century, precludes us from giving any- 
thing like a general view of them, or attempting to specify the 
changes which gradually took place in the language. As it may not 
however be uninteresting to compare its earlier with its declining 
state, a specimen of each is exhibited for that purpose. The first is 
taken from the Northumbrian Metrical Psalter, Cotton MSS., Ves- 
pasian, D. 7. 

Of Laverd is land & fiilhed his ; 
Er>eli werld & alle ^ar in is. 
For over sees it grounded he^ 
And over stremes grained it to be. 
Wha sal stegh in hille of Laverd winlii 
Or wha sal stand in his stede hali? 

• Warton's HUtory of English Poetry, vol. i. p. 109. td. 1840. 


Underand of hend bidene, 

And >at of his hert es clene ; 

In unnait ]^at his saule noght nam, 

Ne aware to his neghburgh in swikedam. 

He sal fang of Laverd bhssinge, 

And mercy of God his helinge. . 

pis is the strend of him sekand, 

pe face of God Jacob laitand. 

Oppenes jrour yates wide, 

Ye >at pnnces ere in pride, 

And yhates of ai uphefen be yhe, 

And king of blisse income sal he. 

Wha es ne king of blisse ? Laverd Strang, 

And mightand (o fight, Laverd mightand lang. 

Oppenes, &c. 

Wha es he king of blisse at isse ? 

I4iverd of mightes es king of blisse. 

It is worth while to observe how many pure Saxon and Norse 
terms occur in this short piece, most of them now supplanted by 
words of Latin origin : viz. graitked prepared, stegh ascended, mnli 
gracious, underand innocent, unnait vanity, swikedam deceitfulness, 
fang receive, strend generation, laitand inquiring, uphefen elevated. 
Many of these terms have a singular emphasis to those who under- 
stand the etymology of them ; underand, for example, is the precise 
counterpart of Lat. innocens, A careful study of the remains of our 
language, as written and spoken in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries, will indeed show that a vast number of Latin and Romance 
words have been since introduced without being absolutely needed. 

Our next specimen is from the York Mysteries, formerly in the 
library of Lord Orford and afterwards in the possession of Mr. Bright. 
This collection is interesting on many accounts, and not the least so 
as being an undoubted and authentic specimen of the language of 
the city of York during the latter part of the fourteenth century. 
At that time the speech of the southern parts of the island had begun 
to make considerable inroads upon that of the more cultivated classes 
in the north, and a great portion of the Mysteries is almost as much 
metropolitan as Northumbrian. Fortunately an older copy of the 
play describing the creation of our first parents, has been preserved 
along with the more recent revision. Though this, as compared 
with the ' Cursor Mundi ' or the Psalter, is much softened down, it 
still retains strong traces of its original Northumbrian character. 
The various readiii^ are from the more recent copy. 



Deus, In heyyn and erthe duly bedene. 
Of V. days werke evyn on to ende, 
I have complete by curssis clene ; 
Me thynke y* space of yame well spende. 


In hevyn er angels fayre and brighte, 
Sternes and planetis yar curssis to ga^. 
Ye mone servis on to y« nyght, 
The son to lyghte yo day alswa^. 

In erthe is treys and gres to springe ; 
Bestis and foulys bothe gret and smalle ; 

asschis in flode ; alle othyr thyng 
ryffe and have my blyssyng alle. 

This Werkie is wroght now at my wille; 

But jet can I no best see 

Yat acordys be kynde and skyll, 

And for my werke myght worschippe me. 

For perfytte werke ne ware it nane', 
But ought ware made y^ myght it )eme. 
For love mad I yis warlde* alane* ; 
Therfor my lofie sail* in it seme. 

To l^epe this warlde^ bothe mare^ and lesse, 

A skylfulle best yane wille I make 

Eftyr my schape and my lyknes, 

The wilke salle* worschippe to my [me] take. 

Off y* symplest part of erthe y* is here 
I sail' make man, and for yis sky He, 
For to abate his hauttande chore, 
Bothe his gret pride and other ille. 

And also for to have in mynde 
How simpylle he is at hys makyng. 
For als feoylle I sail* fynde hym 
Qwen he is dede at his endynge. 

For yis reson and sky He alane*, 
I sail* make man lyke on to me. 
Ryse up y" erthe in blode and bane', 
In schape of man I commaunde the. 

A female salP* y** have to fere ; 
Her sail* I make of y* Ivft" rybe t 
Alane* so sail* y" nought be here 
Withoutyn faythefull frende and sybe. 

Takys now here y* gast" of l}^e 
And ressayve bothe youre saules^ of me. 
The femalle take y^ to y* wyffe ; 
H Adam and Eve your names salle* be. 

* B. goo. * also. * none. * worlde. * alone. * shalle. 7 more. * allone. 
* bone. ** shalte. " Uhe* '^ gogte. " soules. 


Adam» A lorde ! full mekyll is y^ mighte ; 
And yat is sene in ilke a syde. 
For now his here a joyAill syght, 
To se yis worlde so lange" and wyde. 

Mony** divers thyngis now here es 

Off hestis and foiUis hothe wylde and tame : 

3et is nan made to y** [y^] liknes, 

But we alone ; a lovyd by y^ name ! 

Eve, To swylke a lorde in all y* degre 
Be evirmore lastande lovynge, 
Yat tylP® us swylke ^^ a dyngnite 
Has gyffyne before alle othyr thynge. 

And selcouth thyngis may we se here 
Of yis ilke warlde, so lange" and brade", 
With bestis and fowlis so many and sere : 
Blessid be he y^ [base] us made ! 

Adam, A blyssid lorde ! now at y^ wille 

Syne " we er wroght, woche saff to telle, 

And also say us two un tylle 

Qwate* we sall^ do and whare** to dwelle. 

Deu8, For yis skyl made I 30W yis day 
My name to worschip ay whare'*. 
Lovys me for y^ and lovys me ay 
For my makyng, — I axke no mare^. 

Bothe wys and witty sail* y^ be, 
Als man y^ I have made of noght. 
Lordschippe in erthe van graunt I the ; 
Alle thynge to serve the y* I have wroghte.. 

In paradyse salle^ je same wone : 
Of erthely thyng get je no nede : 
lUe and gude^ both salle^ je kone : 
I salle^ 50U leme joure ly ve to lede. 

Adam, A lorde I sene we salle^ do no thyng, 
But louffe y* for y* gret gudnesse^, 
We sail ^ ay bay to y* bydd)mg, 
And fulfill it both^more and less. 

Eve, His syng sone he has on us sette 
Befome alle othre thyng certayne. 
Hem for to love we sali^ uoght lett. 
And worschip hym with myght and mayne. 

Detu. At hevyne and erth first I begane. 

And vi days wroghte or I walde^ ryst 
My warke is endyde now at mane ; 
Alle lykes me welle, but yis is beste. 

^* longei 
21 where. " more. 

^ many. ** to. 
more. ^ goode. 

^' fiuche. ^ broode. 
'* goodnetse. " wolde. 

'• sethen. *> whatte. 


My bl3r883rng have jai ever and ay ! 
Hie aeveynte day sail* my restyng be : 
Tub wille I sese, sothely to say, 
Of my doyng in y** d^^re. 

To blys I saUe* jow bryng : 
Comys forth je tow wiUi me ! 
Je salle* lyfle in lykyng ; 
My blyssyng wyth jow be. — Amen. 

Here, besides a gradual approximation of the orthography to the 
southern standard, it will be observed that the forms nane, alane, 
warlde, lange, brade, &c. become in the later copy noncj alone, world, 
long, broad ; and that the Northumbrianisms swa, gude, sail, swilke, 
til, have respectively become so, good, shall, such, to. The present 
participle in and, a certain criterion of a norUiem dialect subsequent 
to tlie thirteenth century, and the imperative plural in s, with a few 
other peculiarities, are preserved in both copies. 


Vol. II. APRIL 11, 1844^ ITI V iil ^\^MJ^ 

Professor Wilson, Vice-President, in the"*CliaiT: ^ 

A paper was read — 

*' On the Meaning of the Word aapos,*' By Professor Latham. 

The words aapos and sarus are the Greek and Latin forms of a 
certain term used in the oldest Babylonian chronology, the meaning 
of which is hitherto undetermined. In the opinion of the present 
writer, the sarus is a period of 4 years and 340 days. 

In the way of direct external evidence as to the value of the 
epoch iri question, we have, with the exception of an unsatisfactory 
passage in Suidas, at the hands of the ancient historians, and ac- 
cording to the current interpretations, only the two following 
statements : — 

1. That each sarus consisted of 3600 years (Irij). 

2. That the first ten kings of Babylon reigned 120 sari, equal to 
432,000 years; or on an average 43,200 years apiece. 

With data of this sort, we must either abandon the chronology 
altogether, or else change the power of the word year. The first of 
these alternatives was adopted by Cicero and Pliny, and doubtless 
other of the ancients — contemnamus etiam Bahylonios et eos qui e Can- 
caso ccsli signa observantes numeris et motubus stellarum cursus perse- 
quuntur; condemnemus inquam hos aut stultiti<e aut vanitatis aut 
impudentus qui ' cccclxx millia annorum, ut ipsi dicunt, monumentis 
comprehensa continent, — Cic, de Divinat, , from Cory's Ancient Frag- 
ments. Again — e diverse Epigenes apud Babylonios dccxx annorum 
observationes siderum coctilibus laterculis inscriptas docet, gravis auctor 
in primis : qui minimum Berosus et Critodemus cccclxxx annorum, — 
Pliny, viL 56, from Cory. On the other hand, to alter the value of 
the word iros or annus has been the resource of at least one modern 

Now if we treat the question by what may be called the tentative 
method, the first step in our inquiry will be to find some division of 
time which shall, at once, be natural in itself, and also short enough 
to make 10 sari possible parts of an average human life. For this, 
even a rfay will be too long. Twelve hours, however, or half a 
wyfiiipepov, will give us possible results. 

Taking this view therefore, and leaving out of the account the 
29th of February, the words hos and annus mean, not a year, but 
the 730th part of one; 3600 of which make a sarus. In other 
words, a sarus ss 1800 day-times and 1800 night- times, or 3600 
vvxO>ifi€pa, or 4 years + 340 days. 




The texts to which the present hypothesis applies are certsdn 
passages in Eusebius and Syncellus. These are founded upon the 
writings of Alexander Polyhistor, Apollodorus, Berosus, and Aby- 
denus. From hence we learn the length of the ten reigns allude4 
to above, viz. 120 sari, or 591 ye^rs and odd days. Reigns of this 
period are just possible. It is suggested, however, that the reign 
ind life are desit with as synonymous ; or at any rate, that some 
period beyond that during which each king sat singly on his throne 
has been recorded. 

The method in question led the late Professor Rask to a different 
' power for the word sarus. In his ^Idste Hehraiske Tidregnvng he 
writes as follows : ** The meaning of the so-called ami has been im- 
'* possible for me to discover. The ancients explain it differently. 
" Dr. Ludw. Ideler, in his Handhuch der mathematischen und tech- 
** nischen Chronologie, i. 207, considers it to mean some lunar period; 
** without however defining it, and without sufficient closeness to en- 
" able us to reduce the 120 sari, attributed to the ten ancient kings, 
** to any probable number of real years. I should almost believe that 
" the sarus was a year of 24 mpnths, so that the 120 sari meant 
" 240 natural years." ^. 32. Nqw Rask's hypothesis has the ad- 
vantage of leaving the meaning 9f the word reign as we find it. On 
the other hand, it blinks the question of irri or anni as the parts of a 
sarus. Each doctrine, however, is equally hypothetical ; the value 
of the sarus, in the present state of our inquiry, resting solely upon 
the circumstance of its giving a plausible result from plausible as- 
sumptions. The data tibough which the present writer asserts for 
his explanation the proper amount of probability are contained in 
two passages hitherto unapplied. 

1 . From Eusebius — is (Berosus) sarum eo? annis 3600 conflat. Addit 
etiam nescio quern nerum ac sosum : nerum ait 600 annis constare, 
sosum annis 60. Sic ille de veterum more annos computat, — ^Trans- 
lation of the Armenian Eusebius, p. 5, from Fragmenta Hiatoricorum 
Cfracorum, p. 439; Paris, 1841. 

2. Berosus — trapos de ktrriv e^aKotna koi rpitrxlXia irrf, vrjpas ^i 
i^aKoaia, trwaaos Be eifiKovra, — From Cory's Ancient Fragments. 

Now the assumed value of the word translated year (viz. 12 hours), 
in its application to the passages just quoted, gives for the powers 
of the three terms three divisions of time as natural as could be ex- 
pected under the circumstances. 

1 . Macros, — The sosus = 30 days and 30 nights, or 12 hours X 60, 
or a month of 30 days, /li>)j' rpiaKovOrtfiepos. Aristotle writes — fj firjv 
AaKwrtxtf ^Kroy fiipos tov eyiuvrov, rovro Be eortf iifikpai k^iiKovra. — 
From Scaliger, De Emendatione Temporum, p. 23. Other evidence 
occurs in the same page. 

2. Ni/|oos. — The nerus =10 sosi or months = the old Roman year 
of that duration. 

3. 2dpos. — ^The sarus = 6 neri or 60 months of 30 days each ; 
that is, five proper years within 25 days. This would be a cycle or 
annus magnus. 


All these divisions are probable. Against that of 12 hours no- 
objection lies except its inconvenient shortness. The month of 30 
days is pre-eminently natural. The year of 10 months was common 
in early times. In favour of the sarus of five years (or nearly so) 
there are two facts : — 

1. It is the multiple of the sosus by 10, and of the nerus by 6. 

2. It represents the period wh^n the natural year of 12 months 
coincides for the first time with the artificial one of 10 ; since 60 
months = 6 years of 10 months and 5 of 12. 

Tlie historical application of these numbers is considered to lie 
beyond the pale of the present inquiry. 

In Suidas we meet an application of the principle recognised by 
Rask, viz. the assumption of some period of which the sarus is a 
fraction. Such at least is the probable view of the following inter- 
pretation : SA'POI — fiirpoy koI apiO/jios Trapa XaXhaiois, ol yap pK 
adpoi iroLOvariv iviairrovs /SerrjS', ol yiyvovrai irf kyiavroX Koi fLtrjves 
e^. — From Cory's Ancient Fragments*, 

In Josephus we find the recognition of an annus magnus contain- 
ing as many ^rrj. as the nerus did: iveira xal St' dper^v Kai rtjy 
cv-xpi^trriaPf iv eireyoovv atrrpoXoytas jcai yeitfiA^piat TcXioy (^y Toy 
Oeny avroTs irapaa^ly' direp ovk rjy aat^aXu/s aWols Trpoeiireiy ^i) 
(fiaaaiy e^aKOtriovs eviavTOVs' ^ta roaovroy yap 6 fiiyas cyiavros 
TrXripovTai, — Antiq. i. 3. from Cory. 

The following doctrine is a suggestion, viz. that in the word sosus 
we have the Hebrew tiftif = six. If this be true, it is probable 

that the sosus itself was only a secondary division, or some other 
period multiplied by six. Such would be a period of five days, 
or ten eriy (so-called). With this view we get two probabilities, 
viz.. a subdivision of the month, and the alternation of the numbers 
6 and 10 throughout ; «.e. from the eTos\ (or 12 hours) to the sarus 
(or five years). 

After the reading of this paper, a long discussion followed on the 
question, how far the sarus could be considered as belonging to 
historical chronology. The Chairman thought there could be no 
doubt that the same principles which regulated the mythological 
periods of the Hindoos prevailed also in the Babylonian Computa- 
tions, although there might be some variety in their application. 

1. A mahayuga or great age of the Hindoos, comprising the four 
successive yugas or ages, consists of 4,320,000 years. 

* This gloss in some MSS. is filled up thus : — 

Sapoi. nerpov Kai dpiOfibs irapd XaXSaiois, ol yap pK <rdpoi iroiovaiv eviavrovs 
/3<Tic/3', Kara r^v roJv XaXSai<jJV t//^0ov, ciTrep a <Tdp09 woiei p^yat ^eXrjmaKuiv 
<fKp)\ ot yivovrai irf eviavTol Kat prjv€t 'i^, 

f In the course of the evening it was stated, that even by writers quoted by Syn- 
celius 6TOS had been translated day ; and a reference was made to an article in the 
Cambridge Philological Museum On the Days of the Week, for the opinion of Bailiy in 
modern, and of Annianus and Panodorusin ancient times : ravra erri lipepas eXoyi- 
oavro (TTOxaffTiKus, — p. 40, vol. i. See also p. 42. 


2. These years being divided by 860, the number of days in the 
Indian lunar year, give 12,000 periods. 

3. By casting oflf two additioi^ cyphers, these numbers are re- 
duced respectively to 432,000 and 120, the numbers of the years of 
the saroi of the ten Babylonian kings, whilst in the numbers 12,360 
and 3600 we have the coincidence of other elements of the com- 
putation. • 

The Annual General Meeting of the Society for the election 
of Council and Officers for the ensuing year will be held at 
the London Library, 49 Pall Mall, on Friday, the 23rd 
of May. The Chair will be taken at Eight o'clock. 

Papers will be read (if time permit) as at ordinary meetings. 


Vol. II. APRIL 25, 1845. No. 33. 

T. H. Kby. Esq. in the Chair. 

The following works were laid on the table : — 

" Tanchumi : Commentarius in Lamentationes ;" presented by the 
Rev. W. Cureton. 

ThreeTract8,byCharle8T.Beke,E8q.,Ph.D.,F.S.A.:— 1. "Abys- 
sinia; being a continuation of Routes in that Country/' with a map. — 

2. " On the Countries south of Abyssinia," with a map. — 3. " On 
Christianity among the Gkdlas ;" presented by Dr. Beke. 

The following paper was then read : — 

" On the Languages and Dialects of Abyssinia and the Countries 
to the South/* by Dr. Beke. 

The accompanying vocabularies were collected during a residence 
in Abyssinia, in the years 1841, 1842, and 1843. They consist of 
the following languages : 1. Hhdm^ra, or Agau of W£ag ; 2. Faldsha ; 

3. Agdwi, or Agau of Agaumlder ; 4. Oaf at ; 5. Gonga ; 6. Kaffa ; 7. 
Wo4tta ; 8. Wo)4mo, or Wolaitsa ; 9. Yangaro ; 10. Shdnkgla of 
Agaumider; ll.GrallaofGtideru; 12.Tigre; 13.H4rrargie(Hurrur). 

For the representation of the sounds of these languages, the follow- 
ing system of orthography has been adopted. The vowels generally, 
whether single or diphUiongal, are soundedas they are in Italian*. In 
addition to these, a is used to represent the short mdiatmctfirst vowel- 
sound of the Ethiopic and Arabic alphabets, nearly like the English 
short ti in ^^ ; whilst ^ corresponds in sound with the French ^ in 
t^ie. The consonants are (subject to the following remarks) to be 
pronounced as they usually are in English. They are however not 
intended to represent the precise native sounds, to which they are 
in many cases only approximations ; near enough, however, for all 
practical purposes. 

Of the consonants and their combinations, ch is pronounced as in 
church — ^never hard as in the German. DA is a sound peculiar to the 
Galla language and extremely difficult to be acquired, the d being 
followed by a sort of hicUus, or guttural approaching to the Arabic 
c. X^* is as the dge in judge ; J as the French j in jour, G is 
always hard, as in give, gu and gh never being employed to. ren- 
der this consonant hard before e or t. Gh is the Arabic c. H^ 

hh, and khaxe used as is customary in representing the sounds of 
the Arabic and other Oriental languages : n, and sometimes ity, are 
sounded as the Spanish n. In the Agau languages ng is sounded 
as in rif^, ringer (not as in finger), and this not only at the end and 
in the middle of a word, but likewise at the beginning; but in the 
* The accented o has mostly a sound approaching to that of ko in buono, 


other languages the two letters are pronounced as in finger : e. g. 
Gonga. Qtt is not made use of by me, but kw is employed in its 
stead. S is always hard, the soft sound of this letter being in- 
variably represented by z, Ts is the German tz, although scarcely 
so distinct as this ; and in some dialects it is little more than a hard 
t or th, struck forcibly against the upper teeth. It must be under- 
stood that th is never to be pronounced as in English. W has its 
English sound. In Ludolf s Amharic Grammar a character is 
found which is stated by him to have been invented by the scribes 
of Abyssinia to represent the liquid sound of m — m (my or mj) ; the 
use of which character, however, he is at a loss to account for. I 
find this liquid m to be a sound peculiar to the Galla language, 
e. g. me {mye) *' pray" ; ** I beg you" — the character for which may 
have been invented in Abyssinia at the same time that the well- 
known Amharic additions to the Geez alphabet were made; although, 
unlike these, it has fallen into desuetude and oblivion. 

Of the languages in my lists, the first three are the Hhdmara, the 
FaMsha, and the Agdwi, which will at once be seen to be cognate 
and intimately connected with one another. The Hh^ara is spoken 
among the Agaus of Wdag, the northern portion of L4sta— the 
Tcheratz Agows of Bruce. The Faldsha is the language of the 
remarkable people scattered over parts of northern and western 
Abyssinia, who still profess the Israelitish religion. The Ag4wi is 
that of the Agaus of Agaumider, which native tradition says was for- 
merly spoken over the greater part of the peninsula of G6djam. Of 
these three languages, vocabularies are given by Professor Murray 
in his 'Life of Bruce,' Edinburgh, 1808, pp. 436-439, the same 
having been written down for that traveller by Abyssinian scribes 
in the Geez character. Professor Murray remarks (p. 436), that 
" probably the native sounds are not very accurately conveyed by 
the Habbessine alphabet ; but of this no opinion can be given with 
certainty by any person who has never heard them uttered." As 
my vocabularies were each of them written down by myself from 
the mouths of natives, I am able to bear testimony to the justness 
of this remark. At the same time I am bound to bear the like tes- 
timony to the general correctness of Bruce's vocabularies, which for 
the purpose of comparison I have added to my own, the same being 
enclosed within brackets. In one remarkable particular^ however, 
Bruce's scribes were unavoidably unable to represent the true sound 
of these Agau languages, which abound in the harsh gh (c) ; for^ as 
this sound is wanting in the Geez and Amharic, it had either to be 
omitted by them altogether, or else to be imperfectly represented by 
an aspirate. This imperfection in the written character of his 
scribes led Bruce into a curious etymological error. He says that 
the appellation of the Agaus generally is Ag-oka, which he trans- 
lates ** Shepherds of the River*." Now, Aghaghd (ghzs c) is the 
native name of the Agaus of Agaumider, which in the mouths of 
tiie Abyssinians generally has been softened down into ?\lffy, Agnu» 
• Vol. i. p. 401, edit. pr. 

' 91 

but which Brace's scribes, in their anxiety to give it the true sound 
as nearly as possible, made " Agoha* " ; and as that traveller always 
writes " oha" or ** ohha" for the Amharic (D*^, weha or waAn, 
the signification of which is " water/' we have at once a clue to the 
origin of his mistake t> 

Upon Bruce's assertion, that the dialects of the Agaus have an 
affinity to that of the Fal^has, Dr. Prichard remarks t, that "the 
comparisons of these languages which have as yet been made, leave 
this assertion subject to some doubt." I apprehend that the pre- 
sent vocabularies will, beyond all question, decide this point in the 

Who the people are that speak this common Agau tongue in its 
various forms is an ethnological question of much interest. I have 
already expressed the opinion § that the Agau nation are the repre- 
sentatives of the original inhabitants of Abyssinia, who have in part 
been dispossessed by the Amharas breaking through them from the 
south. The Hhdm^ra of W^ag and the Aghaghd of Agaumider have 
maintained their nationality in their not easUy accessible countries, 
whilst the Fal4shas and other low-cosies scattered over the provinces 
lying between the other two, are the remains of the ancient inhabit- 
ants of Agau race, the physical character of whose country has not af- 
forded them the same means of resistance. To this should be added, 
that towards the north, namely in Tigre, they had, at an earlier date 
than that of the irruption of the Amharas h'om the south, been in 
like manner displaced by the Axumites or Agazi (the Geez- speaking 
race), whose language plainly shows them to have crossed from the 
opposite shores of the Red Sea since the time of the occupation of 
Arabia by the progenitors of its actual inhabitants. The tradition 
among the Agaus is, that they themselves, at a yet more remote 
period, crossed the Red Sea into Africa ||, the western tribes of Agau- 
mider subsequently branching off from those in Ldsta, and dispos- 
sessing the Shdnk^as, who then inhabited Agaumider, but who have 

* I perceive that M. d'Abbadie writes the name ** Awawa," evidently from his 
having, like Bruce, received it through an Abyssinian ear and mouth. 

t In a pamphlet recently published by me, A Statement of Facts relative to the 
Transactions between the Writer and the late British Political Mission to the Court of 
Shoa, p. 13, notei it is remarked, that "the country of the Hh&mara, or eastern 
Agausj through which I passed on my way home, is composed in many parts of a 
loose sandstone, in caves hollowed in which the inhabitants frequently form their 
dwellings. These are apparently the Troglodytes of Agatharchides, and their lan- 
guage^ — and not the Amharic — ^is doubtless the Kafiapa or Kafiapas Xe^ts of that 
writer. Periplut Rubri Maris, p. 46. It is they too, and not the Hamyarites of 
Arabia, who are the * Hamara' named in the Ethiopic inscription of Axum. See 
Riippeirs Reise in Abyssinien, vol. ii. p. 280 ; and see the Greek inscription in 
Lord Valentia's Travels, vol. iii. p. 181, and Salt's Voyage to Abyssinia, p. 411." 

X The Physical History of Mankind, second edit. vol. ii. p. 146. 

§ Statement of Facts, &c. p. \^,note, 

II Whether or not any connexion exists between the Agau languages of Abys- 
sinia and the ancient Himyari tongue, of which the remains have recently been 
discovered in the Mahrah of Southern Arabia (see Journal of the Roy, Geogr, Soc, 
vol. XV. p. 112), is a question deserving of investigation. See my Origines Biblica, 
vol. i. pp. 163 and 228. 

L 2 


since been forced to confine themselves to the valley of the Blae 
River. It is to be observed that in a country like Abyssinia, con- 
sisting of a high table-land, with the rivers running in moun- 
tainous valleys at a depression of several thousand feet, the low 
lands are the fastnesses of the aborigines, in the same way as, under 
similar circumstances, the ^^Alands are in Europe. 

In speaking of the "low-castes" of Abyssinia, I allude to the 
Kam&nts— by Bruce written Kimmont, whom he mentions to have 
found on his return from Gondar, and describes as a detached tribe 
of the Fal^has, who had been converted to Christianity, but re- 
tained the customs and language of their kindred, — and other tribes 
dispersed, like the Fal^has themselves, over various parts of the 
country, all of whom live apart from the Amharas, and employ 
themselves in various servile trades, which the high-caste domi- 
nant race do not condescend to adopt. Tliey are manifestly the 
remains of a conquered and degraded people. The native lan- 
guages of D6mbea, Kwdra, and generally the north-west of Abys- 
sinia, are all modifications of one primitive Agau tongue, and 
plainly prove the various people speaking them to have all sprung 
from one common parent stock, of which, from their pect^iar habits, 
the Faldshas are the most remarkable branch. 

The next language to be considered is the Gdfat, which in the 
present day appears to be spoken in only a small portion of the 
south of Damot, now occupied by the descendants of the Djdwi 
Grallas, who have entered that country from beyond the Abai. In 
consequence of the encroachments of the Grallas on the one hand, 
and of the dominant race, the Amharas, on the other, the G^at 
language is on the eve of extinction. So little indeed is the know- 
ledge of it-prevalent, that the rising generation seem almost ignorant 
of it, and even the grown-up persons who do profess to speak it are 
anything but familiar with it ; for I found that they frequently re- 
quired consideration before answering my inquiries as to the names 
of the simplest objects. From my list of words it will be perceived 
that the far greater number are Amharic, either quite pure or at 
most but slightly modified. On the other hand, those words which 
really do vary from the Amharic appear to have not the slightest 
connexion with either that language or with the Agawi formerly 
spoken throughout the greater part of the peninsula, or with the 
Galla or Gonga tongues. Ludolf supposes the language of G^fat 
to be a very remote dialect of the Amharic. 1 am rather inclined to 
consider it as an independent language*, and to regard the Am- 
haric words found in it as not forming part of the original tongue, 
but as having been introduced by the amalgamation of the two 
people. Dr. Murray has given from Bruce a list of Gdfat words, 
which are inserted (within brackets) in my tables. It is important 
to remark, that the words collected by Bruce seventy years ago 
have a far more independent character than those brought home 
by me. lliis is quite in accordance with my conclusion as to the 
gradual but general merging of this language in the Amharic. 
* Is it cognate with the Geez ? 


In my converse with the natives of G^fat, I noticed three peculi- 
arities of their language, according as the same viras communicated 
to me^hy different persons and in different places. Some gave to al- 
most every word the termination ish; others the termination oa; whilst 
again others gave neither of these, nor in fact any prevailing termi- 
nation. The oa appears to be adopted from the neighbouring Agaus, 
in whose language that termination is common ; and it may be that 
the dropping of a prevalent termination has been borrowed from the 
Amharic, since I was assured by many persons that the ending in 
ishis SL peculiarity of the G^at tongue. 

The most interesting class of languages is composed of those con- 
tained in the next five lists ; namely the G6nga, K&ffa, Wor^tta, 
Wolditsa, and Ydngaro, — interesting, because this class of lan- 
guages is, I believe, now for the first time submitted to the investi- 
gation of the learned world. Ludolf describes the Gongas as com- 
posing a distinct nation of Abyssinia, dwelling to the south of the river 
Abai, and speaking a language unconnected with all those common 
throughout Abyssinia to the north of about the tenth parallel of 
north latitude, but the same with that spoken by the people of En4rea. 
This statement, however correct as regards former times, requires to 
be modified in the present day. For, by the irruption of the GhJlas 
and their occupation of the table-land between the rivers Abai and 
G6djeb, the Gonga race has been cut through, and, where not extir- 
pated, divided into two parts, who have respectively been driven 
into the valleys of those two rivers. Endrea in particular — ^formerly, 
like Abyssinia, a Christian country, — was for a time able to hold out 
against the invaders, but in the end it, fell a prey to the Limmu 
tribe of Gallas (then pagans, but of late years converted to Moham- 
medanism), who still continue to possess it. The consequence is, 
that as well in Endrea as throughout the whole table-land north- 
ward as far as the valley of the Abai, the Gkdla language has super- 
seded that of the earlier Gongas. But further to the south and 
south-west, in regions stretching wide into the interior of Africa, 
languages cognate with the Gonga are still spoken. Of those of 
K4ffa, Wordtta, Wolditsa and Y&ngaro, specimens are here given ; 
but I was told of the countries of Derbdbbo, M6cha and AfiUo, be- 
yond Kdffa, to the west, where cognate languages prevail, and 
where likewise Christianity, though in a wretchedly -degraded form, 
still continues to be professed. The existence of the Christian 
religion in the interior of Africa, where it was planted probably in 
the earliest ages of our era, is a remarkable fact, deserving of far 
more attention than it has hitherto received. It is, however, daily 
wearing out ; on the one hand passing by almost imperceptible de- 
grees into mere polytheism*, and on the other being supplanted 
by Mohammedanism, which would seem destined to become ere 
long the faith of the whole of this portion of the African continent. 
The Gonga language, as spoken in the western portion of the valley 
of the Abai, is the only existing representative of a once-powerful 

* See the paper " On Christianity among the Gallas," mentioned at the head of 
this article. 


kingdom situate in the fork between the two blanches of the Blue 
River ; the one (the Dedh68a) coming fiK>m Enire a* and the other 
(the Abai) encircling Grodjam. This valley district (which I visited 
in December 1 842) is called in the native dialect Sinicho, in Agiwi 
Tsintsi, but in Amharic and Gafat, Shinasha — ^the Chinchoa of the 
Portuguese ; and its' natives retain the tradition of the former exist- 
ence of their country as a separate and mi^ty state, and still apply 
the name of Gonga to a considerable tract of country on the soidiio 
em side of the Abai. , 

The affinity of the languages of K4&*» Wordtta, and Woliitsa to 
that of Gonga is manifest. That of the language of Yangaco (by 
the Grallas called Dj&ndjero— the Gingiro of the maps) is not so evi- 
dent, but stiU may be traced. 

In a letter from M. Antoine d'Abbadie to the Rev. G« C. Renou- 
ard, published in the Athenseum of the 1 2th April 1845, he speaks 
of his having collected " vocabularies of the three principal Chsunitic 
languages of Great Damot ; namely Sidama, 1700 words ; Dawrooa, 
1500 words ; and Ylunma or Yangara, 1400 words." The two 
former languages are the Kaffa and Wordtta of my lists under other 
names. Y&mma or Yangara is, of course, my Ydngaro. My Wolditsa, 
of which the Galla name is Wolamo, is called by M. d'Abbadie '* Wa- 
lamo or W^hayta." I do not perceive from M. d'Abbadie's letter any 
intimation of his having become acquainted with any other distinct 
and separate language of this portion of the interior of Africa, the 
numerous names enumerated by him being apparently only those of 
dialects. But his collections, made during a lengthened stay ia 
Eastern Africa, are so copious as to promise a rich treat to philolo- 

M. d'Abbadie classes the Agau and Gonga languages together in 
one family, which he names the " Chamitic." To this elass^ation 
and denomination I cannot object, inasmuch as they are <mly in ac- 
cordance with my own views with respect to the Hamitish origin of 
all the languages of Arabia and Africat* But it will be understood 
that I do not agree witii him in the narrow sense in which he uses 
the term " Chamitic," as oppased to *' Semitic." Neitfier can I per- 
ceive any such affinity between the Gonga and Agau languages in 
their respective forms, as to warrant the placing of them together in 
one group, as contradistinguished from any other group of Ab3rssi- 
nian languages. 

The next language in my lists is that of the Shdnk^Ias or negroes 
of Agaumider and the valley of the Blue River, in about the eleventh 
parallel of north latitude. Dr. Murray mentions that Bruce could not 

* Under the head of Kaffa I have added (within brackets) a few words collected 
in Shoa by the Rev. Mr. Krapf, apparently from the mouth of a slave named Dilbo, 
personally known to us both. They do not altogether agree with my Kafia words, 
which I obtained from persons who were most assuredly natives of Bdnga, the ca« 
pital of that country. From Dilbo's physical appearance and other circumstances, I 
have reason to believe that he was a native, not of Kaffa itself, but of some neigh- 
bouring country, which will account for the difference of language. 

t See Origines BibUca, chap. x. 


procure any specimen of their language. That collected by myself 
is, unfortunately, not very extensive. The travellers (Caillaud, 
Russegger, &c.) who have ascended the Blue River ought to have 
reached districts inhabited by negro tribes speaking dialects of the 
same tongue. 

To the north of these Shankalas, in about the twelfth parallel, 
are the Gindjar (Ganjar of Bruce) inhabiting the sandf district em- 
phatically styled Abu Rdmla, Bruce reports* that " the origin of 
these is said to have been, that when the Funge, or black nation 
now occupying Sennaar, dispossessed the Arabs from that part of 
the country, the black slaves that were in service among these Arabs 
all fled, and took possession of the districts they now hold, where 
they have greatly increased in numbers, and continue independent 
to diis day." This tradition is quite in accordance with the fact 
that the language of Gindjar is little more than a corrupt Arabic, as 
I had the means of ascertaining when in Agaumider in March 1842, 
and as the following short list of words will sufficiently show i — 







































































sit down 





^; gum 






kafat kurai. 

give him 


The Galla, which stands the next in my vocabularies, is the dia- 
lect of that widely-spoken language emploved generally among the 
western tribes who occupy the countries n'om Endrea to Guderu, 
and who have penetrated across the Abai into the peninsula of 
Godjam. It varies in some respects from the dialect of the Gallas 
of Shoa. From a comparison with the Galla words within brackets 
which I have taken from Bruce, it will be seen that in his time the 
inhabitants of Maitsha (Mi^cha) to the south of Lake Tslma spoke 
identically the same language. 

I feel myself here called on to remark on the title " Ilmorma," 

* Vol. iv. p. 328. 


which M. d'Abbadie gives to the language so universally known 
both in Abyssinia and in Europe under the name of Cralla. Inde- 
pendently of the objection which may reasonably be made to the 
introduction of a new name, when there already exists one which 
has a specific and well-defined application and which has met with 
general adoption, the word " Ilmorma," as a designation of the Gralla 
language, is in itself incorrect. Ilm *onna is composed of two Oalla 
words — ilma, " son," and orma, " man" : in the Rev. Mr. Krapf s 
translation of the Gospel, " the Son of man" is rendered Ilma Orma. 
The Gallas, with the usual pride of wild and independent nations, 
call themselves exclusively Orma, i.e. "men," "the people"-; and 
an individual among them is Ilm 'orma, " a son (or one) of the peo- 
ple," corresponding literally with the Arabic ibn-el-nas — " gentilis," 
" wdl-bom," "free" — as opposed to the or slave. The native 
designation of the Dankdli tribes — Affdr — has (if I mistake not) pre- 
cisely the same meaning. In the same way, therefore, as the free 
Galla styles himself //m *orma, he calls his language Afan Orma, "the 
people's tongue" — UU "mouth." Consequently, if it were worth 
while to introduce a new name, we ought to call the G^a the 
Orma language^-certainly not the " Ilmorma*." 

My vocabiUaries conclude with the Tigre language, and a few 
words of that of Hdrrargie (Hurrur). This latter, like that of 
Arg6bba (the eastern skirt of Ifat) and Gurdgie, is little more than 
a dialect of the Amharic (Geez }), mixed with much Dankali and 
likewise Arabic. Some words of this language are added (within 
brackets) from a manuscript collection of the late Lieutenant Kiel- 
maier, kindly communicated to me, in the original, by Professor 
Widenmann of Munich. 

* Since this was written, I have seen, in the Friend of the African for March last, 
p. 152, an extract from Mr. Krapf's journal, in which he proposes the name 
Ormania for " the Galla nation and its territory, because they call themselves Orma, 
and not Gallas*" If this designation were adopted, the language would have to be 
named the Ormanian, or, better, the Orman. 


of Agaumider. 

of Guderu. 





langitta * 

I m&nkus 









. mangHguza 

, tukwa 
, d^tsagh 

tdka; t6ko 



kudha t6ko 

kiidha l^ma 


digdami t6ko 

digdami Idma 







thibba 16ma 





as^utie hhidie 

asera hhddie 

Isifa [lafe] 
bis&n [bisani] 
bubie [bube] 

boklui [roba] 

dum^ssa [du- 


bek^kka [be- 

ibidda [yabid] 


tfa [ife] 

hbad [abad] 
kot [kad] 
shishti [shishet] 
arat [h^at] 

amist [hdmmist] 

sidist [s^isti] 
s^t [saati] 
8ut [sud] 

zetein [sating] 
dssir [asser] 
kwia [kuia] 







kbelittie miti 


sasa [sasa] 
arba^in [arbain] 
h^msa [hamist- 
sissa [sedistessr] 
sebatassir [sa't- 

Wak [Waka-Egziabh^r; 

you] Egziher 

wak sam^ 

biftu [adu] tsehai 
adhiesa; djihaw6rhhe 

hurdji [urdi] 







ties; tlkki 
















semint&ssir [sfid- 
zeh^tana [sot- 
b^kkala [baqla] 
kot bi^kkala 

[kada baqla] 




one hundred, 
two hundred. 

one thousand. 


s^mmi [semmi] 
ir [ihr] 
^-hhi [wdrhi] 

thfii [daui] 

ddchi [diinat] 
mi [mey] 

r^Udunat ; zen&b 


esit. [essHt] 
















Vol. 11. MAY 9, 1845. No. 34. 

Professor Wilson, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following MS. Glossaries were laid on the table : — 
List of provincial words used in the neighbourhood of Alresford, 
Hants, by the Rev. Brymer Belcher. 

Provincialisms of East Kent, by £. Sandys, Esq. 

W. Johnson, Esq., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, was 
elected a Member of the Society. 

The following paper was then read : — 

** On Onomatopoeia." By H. Wedgwood, Esq. 

In speculating concerning the origin of language, it has been so 
much the custom to consider onomatopceia, or (Hrect imitation of 
sounds characteristic of the thing named, as the exceptional case, 
that words very evidently derived from that source, such as splash, 
crunch, whizz, bang, thump, rap, &c., have hardly been considered as 
entitled to the same rank in the language as words in which no 
imitative character is discernible. 

If however language be supposed to have arisen in the ordinary 
course of nature &om the efforts of men to communicate their wants 
and thoughts to their fellows, it is difficult to conceive any other 
principle than liiat of onomatopoeia on which it could originally have 
begun. The only mode in which the voicfe could be made effective 
in raising the thought of a certain animal in the mind of a person 
wholly ignorant of our language, would be to imitate some sound 
peculiar to the animal in question. 

There is a story of an English gentleman, who being desirous of 
knowing the nature of the meat on his plate at a Chinese enter- 
tainment, turned round to the native servant behind him, pointing 
to the dish with an inquiring quack, quack ? the China-man replied 
bow-wow : and thus the two parties were mutually intelligible, though 
they did not understand a word of each other's language, llie 
actual growth of words out of such expressions as these may be wit- 
nessed in our nurseries even at the present day. We first imitate 
the lowing of an ox with the syllable moo or boo ; the cry of the 
sheep with the syllable baa ; and these, when subsequently repeated 
in the ordinary tone in the words moo-cow, baa-lamb, serve as sym- 
' bols of the sounds represented, and readily bring the animal intended 
to the mind of the cluld, after all attempt at real imitation has en- 
tirely vanished. 

It is highly probable that the Greek fiovs (pronounced boose) has 
been formed on the same principle with our nursery moo-cow, with 
the exception that in the latter case the imitative syllable has been 



added on to another name, while in Greek it forms the entire suh- 
stance of the word. 

We can hardly agree with M. Nodier, the author of the ' Onoma- 
top6e8 Fran9aises/ in attributing a like origin to the name of the 
boa, until the resemblance in the cry of that kind of serpent to the 
bellowing of a bull is better established. 

The imitative principle of nomenclature is especially common 
with respect to birds and other animals with which we have little 
intercourse beyond the occasional sound of their notes. So we have 
the Night-jar, the Whip-poor- Will, and other American birds un- 
questionably named from their peculiar cry. In the names of the 
cuckoo and peewit (G. kiebitz), the imitation is still a living prin- 
ciple with every one acquainted with the birds themselves. In that 
of the owl, Lat. ulula, Gh*. oXoXvytay, the reference to the cry of the 
creature is no longer felt. The same is probably the case with most 
persons with respect to the Latin turtur, which is undoubtedly derived 
from an imitation of the cooing of a dove, by a repetition of the syl- 
lable tur, the same sound being represented by a precisely equivalent 
syllable in the Dutch korren, to coo, or croo, as the word was for- 
merly written. It may be observed, that whenever the name of an 
animal is thus composed of the repetition of one or more syllables, . 
it is almost a certain sign that the principle of onomatopoeia has 
been at work. Thus we have Tuco-tuco, the name of a small rodent 
in the plains of Buenos Ayres; Ai-ai, one of the sloths, from the 
cries of those ahimals respectively. Nor are we without example 
even of races of men named from an imitation of some peculiarity in 
their utterance. The first Dutch colonists of the Cape of Good 
Hope could not fail to be struck with the click which forms so 
marked a feature of the Gaffre tongues, and which to a stranger 
would sound like a perpetual repetition of the syllables hot and tot. 
Hence the natives were named by their foreign masters Hott-en-tot, 
en in Dutch signifying and. 

Passing from the namQs of the animals themselves to those of the 
peculiar cries in which the different races give vent to their feelings, 
we shall have little difficulty in recognizing the latter as formed 
almost exclusively on the principle of imitation, which indeed in 
such a case could hardly be superseded by any other. 

No one can doubt that the quacking of ducks, cackling of geese, 
roaring of a lion, neighing or whinnying of a horse, bellowing of a 
bull, meiving or purring of a cat, croaking of frogs and ravens, caw- 
ing of rooks, chattering of magpies and monkeys, barking, yelping, 
howling, growling, snarling of dogs, clucking of hens, bleating of 
sheep and goats, twittering of swallows, chirping of crickets or 
sparrows, grunting of pigs, bumping of the bittern, or gobbling of 
turkeys, are merely the articulation of sounds employed to imitate 
the cries or other noises of the animals to which they are applied. 

With these may be classed the names of several inarticulate sounds 
uttered by the human organs, as laugh, cough (both originally pro- 
nounced with a guttiural), sob, sigh, moan, groan, hiccough, scream, 
shriek, yawn, snore, wheeze, sneeze, holla, whoop. The imitative 


character of the last of these i» distinctly felt in hooping-cough, re- 
presenting a clear high-pitched cry. Hence wop, Old-English, 
lamentation, and from thence to weep, originally no doubt in the 
sense of lamenting, and secondarily in that of shedding tears. The 
same root may be traced through the Gothic vopjan, Latin vocare, 
to call, to vox, the voice ; the p passing into a k according to the 
usual genius of the language. The loss of the initial w in the Ice- 
landic op, outcry, oepa, to shout, brings us to the Greek o\p, the voice, 
equivalent to the I^tin vox. 

Another numerous class of words of which the imitative character 
can hardly be mistaken are those by which we represent the collision 
or fracture of bodies of a greater or less degree of hardness, or of 
more or less resonance ; t£e motion of liquids or the air, &c. For 
example — / 











thud, Sc. 





frap-per, Fr. 











rash, Old-Eng, 

























It may perhaps be objected, that if the words of the foregoing classes 
were really derived from imitations of the sounds characteristic of 
the things designated, we ought to find the same things represented 
in the cognate languages by closely-resembling words to a far 
greater extent than is actually the case. 

The neighing of a horse is in Fr. hennir. It. nitrire. Port, and Sp. 
rinchar and relinchar. Germ, wiehem, Sw. wrena, wrenska, Dutch run- 
niken, ginniken, brieschen ; words in which, if we were ignorant of their 
meaning, we should find little resemblance, although we can hardly 
doubt that they are all founded on imitations of the actual sound. 
The discharge of a gun, which we represent by the syllable bang, is 
commonly imitated in French by pouf. The gap between the cries 
of animals, and still more between inorganic sounds and the articula- 
tions of the human voice, is in fact so wide as to allow of a pretty 
free choice of syllables in which the imitation may be made with 
nearly equal propriety, and accordingly, in the imitative synonyms 



of the same or cognate tongues, we must expect only to meet with 
resemblances of a very general nature: thus we find momentary 
sounds, such as those produced by the collision of hard bodies, imi- 
tated by monosyllables formed of the tenues/>, t, k, — ^as rap, clap, 
crack ; rat-a-tat-tat for the knocking at a door. The collision of 
bodies of a softer nature and a deader or a hollower sound is imi- 
tated by the medials h, d, g, — as dab, thud, swag ; rub^a^dub-dub for 
the beating of a drum. 

A final sh represents the noise of liquids, or the complex sound 
arising out of a number of simultaneous elements, as splash, dash, 
clash, crash. The noise made by the motion of the air itself is re- 
presented by syllables ending in a guttural: as sough, Sc. for the 
noise of the wind among trees ; in m, z, or r, — as hum, buzz, whizz, 
whirr. The last of these roots may be recognized under slight 
modifications in the Sc. gor-cock, the blackcock ; Dutch kor-hahn ; 
Sw. orr-hane, from the whirring of his wings : — 

Full ninety winters hae I seen, 

And piped where gor-cocks whirring flew. — Jamieson. 

In Icelandic the corresponding «vocable is written 6r, appearing 
in the compound Hrrvamer, missiles, whirr-weapons, or simply 6r 
(gen. aurva^, in the same sense ; also in that, of brisk, rapid : hence 
our arrow. In like manner from hum, the onomatopoeia of a low 
murmuring sound, we may trace through the IcelancUc and Danish 
the origin of one or two obscure words not commonly explained in 
our dictionaries. We have Icel. uma strepere, ymia stridere, ymr, 
the noise of the wind in trees ; ympr, ymptr^ rumor evulgatus ; ympta 
rumigerare vel susurrare ; ympte, Dan. to speak low and soft, to hint. 
From the same root, uml Icel., ymmel Dan., muttering, whispering, 
secret talk — an inkl-ing. 

When the sound which we wish to represent is prolonged with 
more or less resonance, the imitation ends with m, or n, or ng, or /,— - 
letters on which we can dwell for some time in the pronunciation, 
as ring, clang, knell, din, boom. 

Modifications in the sound of a different character are represented 
by a change in the vowel. Thus notes of a low pitch, or sounds 
produced by the collision of bodies of a considerable surface, are 
imitated with the vowel a, which is pronounced with the most open 
mouth, and can consequently be uttered with the greatest v<dume 
of sound, or with o, which approaches nearest to a in the foregoing 
respect. On the other hand, notes of a high pitch, or soimds caused 
by the collision of small surfaces, are imitated by the vowel t, in the 
utterance of which the air is compressed through the smallest pos- 
sible passage. We have accordingly to blare, or roar, for the loud 
open noise of bulls or lions; to cheip,peep, chirp, for the shrill cries 
of small birds, mice or the like. To clap, clack (Fr. claquer), for 
the open sound given l^ the collision of the palms of the hands ; 
clip, click, for the sharp shutting of a pair of scissors, steel spring, 
or the like ; clank, the rattling of metallic bodies of considerable 
size; clink, of comparatively small ones, as of pieces of money; 


pochen, Ger., to knock at a door ; pick, peck or tick, to strike with 
a small pointed object. 

Hence, as the vocable by which we imitate a certain noise is na- 
turally applied to the action or the instrument by which that noise 
is produced, it is easy to understand how the change from a or o to 
t has the effect of representing a diminution in the intensity of 
action or even in the «ize of material objects. The sound of the 
foot-fall is imitated in Germ, by the repetition trapp'trapp*trapp , 
from whence trappa IsL, trappen Dutch, *to tread. In the English 
tramp or trape a greater degree of emphasis is given to the sound by 
the insertion of a nasal, or by lengthening the vowel in order to 
express a more intense kind of action in which each fall of the foot 
is distinctly heard. To trip, on the other hand, with the short 
compressed vowel, is to tread with a light and quick step. So from 
stap, another imitation of the same sound preserved in the Dutch 
stappen, to step, we have in English the intensitive stamp, and in 
Dutch the diminutive stippen, to prick, stip, a point, from whence to 
stipple, to mark with a succession of dots. In accordance with the 
same principle we have top, an extremity of considerable size ; tip, 
" an extremity of comparatively small size ; nob or knob, a rounded 
end or projection ; knib, nipple, a small and pointed one. In cat — 
kitten \foal — filly, the change from a or o to t corresponds to the di- 
minution in size or strength of the young, or the female as compared 
with the parent or the male. 

Another mode of expressing diminiition in the intensity of action, of 
which we have several examples in English, is by softening down a 
final g (an abrupt ending pronounced with comparative effort) into 
the gentle breathing of a «; or y. So to tug is to pull with Inter- 
rupted painful effort ; to towy to pull with a uniform draught. To 
drag and to draw, stand in precisely the same relation to each other. 
To wag, to move backwards and forwards with sudden change of 
direction ; to weigh (pronounced tray), to vibrate with the gradual 
motion of a pair of scales. To swag, as also the stag in stagger, 
give the idea of a force applied by jerks ; to sway and to stay, of a 
steady pressure. 

The simplest mode of expressing a repetition or continuance of 
the same sound is by an actual repetition of the syllable employed 
to represent it, as- rat-a-tat-tat, rub-a-dub-dub. On this principle 
are formed tiie Latin turtur, murmur, tintin-abulum, from tinnire, su- 
surrus; the Italian bisbiglio or pissi-pissi, Fr. chuchotter. To this 
class must be referred such expressions as slap-dash, helter-skelter, 
Germ, holter-polter, hugger-mugger, or hudder-mudder as it was 
formerly spelt, originally perhaps meaning confusedly, as the Dan. 
skudder-mudder, rack and ruin, confusion ; the repetition being in- 
tended to represent the succession of noises made by doing a tiling 
in a hasty confused manner, — ^knocking anything over that comes 
in the way. 

A more usual as well as a more artificial method of representing 
a rapid succession or continuance of the same sound, is to add to 
the syllable representing the character of the elementary sound a 


second syllable composed of an r or an /, — consonants on which the 
voice can dwell for a length of time with a more or less sensible 
vibration, — ^with an obscure vowel. Thus in the patterinff of rain, the 
falling of a rapid succession of drops on a sonorous surface, the 
sound given by a single drop is imitated by the first syllable pat, 
while tibe vibration of the r in the second syllable serves to repre- 
sent the continuous hum of the falling shower when the attention 
is not directed to the individual taps of which the complex sound is 
made up. So to clatter iff to do anything accompanied by a suc- 
cession of claps, or noises that might be imitated by clap or clat ; 

to crackle, to make a succession of cracks ; 

to rattle, -^ of raps ; 

to dabble^ of dabs; 

to bubble or gurgle, to make a succession of noises that 
might be imitated by the syllables bub or gug. 

When once such a principle of expressing continuance or succes- 
sion was established with respect to sounds or actions accompanied 
by sound, it would speedily be transferred to cases where no direct 
imitation of sound is apparent in the simple verb, and thus we have 
the origin of the ordinary frequentatives in r and / : as grapple, to 
express a continuance in the act of grabbing or griping; goggle, 
from gouk, to stare ; wrestle, from wrest, to twist ; shatter, from 
shake, &c. 

The same effect is frequently produced by a terminating /' alone, 
without the vowel, as remarked by Ihre in v.. gtuegga. Thus to 
squeak is to utter a sharp cry of momentary duration; to squeal, 
to utter a prolonged cry of the same character. To wail, to 
utter cries of pain, such as the Germans would represent by the in- 
teijection wehe ! the French miauler, to mew, as our howl and growl, 
all imply a continuance of action. Here also, as in the regular 
frequentatives, we find the artifice transferred to cages where there is 
no reference to audible sound : as in kneel from knee, prowl from Fr. 
proie, prey. 

A fertile source of frequentatives in / and r is to be found 
in the sounds given by the agitation of liquids under various cir- 
cumstances. The sound of a single mass of liquid falling on a hard 
surface is represented by the syllables squat, blot ; the first of the 
two appearing in the Danish squatte, to dash down water, and in our 
squat, crouching down as close to the ground as a mass of liquid, 
spread out in breadth without height : the second in blot, a drop 
of liquid fallen and spread out ; and in the Fr. se blottir, to squat, 
to crouch down. Corresponding to blot, we have in the frequenta- 
tive form to bludder, bluther (Jamieson), to make a noise with the 
mouth in taking in liquid, to blot paper in writing (Sw.pluttra, s.s.), 
to disfigure the face with weeping; blether, idle talk. Pluttrabort 
penningas (Ihre), to scatter away money, as effectually and irreco- 
verably as water thrown on the ground. In like manner from squat 
we h&Ye to squatter (Jamieson), to flutter in water, to pour liquid 
out of a narrow opening ; Sw. squattra, to squander away money, 
precisely in the same sense sspluttra ; and as from squatter we have 


squander by the insertion of an n, it seems in the highest degree 
probable that plunder is formed in the same way from a word cor- 
responding to the Sw. pluttra, the expression having reference in 
the first instance to the waste made by the plundering party of the 
goods belonging to the plundered, while the reference to the profit 
made by the former would be only a secondary application. 

The frequentatives in it are in English much less common than 
those in el or er : as racket, a succession of raps ; cliquetis, Ft., a 
clashing or succession of clacks. The second syllable et seems to 
be used as an echo in place of an actual repetition of the elementary 
sound, and therefore tjiis mode of expressing continuance would in 
the first instance be applicable only when that sound was of a hard 
character, such as we have seen articulated with p, t, or k. 

The class that next comes under consideration is composed of 
imitations of the involuntary sounds uttered under the influence of 
various bodily and mental affections, as pain, cold, terror, disgust, 
&c. The cry forced from us by a sharp pain is well represented 
by the German ach, our ah ! oh I From hence we have ache, a pain 
having a tendency to produce that kind of cry ; Gr. axos, pain, grief, 
axecii, u^vvftc, &c. A groan from a deeper-seated pain is represented 
in German by the interjection wehe ! Anglo-Saxon wa I identical 
with the Latin va / vah ! from whence our woe, wail, waiment, Old- 
English, to lament. 

The effects of cold and terror on the human frame seem very 
nearly identical. The shoulders are shrugged forwards and the arms 
and closed hands pressed against the chest, while all the muscles of 
the face and jaw are kept rigid. The deep guttural sound uttered 
under these circumstances is imitated in English by the interjection 
ugh\ expressive of cold or horror. The variations of this sound 
given by Grimm (iii. 298) are hul hu\ hu ! schu ! schuck ! hvsch ! 
hutsch \ u\ ukV (Senaan), expressive of cold. From this inter-^ 
jection we had in Old-English and Scotch to ug, to feel abhorrence 
at, to nauseate ( Jamieson). 

The rattling drum and trumpet's tout 

Delight young swankies that are 9tout; 

What his kind frighted mother ugs. 

Is music to the soger's lugs. 

In a passage of Hardyng cited at the same place, it is said that 
the abbess of Coldingham having cut off her own nose and lips, 
— counselled all her systers to do the same, 
To make their foes to houge so with the sight. 
And so they did, afore thd enemies came, 
Echeoh their nose and over-lip full right 
Out off anon, which was an hourly sight. 

' Jamieson rightly observes that this passage clearly points out the 
origin of our ugly, ugsome, i. e. what makes the spectator cry ugh ! 
what causes abhorrence. The adjective huge appears to be founded 
on the same idea, designating a thing so large as to cause terror, to 
make us ug or houge at it, as spelt by Hardyng. 

In the verb to hug the attention is confined to the bodily action. 


the constriction of the anns upon the breast, characteristic of cold 
or terror, without reference to the inward feelings from which it 
arises. The same root appears extensively in the Gothic tongues, 
as in the Icel. uggr, dread; oga abominari (gruer for, Dan.)> pre- 
cisely equivalent to the Old-English to ug ; ogna or ogra, to ternfy ; 
otte, dread ; ogan (Ulph.), to fear, preterite ohte, from whence pro- 
bably the Old-Saxon /or-oAto, fear, Anglo-Saxon forht, fright. It 
may be questioned whether the above-mentioned uggr, terror, ogra, 
to terrify, do not afford a more probable origin of the Ogre of story- 
books than frx>m Ouigir, the name of the tribe that occupied the van 
in the desolating armies of Chengiz Khan, unless the latter origin 
can be authenticated by positive evidence. 

In bug, bugbear, an object of dread. North-country boggart, Sc. 
bogle, it seems that we have the same root compounded with the 
particle be. Compare boggart with Sc. ogert, disgust, repugnance. 
A buggarty horse is one apt to take fright. 

From 8cku \ schuck ! the other form of the interjection given by 
Grimm, it is probable, as he suggests, that we have to shudder, and 
the Sc. scunner, to shudder with disgust at anything. 

"The interjection of aversion, fie / pfiii/ is originally in all pro- 
bability the expression of disgust at an offensive smell, the physical 
effect of which is to make us close the passage through the nose 
and exspire strongly through the compressed lips-^faugh ! Hence 
puteo, Fr. puer, to stink ; puter or putris, originally stinking, then 
rotten ; IsL/uki, stink ; fiii, putridity ; fdinn, putrid. The same root 
formed into an adjective by a terminating / g^YesfiiU, Isl. stinking, 
foul, * Jah fuls ist * (Ulph. Job. xi. 9), * By this time he stinketh.' 
Fullsoj Is. ,to show disgust at anything ; fdlslegr, hateful, disgusting, 

From the physically to the moirally offensive is an easy step, lead- 
ing us to the GoXh,fijan, Isl. fid, to hate, whence owe foe, fiend, feud. 
To proceed with Tooke in the converse direction and derive the in- 
terjection from the verb, seems a strange inversion of the natural 
course of language. 

The physical effect of sudden astonishment or admiration, or 
complete occupation of the attention, is marked in the most striking 
manner by the involuntary opening of the mouth from the relaxa- 
tion of all the muscles of the face not engaged in effecting a steady 
gaze. Hence the frequency with which the gaping of the mouth is 
referred to as marking intent observation, — entire absorption in 
an object : 

I saw a smith stand with Jbis hammer — thusr— 

The whilst his iron did on his anvil cool, 

With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news. — K. John. 

Now the simple utterance of the voice through the parting lips 
would give rise to the syllable ba, and it is prolmble that the Greek 
and Latin interjections fiafiai ! baba ! pap<B ! are merely repetitions 
of that sound representing the opening of the mouth under the in- 
fluence of wonder or admiration. From ba with a final d, to avoid 
the hiatus, we have in Proven9al (as doubtless originally in Italian) 


badar, to open or gape ; gola badada, with gaping mouth ; whence 
badaud, Fr. a gaper, a foolish person. In modern Italian (as in the 
French bailler) the sense of gaping is expressed by the frequentative 
form sbadigliare, while the primitive badare is used only in the moral 
applications, expressing in the first place entire attention, and secon- 
darily loitering, waiting, delay. There can be no question that 
this is the same with the Gothic beidan, to look out for, wait for, 
expect — to bide. To abide, is to look out till the thing happens. 
The active sense of abide was formerly much more strongly felt than 
it is at present. In Wiclif it is constantly used where our present 
version substitutes to look for. 

Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed, 

Where many skilful leeches him abide (i. e, attend on him) 

To salve his hurts. — F. Q. iv. 27. 

In Old French it is probable that the sensible image represented 
by the syllable ba was still recognized in the use of baer (^dthout 
the d), b^er signifying to gape ; esbahir, to cause to gape, to astonish, 
whence Chaucer's abaw and the modem abash. In Old-French we 
find b^er, baier used also in moral applications corresponding ex- 
actly to those of the Italian badare, to listen to, to be intent upon 
anything, entirely occupied with it : 

Tons baiaient a la servir 

For Tamor di li desservir. — R. R. 1043. 

All besy werin her to serve, 

For that they would her love deserve.— Chaucer, 

So abayer is rendered to listen to, to wait for with open. mouth, 
inhiare loquenti, abeyance, attendre quelqu'un avec empressement 
(Lacombe). Hence our abeyance, a state of expectation or depend- 
ence upon anything, and the Old- English abie, in the same sense as 
abide, to endure or remain : 

At sight of her they suddeine all arose 

In great amaze, ne wist which way to chuse. 

But Jove all feareless forced them to aby (i. e. remain). — F. Q. 

Hence also our expression of standing at bay (which has nothing to 
do with aux abois), precisely equivalent to the Italian stare a bada, 
to stand at gaze, intently watching anything, completely taken up 
with it : 

Ne was there man so strong but he down bore, 
Ne woman yet so fair but he her brought 
Unto his bayt and captived her thought. — F. Q. 

The Scotch abeigh represents the state of a person gazing at a di- 
stance on the object of his desire or attention. 

After tracing from an onomatopoeia the expression of an idea ap- 
parently so remote from any connexion with sound as simple con- 
tinuance or endurance, it would be hard to say where we need 
despair. The difficulty is to light on the fountain-head. From 


thence it is easy to follow the stream downwards through a long 
train of derivatives ; but when we look back from the significa- 
tion finally attained, the sensible image at the source of the metaphor 
is apt to appear so strong a caricature of the corresponding features 
in the object to which it gives a designation, as to prejudice our 
hearers against our conclusion, and too often to deter them from 
following us step by step through the iuvestiga.tion which is neces- 
sary to establish that conclusion on a solid basis. 


Vol. II. MAY 23, 1845. No. 35. 

Professor Wilson, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following works were laid on the table : — 

" A Grammar of the Berber Language," by F. H. Newman, Esq. : 
presented by the author. 

" Apposition and Prolusiones Literariae of St. Paul's School for 
1845 :" presented by the Rev. H. Kynaston. 

Two papers were then read : — 

\l "On the North Anglian Dialect." By John Mitchell Kem- 
ble, Esq. 

In speaking of the Anglo-Saxon language, scholars universally 
intend that particular form of speech in which all the principal mo- 
numents of our most ancient literature are composed, and which, 
with very slight variations, is found in Beowulf and Csedmon, in the 
Exeter and Vercelli Codices, in the translation of the Gospels and 
Homilies, and in the works of JEAfred the Great. For all general 
purposes this nomenclature is sufficiently exact ; and in this point 
of view, the prevalent dialect, which contains the greatest number 
of literary remains, may be £urly called the Anglo-Saxon language, 
of which all varying forms were dialects. It is however obvious 
that this is in fact an erroneous way of considering the subject : the 
utmost that can be asserted is, that JElfred wrote his own language, 
viz. that which was current in Wessex; and that this, having 
partly through the devastations of heathen enemies in other parts 
of the island, partly through the preponderance of the West- Saxon 
power and extinction of the other royal families, become the lan- 
guage of the one supreme court, soon became that of literature and 
the pulpit also. 

In order to come to a just conclusion respecting the subject of 
the following pages, it is necessary clearly to conceive the nature 
and character of what we call dialects. The Doric, ^olic, and 
Ionic for example, in the language of grammarians, are dialects of 
the Ghreek : to what does this assertion amount ? To this only, 
that among a people called the Grreeks, some being Dorians spoke 
a language called Doric, some being ^olians spoke another language 
called ^olic, while a third class, lonians, spoke a third language 
called, from them, Ionic. But though all these are termed dialects 
of the Greek, it does not follow that there was ever a Greek lan- 
guage of which these were variations, and which had any being 
apart from these. Dialects then are essentially languages: and the 
name dialect itself is but a convenient grammarian's phrase, invented 
as part of the machinery by which tn carry on reasonings respecting 
languages. We learn the language which has the best and largest 
literature extant ; and having done so, we treat all very nearly re- 



sembling languages as variations from what we hitve learnt. And 
that dialects are in truth several languages, will readily appear to 
any one who perceives the progressive development of the principle 
of separation in cognate tongues. The language of the Bavarian 
highlander or High Dutch, the language of the Hanoverian low- 
lander or Low Dutch, are German dialects : elevate, as it is called, 
regulate and purify the one, and it assumes the name and character 
of a language — ^it is German.. Transplant the other to England, 
let nine centuries pass over it, and it becomes a language too, and 
a language of more importance than any whidi Was ever yet spoken 
in the world, it has become English. Yet none but practised phi- 
lologrists can acknowledge the fact that the German and English 
languages are dialects of one Teutonic tongue. ' 

These considerations are not without their importance. On the 
full comprehension of them depends the reception of a fact without 
the knowledge and continual presence of which the inquirer can 
only expect perplexity and con&sidn. That fact is, the complete- 
ness and consistency of dialects, in other words, their spontaneity. 
Those who imagine language invented by a man or men, originally 
confined and limited in its powers, and gradually enlarged and 
enriched by contitiuous practice <«nd the reflection of wise and 
learned individuals-*-unless indeed they look upon it as potentially 
only — m posse though not in esse, aa the tree may be said to exist 
in the seed, though requiring time and culture to flourish in all its 
majesty — appear to neglect the facts which history proves. There 
is nothing more certain than this, that the earlier we can trace 
back any one language, the more full, complete, and consistent 
are its forms ; that the later we find it existing, tiie more com- 
pressed, colloquial and business-like it has become. Like the trees 
of our forests, it grows at first wild, luxuriant, rich in foliage, fuH 
of light and shadow, and flings abroad in its vast branches the fruits 
of a vigorous youthful nature : transplanted into the garden of civi- 
lization and trained for purposes of commerce, it becomes regulated, 
trimmed and pruned ; nature indeed still gives it life, but art pre- 
scribes the direction and extent of its vegetation. Compare the 
Sanscrit with the Gothic, the Gothic with the Anglo-Saxon, and 
again the Anglo-Saxon with the English : or what is even better, 
take two periods of the Anglo-Saxon itself, the eighth and tenth 
centuries for example. Always we perceive a compression, a gra- 
dual loss of fine distinctions, a perishing of forms, terminations and 
conjugations, in the younger state (^ the language. The truth is, 
that in language up to a certun period, there is a real indwelling 
vitality, a principle acting unconsciously but pervasively in every 
part : men wield their forms of speech as they do their limbs, spoii'- 
taneously, knowing nothing of their construction, or the means by 
which these instruments possess their power. There are flexors 
and extensors long before the anatomist discovers and names them, 
and we use our arms without inquiring by what wonderful mech«« 
nism they are made obedient to our will. So is it with language 
long before the grammarian undertakes its investigation. It may 
even be said, that tibe commencement of the age of self^-consciout- 


Hess is identical with the close of that of vitality in language ; for it 
is a great error to speak of languages as dead, only when they have 
ceased to be spoken. They ^e dead when they have ceased to 
possess the power of adaptation to the wants of tiie people, and no 
longer contain in themselves the means of their own extension, llie 
Anglo-Saxon, in the spirit and analogy of his whole language, could 
have used words which had never been heard before, and been at 
once understood: if we would introduce a new name for a new 
thing, we must take refuge in the courtesy of our neighbours, and 
borrow from the French, pr Greel^ or Latin, terms, which never 
cease to betray their foreign origin, by never putting off the forms 
of the tongue from which they w^re ti^en, or assuming those of the 
tongue into which they are adopted. The English language is a 
dead one. 

In general it may be said that (dialects possess this vitality in a 
remarkable degree, and that their very existence is the strongest 
proof of its continuance. This is peculiarly the case when we use 
the word to denote the popular or provincial forms of speech in a 
country where, by common consent of the learned and educated 
dai^ses, one particular form of speech has been elevated to the dig-* 
nity of the national language. It is then only the strength of the 
principles which first determined the peculiarities of the dialect 
that continues to support them, a^d preserves tiiem from being gra- 
dually rounded down> as stones are by friction, and confounded in 
the cpurse of a wide-spreading centralization. Increased opportu^ 
mty of intercommunion with other provincials or the metropolis^ 
(dependent upon increased facilities of locomotion, the improvement 
of roads and the spread of mechanical inveiitions), sweeps away much 
of these original distinctions, but it never destroys them all. This 
is a necessary ccmsequence of the £act that they are in some degree 
connected with the physical features of the country itself, and all those 
causes which influence the atmosphere. A sort of pseudo-vitality even 
till late periods bears witness to the indwelling power, and the con-: 
sciousness of oppression from without : false analogies are the form 
this life assumes. How often have we not heard it asserted that 
particular districts were iremaricable for the Saxonism of their speech, 
because they had retained J;he arch^sms, kw, shoon, housen ! Well 
and good! Archaisms they are, but they are false forms neverthe« 
less, based upon an analogy just as erroQeous as that which led men 
in the last century to say crowed, hanged for crew, hung. The 
Anglo-Saxon language never knevjr any such forms, and one won- 
ders npt to find by their aide equally g^tuitous Saxonisms, mousen, 
husen. No doubt the peasant in many districts speaks as his fore- 
fathers ten cent^e^ ago spoke. The Norfolk hostler, who said to 
his terrier (who was at the moment rubbing herself against one 
^nny wall as he was against another), " If yow due blednder so 
abaowt old bitch, yow' II hi molten : yow II molt yusselfl " spoke very 
nearly as the East- Anglian peasant spoke in the time of Alfred : 
but he did so, partly because, whatever the original disposing^ 
causes of dialect are, tradition perpetuates them, and because the 
same natural features of the country produce the same results 



upon the dwellers in the same localities. Professor Schmeller's 
Dictionary of the present Bavarian dialect is a most valuable aid 
to us in reading the productions of the Old-German muse, be- 
cause the Bavarian peasant of today, shut up in his mountains, has 
retained unchanged the characteristics of a language which civiliza- 
tion has elsewhere changed : the same learned inquirer's journey to 
the Sette and Quindeci Commune revealed in the midst of Italy an 
isolated hill-population speaking, in some respects, the German of 
^ the tenth century. * Tim Bobbin,' the 'Exmoor Scolding,' Forby's 
'East-Anglian Vocabulary,' Wilbraham's 'Cheshire Remains,' all 
have a high philological value, not merely because they furnish here 
and there a word wanting in our Anglo-Saxon dictionaries, but 
because they show the same characters in the dialects of our day 
which existed in the languages of different kingdoms a thousand 
years back, and because they throw a broad stream of light upon 
the history of language itself. 

Professor Willis of Cambridge, in the course of some most inge- 
nious experiments upon the organization and conditions of the human 
larynx, came upon the law which regulated the pronunciation of the 
vowels. He found this to be partly in proportion to the size of the 
opening in the pipe, partly to the force with which the air was pro- 
pelled through it, and by the adaptation of a tremulous artificial 
larynx to the pipe of an organ, he produced the several vowels at 
will. Now bearing in mind the difference between the living organ 
and the dead one, the susceptibility of the former~to dilatation and 
compression, from the effects, not only of the human will, but also 
of cold, of denser or thinner currents of air, and above idl the in- 
fluence which the general state of the body must have upon every 
part of it, we are furnished at once with the necessary hypothesis; viz. 
that climate, and the local positions on which climate much depends, 
are the main agency in producing the original variations of dialect. 
Once produced, tradition perpetuates them, with subsequent modi- 
fications proportionate to the change in the original conditions, the 
migration to localities of a different character, the congregation 
into towns, the cutting down of forests, the cultivation of the soil, 
by which the prevalent degrees of cold and the very direction of the 
currents of air are in no small degree altered. It is clear that the 
same influences will apply to all such consonants as can in any way 
be affected by the greater or less tension of the organs, conse- 
quently above all to the gutturals ; next to the palatals, which may be 
defined by the position of the tongue ; least of all to the labials, 
and generally to the liquids also, though these may be more or less 
strongly pronounced by different peoples. This hint must suffice 
here, as the pursuit of it is rather a physiological than a philological 
problem, and it is my business rather to show historically what 
facts bear upon my present inquiry, than to investigate the philoso- 
phical reasons for their existence. Still, for the very honour of 
human nature, one of whose greatest and most universal privileges 
is the recognition of and voluntary subjection to the laws of beauty 
and harmony, it is necessary to state that no developed language 
exists which does not acknowledge some internal laws of euphony. 


from which many of its peculiarities arise, and which hy these assi- 
milates its whole practice and assumes an artistical consistency. On 
this faculty^ which is rather to be considered as a moral qudity of 
the people than a necessity of their language, depends the facility of 
employing the language for certain purposes of art, and the form 
which poetry and rhythm shall assume in the period of their cul- 

In reviewing the principal languages of the ancient and modem 
world, where the migrations of those that spoke them can be traced 
with certainty, we are struck with the fact that the dwellers in 
chains of mountains or on the elevated plains of hilly districts, 
strongly affect broad vowela and guttural consonants. Compare the 
German of the Tyrol, Switzerland or Bavaria with that of the low- 
lands of Germany, Westphalia, Hanover and Mecklenburg : com- 
pare the Doric witi the Attic, or still more the soft Ionic Greek : 
follow the Italian of our own day into the mountains of the Abruzzi : 
pursue the English into the lulls of Northumberland ; mark the 
characteristics of the Celtic in the highlands of Wales and Scotland, 
of the Vascongado, in the hilly ranges of Spain. Everywhere we 
find the same type ; everewhere the same love for broad sounds and 
guttural forms ; everywhere these appear as the peculiarity of moun- 
taineers. The difference of latitude between Holstein and Inspruck 
is not great ; that between Newcastle and Coventry is less ; Sparta 
is more southerly than Athens ; Crete more so than either ; but this 
does not explain our problem ; its solution is found in the compa- 
rative number of feet above the level of the sea, in the hills and the 
valleys which they enclose. 

It is the object of the following pages to give an account of one 
particular language once spoken in England, at the period when 
Northumberland, the kingdom in which it prevailed, stood at the 
head of all Teutonic Europe, through its cultivation of all the 
branches of learning then prized: tiie country which numbered 
Beda and Wilfrif$ of York among its children ; and which, although 
the misfortune of civil war and foreign conquests early put a stop 
to its national development, has yet left us in the monuments which 
survive, convincing proofs of the high moral cultivation of its inha- 
bitants. The Northumbrian- language is now for the first time since 
eleven centuries, assuming the station and attracting the attention 
which it merits ; the decipheriUg of ancient inscriptions,, and the 
publication of ancient manuscripts, are daily adding to the store of 
our documents ; and for philological purposes, it is, not only on 
account of its antiquity, the most interesting of all the forms of 
speech which were current among our Anglo-Saxon progenitors, 
but it supplies some very important links, which without it we 
should miss in the historical development of the Teutonic dialects. 
It is proposed to take the several subjects connected with It in order : 
and as the space which will be necessary to do this efficiently will 
exceed the limits of a single paper, it will be well to confine our- 
selves this evening to the first division of the subject, viz. the vowels. 
The consonants, the declension and conjugation, and some character- 
istic peculiarities of the syntax, must be reserved for other occasions. 


The illo^um^t8 of the lang^uage upon which the remarkfl that 
folbw are founded, are of three different classes. The first class 
consist of inscriptions upon stones^ principally in Runic characters, 
and of uncertain, but probably very great antiquity. The second 
class consist merely of proper names found upon coins, and whose 
date may usually be determined with accuracy. The third date 
are MSS. written in Northumberland, and in general capable of 
being referred with certainty to partioolar periods. The two latter 
classes supply us with some of the oldest, as well as the latest spe*^ 
(uinens (tf tiie dialect. Of these three, the second seems the least 
trustworthy : and this may be accounted for by the supposition that 
foreign moneyers, not perfectly acquainted with the dialect, must 
frequently have been employed in the coinage. The perfection of 
the Runic alphabet, and its capability of expressing every difference 
both of vowel and consonant, lenders the inscriptioBS on crosses* 
etc. particularly valua^, and it is impossible to refrain from the ex« 
pressibn of regret that their extent should be so Imuted as it is^ 
But it is to Uie third class that we must look for any complete md 
systematic purview of the Northmabrian dialect, and it is fortunate 
that from the great quantity of materials we are enabled to lay a 
sure basis and firm foundation for onxr work. The following are the 
principal MSS. which may be made use of for the construction of a 
grammar and the selec^on of spedmens. 

The commencement of Csedmon, from early MSS, oi iElfred's 
Beda. This remarkable monument of language, which dates fro^n 
the middle to the end of the seventh century, is, with the excep-i 
tion of the Gothic translation of the New Testament by Ulphila3, 
and one or two more trifling fragments of Gothic, the earliest spe- 
cimen of any Teutonic language in existence. There is not the 
lightest reason for doubting its being as old aa it professes to be^ 
or admitting the opinion of tiiose who would represent it as a mo-* 
dem and corrupt version of au: older text. Next in point of age 
md importance are the lines quoted by Beda on his death-bed, an4 
which, in their pres^it shape^ may safely be referred to the year 73 7^ 
the manuscrq)t at St. Gall, from which the icopy here made use of 
was taken, being very littJei if at all* younger than the first half 
(^ the eighth century. They are printed in the ' Archaeologia,' 
No. 28, Art. 12. 

The Durham £vangeles« th^ ma^ficent voli^me knowp as St. 
Cuthbert's or the Durham Bpok (Brit. Mu^. Cott, Nero, D,, 4.), 
though perhaps not the next in point of antiquityxis, from the great 
mass of materials which it supplies* of more importance than any 
other monument we possess. Like a majority of our early authori-p 
ties, it contains only Saxon glosses upon a Latin text. The text of 
the Durham book may safely be assigned tq as early a date as 
686--690, or the very dose of the seventh century : and gladly would 
we assume, if possible, an equal antiquity for the gloss. But ttd^^ 
desire, so common and so pardonable, must yield to the force of evir 
dence which cannot be gainsaid. A series of entries recording the 
names of those to whose pious labours the execution of the work 
was due, enables us to ascertain with suficient precision the date 


of it^ completion. Mlhige, bishop of Lindisfarn, and Aldred, pro- 
vost of the convent, Were the two clerg3rinen whose zeal was most 
conspicuous iii the work. The former of these was elected to the se^ 
in the year 968, and died exactly twenty years later: so that the 
execution of this book must be placed between those two years. 
With slight variations in the styled execution and in the language, 
the characters of the gloss are the same as those employed iif the 
Duiiiam Ritual, next to the Evangeles the most extensive monument 
of pure Northumbrian which we possess. But the date of the Ritual 
can be fixed with perfect certainty. It contains four collects which 
Aldred the provost composed for Bishop iElfsige, and which are thus 
alluded to : — 

Be sttSan Wudigan gsete set A'clee on Westsflexum on Lau- 
irentius Msesean daegi on Wodnes daegi JEilMge "S^m bisc6pe in his 
getelde Aldred se profast )$£s feower Collects on ftf nseht 41d[ne] 
mona ^r undeme ^writ. 

Now in the year 970, St. Lawrence's day fell on a Wednesday, 
Imd the moon was five days old, characteristics which do not apply 
to any other year within the period of ^Ifsige's episcopate : we thus 
obtain tolerably accurate dates both for the Evangeles and the RitUal; 
and with them, the most convincing proof that during a period of 
three centuries the peculiarities of tibe Northumbrian language con- 
^ tinned to maintain themselves. The Durham Ritual has been pub- 
lished by the Rev. Joseph StevensOu. 

With respect to the beautiful Psalter (MS. Brit Muss. Cott. 
Vesp. A. 1.), we are Uot so fbriunkte. From this exquisite execu- 
tion of the text, which is entirely composed of Roman capital letters, 
we should be inclined to attribute it to a far earlier date, to assign 
it to the seventh century at latest. But this must remain merely 
Conjecture, in the absence of all positite data. A for more impor- 
tant question remains to be answered. Is the language found in the 
glosses of the Durham Evangeles and Ritual^ or those of the Psalter, 
to be Considered the pure Northumbrian ? Are the points of differ- 
ence between these monuments to be at&ibuted to external influ- 
ences, or are they the natural consequences of the MS8. belonging 
to different localities } 

The country called by the Anglo-Saxons Northumberland, and 
which inay loosely be said to have extended from the Humber to 
Edinborotigh, and from the North Sea to the hills of Cumberland, was 
peopled by tribes of Angles. Such at least is the tradition reported 
by Beda, Who adds that Kent was first settled by Jutes. Who these 
Jutes were is not dearly ascertained, but fh>m various circumstances 
it maybe inferred that there Was at least a considerable admixture of 
Frisians amongst them. Hengest, the supposed founder of the Kentish 
kingdom, is a Frisian hero, and Jutes, " eotenas," is a usual name for 
the Frisians in B^6wulf. Beda, it is true, does not enumerate Fri- 
sians among the Teutonic races by which England was colonized, but 
this omission is repaired by the far more valuable evidence of Proco- 
pius, who, living at the titne of some great invasion of Britain by^he 
OercHans, expressly numbers Frisians among the invaders. Now 
the Anglo-Saxon traditions themselves, however obscurely they may 


express it, point to a close connection between Kent and Northum- 
berland : the latter country, according to these traditions, was colo- 
nized from Kent, and for a long time received its rulers or dukes 
from that kingdom. Without attaching to this legend more impor- 
tance than it deserves, we may conclude that it asserts an original 
communion between the tribes diat settled in the two countries ; and 
consequently, if any Frisic influence is found to operate in the one, it 
will be necessary to inquire whether a similar action can be detected 
in the other. Tliis will be of some moment hereafter, when we enter 
upon a more detailed examination of the dialect. The most impor- 
tant peculiarity in which the Durham Evangeles and Ritual differ 
from the Psalter is the form of the infinitive mood in verbs. This in 
the Durham books is, with exception of one verb, bi4n esse, invariably 
formed in -a, not in -an, the usual form in all the other Anglo-Saxon 
dialects. Now this is also a peculiarity of the Frisic, and of the Old- 
Norse, and is found in no other Germanic tongue ; it is then an in- 
teresting inquiry, whether the one or the other of these tongues is 
the origin of this peculiarity ; whether, in short, it belongs to the 
old, the original Frisic form which prevailed in the fifth, sixth and 
seventh centuries, or whether it is owing to Norse influence, acting 
in the ninth and tenth, through the establishment of Danish inva- 
ders and a Danish dynasty in the countries north of the Humber. 

In general the history of language impels us to believe all con- 
tractions of form to be of comparatively later introduction. Were 
"^e called upon to decide whether lusbba or habban were the older 
formation, all analogy would lead us to declare in favour of the 
latter ; for languages lose but rarely gain forms in their progress 
towards grammatical times. And hence, when we find the Gothic 
of the fourth, the Anglo-Saxon of the seventh, the Old- German and 
Old- Saxon of the ninth centuries, all in possession of the infinitive 
in -«, while only the Old-Norse and Frisic are without that form, we 
cannot but think that those two languages have deflected from the 
general type. But again, our monuments of Norse have no such 
antiquity even as the ninth century, and the oldest Frisic we know 
dates from about the twelfth : nay, more, it is not unreasonable to 
attribute to the Norse, the appearance of this peculiarity in Frisic. 
If now we examine the monuments of Nortibumbrian itself, we 
find in the earliest of all, the infinitive hergan laudare, not herga, 
while in the Psalter, whose date, though uncertain, is unques- 
tionably much earlier than that of the Evangeles and Ritual, the 
infinitive is never otherwise formed. The Ruth well Cross does 
indeed present us with three or four instances of infinitives in -a, but 
then we are ignorant of the period at which that cross was executed, 
and even if we refer it to the end of the ninth century, we shall 
allow nearly a hundred years from the first advent of the Danes in 
Northumberland, a space quite sufficient to have produced a change 
of the description in question. On a full consideration of these cir- 
cumstances, it may be concluded that this peculiarity in two 
books dating from nearly the end of the' tenth century, is not or- 
ganic, that is to say, not ori^al in the dialect, but owing to the 
influence of the Norse settlers in Northumberland ; a conclusion 


whick opens the way to the reception of other monuments as true 
and genuine specimens of the Northumbrian tongue. Otlier proofs 
of a cogent nature may be adduced in confirmation of this view. In 
' one passage of the Evangeles, fretum is explained by the double 
gloss luh vel lagu. Now it is a singular but important fact, that 
tiiese two apparently distinct forms are in reality but one word, the 
former being the Norse, the latter the Saxon way of pronouncing 
it. Again, nothing can be more characteristic of the Scandinavian 
family of languages than the prefixing <Bt to infinitives, a peculiarity 
wanting in all the other Teutonic tongues. Nevertheless in the 
Durham Evangeles we find at eatta, manducare. That other stri- 
king peculiarities of the Scandinavian tongues, such as the postponed 
article, ApOpoy vvoraatrofxerov, were not adopted by the Northum- 
brians, proves only the strong root their national language had in 
their feelings. 

The MS. (Brit. Mus. Reg. 2. A. xx.), which appears to have for- 
merly been part of a MS. now in the Cambridge University Library 
(LI. 1. 10.), can hardly be of later date than the ninth century. 
Its glosses contain the Northumbrian dialect in tolerable purity, 
though much carelessness is evident in the manner of their ex- 
ecution: in these two MSS. the infinitive is formed in -an or -en, 
never in -^a. 

On the whole Ihen the Durham Book and the Ritual must be 
considered as less accurate specimens of the Northern Angle 
dialect than the Psalter, Vesp. A. 1 ; and the latter is probably 
an earlier as well as more correct monument of the language, 
compiled either before the Northmen had exercised any influence 
upon the pure Northumbrian, or by some person removed from the 
sphere of that influence. 

We have seen that the Evangeles and Ritual date about the year 
970. But the year 801 witnessed the advent upon tiie shores of 
Northumberland of that frightful scourgeiwhich was to turn the best 
cultivated district of England into a wilderness ; Lindisfam was 
sacked by the Northmen, and not long after, Wearmouth, and other 
monuments of ecclesiastical splendour or piety, perished under the 
same ruthless hands. Gradually all Northumberland ceased to be 
English : the bishops and their clergy fled : the nobles were either 
rooted out, or after a generation or two, became confounded with 
the invaders. Intestine broils and civil wars completed the desola- 
tion of the country. During this period the dialect of the people 
might well lose something of its purity, and indeed it is wonderful 
that it should have lost no more than it has. The writer of the 
glosses to the Psalter either lived at an early stage of the Norse 
rule, or he was one of those clergymen who left the country to 
escape the destruction with which the religious houses were espe- 
cially threatened; his language therefore, in all cases where it 
differs £rom the Evangeles, may be concluded to offer a more correct 
and truer representation of the Northumbrian type. 

The Ruthwell Cross has been already described at great length 
inthe • Archaeologia, ' v. 28, art. 12: to that paper reference may be 
made for a description of it : nor need we on this occasion enter 

VOL. II. o 


into any consideration of coins. Having thus reviewed a portion 
of the materials which have heen made use of, we can proceed to 
the results themselves ; premising that we confine ourselves to the 
period previous to the Norman conquest. There is reason to hope 
that Mr. Garnett will carry on the inquiry on some future occa- 
sion, and develope the peculiarities of the Northern tongue in the 
Middle-English period, the monuments of which are both interesting 
and numerous. 

2. Bibliographical Notice of the Works on the Provincialisms of 
Holland andFriesland. From papers by Van den Bergh and Hettema 
in the Taalkundig Magazijn, Extracted by R. G. Latham, M.D. 
Subsidiary to the illustration of the English Provincial Dialects. 

Part I. — Holland, &c. 

Van den Bergh, Taal. Mag. ii. 2. 193-210. 

Groningen. — Laurman, Proeve van kleine taalkvndige hijdraffen 
tot heter kennis van den tongval in de Provincie Groningen, — Gronin- 
gen, 1822. 

J. Sonius Swaagman, Comment : de dialect o Groningana, etc, : 
una cumserievocabulorum, Groninganis propriorum. — Groning. 1827. 

Zaamenspraak tusschen Pijter en Jaap dij maHcddr op de weg ont- 
muiten boeten Styntilpoorte. — Groninger Maandscrift, No. 1. Also 
in Laurman's Proeve. 
^ Nieuwe Schuitpraatjes. — By the same author, 1836. 

List van Groning sche Woorden.-^By A, Complementary to the 
works of LcCurman and Swaagman. With notes by A. de Jager. — 
Taalkundig Magazijn, second part, third number, pp. 331-334. 

Groninsch Taaleigen door J. A. (the author of the preceding list). 
Taalkundig Magazijn, iv. 4. pp. 657-690. 

Raize na Do de Cock, — Known to Van den Bergh only through 
the newspapers. 

' Subdialects indicated by J. A. as existing, (a) on the Friesland 
frontier, (li) in the Fens. 

L. Van Bolhuis. — Collection of Groningen and Ommeland words 
not found in Halma's Lexicon ; with notes by Clignett, Steenwinkel, 
and Malnoe. MS. In the library of the Maatschappij van Neder- 
landsche Letterkunde. 

OvER-ijsEL. — J. H. Halbertsma, Proeve van een Woordetiboekje 
van het Overijselsch, — Overijsselschen* Almanak voor Oudheid en 
Letteren, 1836. 

M. Winhoff, Landrecht var Auerissel, tweede druk, met veele (phi- 
lological as well as other) aanteekingen door J. A, Chalmot.^^CaxEipen, 

T. W. Van Marie, Samensprdke tusschen en snaak zoo as der 
gelukkig n^t in de menigte zint en en heeren-krecht d^ gien hoe of ba 
z^, op de markt te DSventer van vergange vrijdag, — Overijselschen 
Almanak, &c. ut supra. 

. Over de Twenthsche Vocalen en Klankwijzigingen, door J. H. 
BMreiw.— Taalkundig Magazijn, iii. 3. pp. 332-390. 1839. 


Twenther BruTfteleed, — OverijsselschenAlmanak. 
Dumbar the Younger (?). — Three lists of words and phrases used 
principally at Deventer. MS. In the library of the Maatschappij 
van Nederlandsche Letterkunde. 

Drawings of twelve Overijssel Towns. Above and beneath each 
a copy of verses in the respective dialects. MS. of the seventeenth 
century. Library of the Maatschappij van Nederlandsche Letter- 

Gelderlano. — H. L Swaving, Opgave van eenige in Gelderland 
gebruikelijke woorden. — Taalkundig Magazijn, i. 4. pp. 305. 
Ibid.— Ibid, ii. 1. pp. 76-80. 

Opmerkingen omtrent den Gelderschen TongvaL — Ibid, ii. 4. pp. 
398 — 426. The fourth section is devoted to some peculiarities 
from the neighbourhood of Zutphen. 

N. C. Kist, Over de ver wisslingvan zedelijke en zinnelijke Hoeda- 
nigheden in sommige Betuwsche Idiotismen, — NieuwQ Werken der 
Maatsch. van Nederl. Letterkund. iii. 2. 1834. 

Staaltje van Graafschapsche landtal, — Proeve van Taalkundige 
Opmerkingen en Bedenkingen, door T. G. C. Kalckhoff. — ^Vader- 
landsche Letteroefeningen for June 1826. 

Appendix to the above. — Ibid. October 1826. 
Het Zeumerroaisel : a poem. 1834 ? — Known to Van den Bergh 
only through the newspapers. Believed to have been published in 

Et Schaassen-riejen, en praotparticken tussen Harmen en Barteld, 
— Geldersche Voll^-Almanak, 1835. Zutphen Dialect. 

Be Oskeskermios. — Geldersche Volks-Almanak, 1836. Dialect of 
Over Veluwe. 

Hoe Meister Maorten baordman baos Joosten en schat deevinden, — 
Geldersche Volks-Almanak, 1836. Dialect of Lijm. 

Opgave van eenige in Gelderland gebruikelijke woorden ac— H. I. 
Swaving— Taalk. Mag. iv. 4. pp. 307-330. 

Aantekeningen ter verbetering en uitbreiding der opmerkingen 
omtrent den Gelderschen TongvaL — Taal. Mag. iii. 1. pp. 39-80. 

A. Van den Bergh. — ^Words from the provincial dialects of the 
Veluwen ; with additions by H. T. Folmer. — MS. Library of the 
Maatschappij van Nederlandsche Letterkunde. 

Handbook, containing the explanation and et3rmology of several 
obscure and antiquated words, &c. occurring in the Gelderland and 
other neighbouring Law-books. — ^By J. C. C. V. H[asselt]. — MS. 
Library of the Maatschappij van Nederlandsche Letterkunde. 

Holland. — Scheeps-praat, ten overlijden van Prins Maurits van 
Orange. — Huygens Korenbloemem, B. viii. Also in Lulofs Neder- 
landsche Spraakkunst, p. 35 1 ; in the Vaderlandsche Spreekworden 
door Sprenger vanEyk, p. 17, and (with three superadded couplets) 
in the Mnemosyne, part x. p. 76. 

Brederoos Kluchten. — Chiefly in the Low Amsterdam (plat Am- 
sterdamsch) dialect. 

Hooft, Warenar met den pot, 

Suffr. Sixtinus. — Gerard va» VeUen, Amst. 1687. 

Bilderdijk, Over een oud Amsterdamsch Volksdeuntjen, —^VKder^ 



landsche Letteroefeningen, 1808. Reprinted, with an appendix, at 
Leyden, 1824. 

Bilderdijk, Rotcbeklag ; in gemeen Zamen Amsterdamschen tongval, 
— ^Najaarsbladen, part i. 

Gebel, Scheviningsch Visscher sited, --AhaKmik voor Blijgepstigen. 

1 . Boertige Samenspraak, ter heilgroete bij een huwelijk. 

2. Samenspraak over de harddraverij te Valkenburg en aan het 
Haagsche Schouto, 

3. Boertige Samenspraak tusschen Heeip en Jan-buur. — ^These three 
last-named poems occur in Gedichten van J. Le Francq van Berkhey, 
in parts i. 221, ii. 180, ii. 257 respectively. 

Tuist tusschen Achilles en Agamemnon, Schiutpraatje van eenen boer; 
ofluimige vertaling van het 1® Boek der I lias, by J. E. Van Varelen. 
—Mnemosyne, part iv. Dordrecht, 1824. 

The same by H. W. and B. F. Tydeman in the Mnemosyne, 
part iv. Dordrecht, 1824. 

Noordhollandsch Taaleigen, door Nicolas Beets. — ^Taalk. Magaz. 
iii. 4. pp. 510-516, and iv. 3. pp. 565-372. 

List of words and phrases used by the Katwijk Fishermen. — MS. 
Library of the Maatschappij van Nederlandsche Letterkunde. 

Dictionary of the North-Holland Dialect; chiefly collected by 
A^e Roskan Kool. — MS. Ibid. 

Zealand. — Gedicht op 7 innemenvan sommige schansen en de sterke 
stad Hulst, ^c. 1642. Le Jeune; Volkszangen, p. 190. 

Brief van eene Zuidbevelandsche Boerin, aan haren Zoon, dienende 
hij de Zeeuwsche landelijke Schutterij, Zeeuwsche Volks-Almanak, 

Over het Zeeuwsche Taaleigen, door Mr. A. F. Siffl6. — ^Taalkundig 
Magazijn i. 2. 169-174. 

Notes upon the same, by Van A. D. J[ager]. — Ibid, p. 175-177. 

Tmlkundige Aanteekeningen, door Mr. J. H. Hoefft. — Ibid. 1. 3. 

Collection of words used in Walcheren. — MS. Library of Maat- 
schappij van Nederlandsche Letterkunde. 

Collection of wofds used in States-Flanders. — MS. Ibid, 

NoBTH Brabant. — J. H. Hoeflft, Proeve van Bredaasch taaU 
eigen, ^c— Breda, 1836. 

J. L. Verster, Words used in the Mayoralty of Bosch. — MS. 
library of Maatschappij van Nederlandsche Letterkunde. 

Jkwish. — Khootje, Waar binje P hof Conferensje hop de vertrekkie 
van de Colleesje hin de Poortoegeesche Koffy* uyssie, hover de gemas- 
qvferde bal ontmaskert* — Amsterd. 

Lehrrhede hower de vrauwen, door Raphael Noenes Karwalje, 
Hopper Rhabbijn te Presburg ; in Wibmer, de Onpartijdige. — 
Amst. 1820, p. 244. 

Negro*. — New Testament. — Copenhagen, 1781, and Barby, 1802. 

The Psalms.— Baxhy, 1802. 

• From Taal. Mag. iii. 4. 500. In the 86th number of the Quarterly Review 
we find extracts from a New Testament for the use of the Negroes of Guiana, in 
the Talkee-talkee dialect In this there is a large infusion of Dutch, although the 
ba«s of the language is EngUih. 


Vol. II. JUNE 13, 1845. N6. 86. 


Rev. H. Jenktns Rees in the Chair. 

The following works were laid on the table : — 

** A Grammar of the Cree Language," by the Rev. J. Howe. 
Presented by the Geographical Society. 

** A MS. List of Provincialisms used in the neighbourhood of 
Ropsley, Lincolnshire," by Mr. John Allen. Presented by Dr. 

" A MS. List of Cleaveland Words," by the Rev. John Oxlee. 
Presented by Dr. Latham. 

Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, Florence, was elected a member 
of the Society. 

A paper was then read : — 

** On the North- Anglian Dialect" (continued). By John Mitchell 
Kemble, Esq. 

The object of the few remarks which follow, is the development 
of the vowel system in the Northumbrian or Northern Angle dialect. 
It will form the first of a series of short papers upon the peculiari- 
ties of that dialect, of its vowel and consonant relations, its declen- 
sions and conjugations, and some startling phaenomena in its syntax. 

In order to render this investigation useful, and indeed intelligible, 
it will be necessary to institute a comparison between this and 
other Teutonic forms; to dive, in short, to some extent into the 
comparative anatomy of the Anglo-Saxon itself: and this appears 
the more desirable, because, in spite of a certain outward activity 
which has always existed and does yet exist in England with regard 
to that language, there is reason to suspect that very few persons 
indeed have penetrated its secret, or possess any beyond the merest 
superficial acquaintance with its philological character. And as, 
in giving any account of what in grammatical parlance we call 
dialects or variations, we necessarily assume a fixed standard from 
which to measure deflections, we shall take the West- Saxon dialect 
as that standard, partly because it is the most familiar of all the 
Anglo-Saxon languages to the student, having been made the nearly 
exclusive subject of grammars and text-books ; and partly because 
the finest poetical remains of our early indigenous literature, whe- 
ther they be translations or not, are found in it ; which poetical 
remains contain traces of a peculiar language which seems not to 
have maintained itself the moment the heathen mythus and epos 
ceased to leave traces of their influence, and which is not found at 
all in Anglo-Saxon prose writing. 

But it is not enough for us to institute this comparison, nor 
would it alone produce the effect which we ought to require: 
we ought to expect some account of the relation in which these 

VOL. II. p 


Anglo-Saxon forms stand towards the early Germanic languages 
of the continent, and more especially towards the Gothic and the 
Old High- German, which are respectively the types of two varieties. 

Of all the Germanic languages which have been preserved by the 
existence of a literature, or the efforts of Chiistian zeal, animated 
by faith and supported by learning, the one called Gothic or Maeso- 
gothic is generally assumed to be the most ancient : it is in some 
respects dso the purest. From certain very remarkable features 
which it possesses, it may fairly be taken as the type and earliest 
example of the Low- German dialects, under which very vague 
term is included, for the objects of the present inquiry, as much 
as belongs in common to the languages of Scandinavia, Iceland, 
England and the Scotch Lowlands, Friesland, the Netherlands, 
Holstein, Stormaria, Ditmarsh, the Danish isles, and much of North 
Germany, together with the Franks also as far as they are represented 
by an early literature. This common element may be said to con- 
sist in a peculiar system of consonants : and it is because the Gothic 
consonants appear to possess a strong Hkeness to those of the other 
languages mentioned, that it is classed with the Low- German 
group : for its vowels differ from those of some members of the 
group quite as widely as these differ among themselves in the same 
respect ; and thus, if the vowel system alone were to be considered, 
we might find it necessary to include, not only the Gothic, but the 
Old-Norse and the Frankish under the name of high or mountain 
German dialects. But the vowels seem to be too variable and un- 
certain to allow of our mtdcing them the basis of a distinction which 
may be far better fixed in terms of the consonants. Besides a few 
records of sales, etc. and a fragment of Theodoret of Mopsueste's 
Commentary upon St John's Gospel, we possess no monuments of 
the Gothic language except portions (happily now not inconsiderable) 
of Ulphilas's translation of the Bible. Some part of the sixth century 
is probably the utmost extent to which we can carry the antiquity 
of the Gothic, as we possess it. 

In all probability a still more ancient form survives in what we 
have agreed to caJl Old High-Dutch or Old High- German, which 
differs widely in its consonants from all the languages above noticed, 
while in some respects its vowel relations bear a strong resemblance 
to those of the Gothic and even of the Old-Norse. We have in- 
deed in this dialect no literature which claims such antiquity as 
must be conceded even to some Anglo-Saxon monuments : the tongue 
in fact is old, though the literature be young : in other words, the 
people yielded comparatively slower, or from various local influences 
did not yield at all, to those changes which learning and civilization, 
commerce arid a necessity for extensive and rapid social intercourse 
are sure to produce. The first Christian missionaries to Germany 
were nearly contemporary with the ecclesiastical historian of En- 
gland*, and long before, the earliest of our Germanic poets had 
sung the glory of the Almighty in strains of which -an echo still 

* Beda was born in 677. The brothers £wald suffered martyrdom in 695, and 
St. Boniface in 755, nearly twenty years after Beda*s death. 


«urvive8. The modem representatives of the Old High -Dutch, — 
vhich dialect, having been fixed in the minds of men by Luther's 
translation of the Bible, and adorned by the poems of Opitz, is now 
the current language of German literature, the tongue alike of 
Gothe and Menzel, of the poet and the critic, the schools, the 
pulpit and the. mart, — are the descendants of the ancient Alemanni 
and Baiowari, the Suabians of Baden and Wirtemberg ; the Bava- 
rians, the German Austrians in the ancient March, the Swiss in 
their northern districts and their mountains, before the Romanic 
tongue offends the ear with its indefinite misty compromises, the 
Tyrolians, and the dwellers in the Sette and Quindeci commune 
near Vicenza in Italy. 

A momentary digression may be pardoned in speaking of these last 
people. Their existence has long been known, but little besides 
their existence. While undisturbed in their mountains, their origin 
and manners might form subjects of amusing speculation, but-hardly 
of scientific investigation. Speculation indeed was rife enough. By 
some, the inhabitants were looked upon as a race of wandering Ger- 
mans, like gipsies seeking seats all over the world, but, unlike gip- 
sies, retaining them when won. Again, they have been made out to 
be the descendants of those Cimbri and Teutones who survived the 
arms of Marius, although it is extremely doubtful whether there was 
a single drop of German blood in their whole host. Others again 
thought they could discern in them the Heruli whom Odoacer left 
behind him, or even the Ostrogoths of Thiudareikis. But they were 
never really known till Andreas Schmeller, some five years ago, set 
foot among them. He probably disbelieved all the speculations to 
which reference has been made, but still thought it very possible 
that at some early period southern Germans might have formed 
settlements in the north of Italy. Months might have elapsed, and 
the Professor's vacation ended, without his obtaining the insight he 
desired into the German character of these communities, for both 
men and women spoke, if they did not look, Italian ; but fortu- 
nately one evening good beer did its work, and a guide conducting 
Schmeller homeward over the mountains, could not refrain in the 
genuine Germanism of his heart from giving a salute to the moon 
in pure High-Dutch of the twelfth century. The result may easily 
be anticipated : we now possess an excellent grammar with all its 
accessories, and which, with its specimens of language, songs and 
tales, forms no unworthy companion to the two admirable works, 
the ' Mundarten Baiems' and ' Baierisches Worterbuch' of the same 
industrious and judicious author. 

The Gothic then, and the Old High-Dutch are the two foreign 
elements which we shall compare : it would have been productive 
of advantage, had time and circumstances favoured it, to have taken 
more Low-Dutch dialects into consideration, and extended our com- 
parison to the Old- Saxon, Ditmarsian and Friesic; but this would 
have carried us beyond 4ihe limits which must be observed in papers 
of this kind, and may be left for happier hours of leisure. 



There is probably no language in which the whole number of 
sounds required is represented by separate letters : from the Sanskrit, 
the richest of all, to the Old- Greek or Old-Norse, the poorest in this 
respect, every known alphabet is inadequate to represent all the fine 
distinctions of sound, whether consonant or vowel. Many lan- 
guages again want altogether sounds and signs which are among 
even the most common in cognate or derived tongues. Thus the 
Gothic, the earliest form of the Teutonic language, knows nothing 
of the short e and short o, which are of such frequent recurrence 
in the Anglo-Saxon. It has in fact only the three short vowels a, t 
and u (with one modification of each of the two latter, which will be 
explained hereafter), and in the few Greek words and proper names 
which could not be well avoided in a translation of the Gospels, it 
replaces e and o by the best means it could devise : thus e becomes 
ai\ o, ad\ for example, Zaihaiddiads, Ze/3€^atos, DiabadlaiiB, Aca- 
/3oXos. On the other hand, its long vowels give evidence of an acute 
feeling of harmony and a singular richness in that particular part of 
language which is most important to its euphony and its power of 
expression. The long vowels of the Gothic are seven in number ; 
di, du, eiy iu, 4, 6, and u. It will be necessary to trace these ten 
vowels in the other Teutonic tongues, for which purpose we must 
assign to them their pronunciation in the Gothic itself, as the 
basis of our comparison : since the philologist must consider the 
sounds themselves, and not the signs* by which sounds have acci- 
dentally been represented. 

Three Short Vowels. 

a, like the a in the New- German band, Ital. trovanno. 

i, like the t in the English words win, sin, thinJ^ 

tt, like the u in the New- German bunden, English bull. 
To these must be added two modified short vowels, arising under 
peculiar circumstances out of the vowels t and «, and used irregu- 
larly in proper names to represent e arid 6. These are 

at, like the e in the English words met, set, wet. 

au, like the a in the English words flaw, raw, saw. 

Seven Long Vowels. 

di, like the English affirmative Aye. 

du, like the ou in the English words house, round, mount. 

ei, like the t in the English words wine, sine, thine. 

iu, like the u in the English words re/use, mural ; or the ew in 

4, like the a in the English words mate, state ; or the at in wait. 

6, like the o in the English words rote, vote, smoke. 

u, like the ou in the English word wound; or the oo in moon. 

1 .believe these values to be very nearly accurate, and that they do 
in fact represent all the sounds which were made use of in the 
Gothic language. But it seems clear that other sounds and cha- 


meters were found to occur in other Teutonic dialects. Two distinct 
principles appear to be in continual action, to whose operation we 
must attribute the changes which take place in the nature and form 
of the vowels. The first of these is a tendency in the vowel to be^ 
come dulled or broken when placed in particular positions ; so that 
a totally different sound results, and In general an indefinite or dull 
vowel is substituted for a fuller and more definite one. This change 
in some respects results from the influence of a consonant which 
precedes or follows the vowel ; in others, from the situation of 
the vowel itself in the middle and especially the end of a word, 
where it is more liable to the effects of accent. It is very difficult 
to pronounce any vowel quite alike before /, », or r. Even the Go- 
thic itself replaced t and u by at and ad whenever these vowels 
were followed by an A or an r ; the other German dialects dropped 
the Gothic notation, though they in all probability retained the 
sound in the short e and o, which often replace i and u, even in 
cases where the Gothic vowels would have suffered no alteration : 
thus the Old High- Dutch stelan, yiiran, A.-S. stelan, represents a 
Gothic stilan : noman, A.-S. nomen (sometimes numen), a €k)thio 
numans. For distinction sake, Grimm marks the e which grew out 
and represented an earlier t with two dots, e. It seems unneces- 
sary to adopt any peculiar designation for the o, because the cases 
in which it does not really represent u are very rare, being confined 
nearly exclusively to the Anglo-Saxon. But in the last-named 
dialect a still further change took place : not satisfied with trans- 
forming t into ^', before h, /, m, it broke the vowel into eo, a sound 
which can only be described by pronouncing girl (georl), puelkt, in 
the West-country manner. Thus arose sweord, N. H.-D. schw^rt, 
siohtra, N. H.-D. sichter : sceold, N. H.-D. schilt, etc. 

Similar in character to this is the change which the Anglo-Saxon 
alone, of all the dialects, makes in the short a before A, /, r, and 
certain combinations of those consonants : it almost invariably be- 
comes ea in the true West- Saxon dialect, and is so pronounced in 
the south-west of England to this day : thus cart, card, garden 
(kyart, kyard. gyarden). This change at one time seemed at- 
tributable as much to the influence of a consonant preceding as of 
one following the vowel, and Grimm, in the new edition of his 
Grammar, appears to entertain a similar opinion ; but upon reflec- 
tion it seems necessary to relinquish this belief. It is true that the 
change is almost universally found when the vowel is preceded by 
one of the gutturals or an aspirate : thus heard, geard, heal, hearm^ 
ceast ; swearm, wearm, sceado : it also accompanies the palatals : 
thus pearf, tear, deah ; but the labials also are found with it : thus 
feallan, fealo, bealo, beard ; besides in some cases it is found unpre- 
ceded by any consonant ; thus eal, eart, eafora, earf6t$. The rule 
therefore must be made so wide, that it would cease to be a distinc- 
tion at all, and the effect must therefore be confined to the consonants 
which succeed the vowel. 

The alteration which we find in vowels at the end of a word 
seems to be in all respects natural and easily accounted for : it is 


dependent in a great degree upon the national habits, the necessity 
of rapid interchange of speech, altering the accentuation of words. 
Our forefathers spoke more slowly, more musically than we do : 
while we travel at from sixty to seventy miles an hour, we cannot 
waste time in sounding vowels, especially at the end of words : in- 
flections and final vowels are the first sacrifices offered up to social 
progress and commercial activity : the Goth said sunus, filius ; the 
Anglo-Saxon, sunu ; the Old-English, sone : we are not satisfied 
' with these abbreviations, but must have son. In the final syllable 
of words then we frequently find the vowel dulled into a corre- 
sponding but less definite form, till it finally perishes entirely. Thus 
Old-Saxon genitive fiscas, piscis, is the Anglo-Saxon fisces: the 
English has thrown away the syllable entirely. The final t in 
Gothic harjis, is the e in A.-S. here : beadu, though sometimes found, 
is more fre'quently beado : so also bealo, melo ; which nevertheless 
recover their u before a vowel, and at once transform it into a con- 
sonant, thus bead we pugruB, melwes mulsi. 

So much for the eflfects of position upon certain vowels. It re- 
mains to note the changes which result from the action of one vowel 
upon another, and which are of considerable importance in every 
Germanic tongue. The most striking of these is the change pro- 
duced by the vowel i or e which represents it ; though from time to 
time both a and u may be detected in exercising a certain influence 
upon preceding vowels. This operation, for which we have no 
name, is known in Germany by that of Umlaut (abouUsound) : we 
must content ourselves with the very insufficient rendering " modi- 
fication," which word is here confined to the expression of this pecu- 
liar action. The rule is as follows : when a, u, 6, u, in one syllable, 
are followed in another by i or e, they become in Anglo-Saxon 
^» y* ^1 S* pronounced respectively like the e in shelly the u in the 
French word muVt the a in hate, and the ee in steel. Examples of 
this are — 

Gothic. Har-j-is, exercitus, A.-S. her-e. 

Kun-i, genus, A.-S. cyn-. 

Wdth-is, dulcis, A.-S. w^«-e. 

Ang.-S. B\6d, sanguis, A.-S. bl^d-an (for bl6djan). 

Ftis, paratus, A.-S. fysan (for fiisjan). 

These modifications remain, even though the vowel that caused 
them should have perished by lapse of time : thus bed lectus, cyn 
genus, can only spring from an earlier bedde, cyne. Where the 
modifying vowel has only been introduced in the process of conju- 
gation, and is therefore not really organic, the eflcct ceases on the 
cause being removed. 

The vowels a and ti, and the equivalent of the latter, viz. o, 
appear to have a power of producing a full sound in a preceding 
syllable, if the vowel in that syllable be an a : thus a would be 
found, not a, in the words dagas, dagum ; but a would be found, 
not a, in dseges, dsege. 

The Old-Norse allows u to exercise an influence over a preceding 


a, which it converts into 6, in the old notation av, showing its ori- 
gin. Thus A.-S. lagu is the Old-Norse log, in the Edda lavg. 

Having said thus much of this very important element in the 
construction of the German tongues, without which, what is to fol- 
low would not he intelligihle, we return to the Gothic vowels, and 
proceed to point out their equivalents in West- Saxon. 

Goth, a A.-S. a, e, a, 'ea^ o, y. 

■ t *, Cy €0, y. 

u ti, o,y, , - ~ — -^^ 

«» «» ^l' y/^\ 'cjy- ^ ' • '' . ' H " \ 

dvu ed, y. / ^^^ ^ \ 

— !^- — % A^-^TV V ,:sTTT] 

\U €0, I J ^1 . ' — / 

u u,y. ^^"--il__^- 

Thus the short Gk)thic a continues to he represented in Anglo- 
Saxon hy a similar short a, except in the following cases : — 

1. When through modification it has hecome e, 

2. When in a monosyllabic word it is followed by any one of 
the following consonants or combinations of consonants; viz. c, 
g,h\ p,b,f\ t, d; sp ; sc, st ; in which case it is replaced by a 
sharper sound, written a, and pronounced like the a in lad, sad, 
tap. If however any of the simple consonants above-named should 
in the process of declension be followed by a, o or u, then the 
original sound and spelling return; thus mdBgfilius, dseg dies, stsef 
Ifactdus, but magas, daga, stafum. The combined consonants sp, 
sc, st, are not subject to this rule, and preserve the sharper vowel 
without the least regard to what may follow : thus Ksc/raxinus, 
sesca, not asca ; blsest flatus, blsestum, not blastum. If instead of 
a, 0, u, the vowel of the inflection should be e, no change takes 
place : thus daeg, gen. s. dseges, dat. s. dsege. 

3. The third case has been noticed; viz. where a falls before 
h, r, I, and combinations of r, / : as rd, rt, rs. Id, It, Is, when it is 
replaced by a short vowel ea. Thus Goth, alls omnis, A.-S. eal; 
Goth, waldan, A.-S. wealdan ; Goth, mahts, A.-S. meaht. 

4. Where before m and n it sometimes deepens into o, as rom 

5. Lastly, where Sa itself undergoes modification, in which case 
ay or t makes its appearance. Thus eald vetus, yldesta maximus 
natu, yldan veterasci ; meaht potentia, mihtig potens, 

I. The short t continues to represent the Gothic t in all cases 
except where it has become e or eo. Generally spealdng, before 
the liquids m and n, the t remains : there is a wavering before /, 
and before r, eo is nearly universal : so also before h. In other 
cases the t is tolerably constant. Examples : — JGoth. himan, A.-S. 
niman ; Goth, hliftus, A.-S. hliftan (KXiTTTrjs, a.nd lift, to steal) ; 
Goth, wiljo, A.-S. welan and weolan, divitia; Goth, bairhts, A.-S. 


berht and beorht ; Goth, hairus, A.-S. heoru, ensis, etc. Sometimes, 
but inaccurately, a short y is written in place of t ; thus hyra for 
hira, heora. 

u. The short u continues to represent the Gothic .«, in all cases 
where it has not been dulled into o, or modified by a following t or 
€ into y. Thus Goth, fulls plenus, A.-S. ful ; Goth. sunn6 sol, 
A.-S. sunne. It has been already observed that o=« may be ex- 
pected in terminations: thus O. H.-D. hirutz cervus, A.-S. heorot, 
but sometimes heorut : he^fod, sometimes he^ud : ic hafu and ic 
hafo, habeo ; ic cf^n and ic c^^o, nuntio. The modification regularly 
takes place whether the v or o be found in the root : thus Goth, 
kuni gens, A.-S. cyn for cynne. A.-S. God Deus, gyden dea ; 
gold aurum, gylden aureus ; ful plenus, fyllan implere. This vowel 
y must have approached very nearly to the German ft, but with 
perhaps a little more tendency to the t sound. 

du The long Gothic vowel di, which in O. H.-D. and O.-Nor. is 
€%, and in Old-Sax. i, reappears in A.-S. as an d, which in mo^ 
dem English deepens into 6, oa : thus Germ, eid, eiche, A.-S. dt$, 
^c, £ng. oath, oak. It is probable that this peculiar change is 
owing in general to northern influence in England : for a similar 
phsenomenon is noticeable in the highlands of Bavaria, Austria, 
T3rrol, Switzerland, and other mountainous districts of Southern 
Germany : in these localities the natural High-Dutch ei is replaced 
by a, deepening not unfrequently into 6. Thus zwo for zwei, A.-S. 
twfi, Eng. two. •* A loab brot," A.-S. hl^f, N. H.-D. leib brot, a 
loaf of bread, etc. When this long vowel d is foUqwed in A.-S. 
by t or e, it becomes subject to modification and takes the form of 
a long a' : thus hl^f, loaf, and hl^ford ; but hkefdige, lord, lady ; 
h^, home ; h^man, coire ; h^med, connubium, 

du. This long Gothic vowel reappears in O. H.-D. as ou, with 
the same sound as in Gothic ; in Old-Sax. as 6, and in A. -Sax. as 
ed. Thus the O. H.-D. roup rapina, is the A.-S. reCf : the O. H.-D. 
poum arbor, O.-Sax. b6m, is the A.-S. be^m. Its sound must 
have approached that of our ee, but still have been somewhat 
broader, as it is yet heard in our provinces. When followed by i 
or e, this vowel was modified and became y, whose pronunciation 
it would be nearly impossible to distinguish from tiiat of ee in 
deem, sleep : ^edmfuga, fifmei profugus, 

ei. The long Gothic vowel ei, which is always written with an 
e and t, and had the pronunciation of the modem Germ, ei in weib, 
or the English i in wife, was in all the Teutonic dialects replaced by 
a long {, having the sound of ee in weep. In most parts of Ger- 
many and in England this vowel has returned to the Old- Gothic 
pronunciation : thus wine, wife. 

iu. In the West-Saxon dialect, the long Gothic vowel iu was 
represented by e^ : thus Goth, liusa, A.-S. Ie6san; Goth, griuta, 
A.-S. gre6tan. In O. H.-D. it remained for the most part un-* 
changed, though some Titers replace it by to, ia, and even ie. It 
is the N. H.-D. eu (pronounced of), while in English it is pronounced 
ee, though written sometimes with an ie, sometimes with ee, as 


in thief, deep, A.-S. ^e6f, deop. The Old- Saxon form is ia, the 
Old-Norse id ; the dialect of Kent has iu, io, ia, and ie, thus run- 
ning from one end of the scale to the other. This vowel is some- 
times erroneously replaced by ^. 

e. This Gothic vowel remains unchanged in West-Saxon, but 
with a different notation, viz. «'. Thus Goth, d^ds, A.-S. daed 
f acinus, O. H.-D. and O.-S. a ; thus t^t, ddd. In modem English 
it has become nearly universally ee, thus deed. 

6, The Gothic long 6 is represented in O. H.-D. by «o, in*0.-S. 
and A.-S. by J ; thus Goth, mods animits, O. H.-D. muot, O.-S. 
and A.-S. mdd. A following i or e converts this in A.-S. into e : 
thus dom doom ; d^man, to doo7n or deem. 

u. The Gothic long u is replaced in A.-S. by «, except in the 
one case of modification by i or e, when it becomes j ; thus rums 
amplus, A.-S. rtim; but ryrcan dilatare, r;^met dilatatio. 

Having thus established a regular system of A.-S. equivalents, 
and settled the relation of the usual A.-S. vowels to those of the 
other Teutonic dialects, we can proceed to point out wherein the 
Northumbrian order differs from the rest, and in what respects it 
holds a middle place between the older and the later forms. In ge- 
neral it will be found to have affected broad, rough sounds, and 
consequently not to display .those numerous changes in which the 
dialect of Wessex above all others abounds. We shall take the vowels 
in the same order as before. 

a. 1 . The modification of a into e for the most part continues. 

2. a is still changed into ce in the cases for which the rule was 
laid down ; and with the same exceptions : thus dseg dies ; dagum 
diebus ; daege diei. But it is a peculiarity of this dialect to replace 
theccitself by e: thus we ter ag«a ; dQgdies; wes/wi; feder, fedrum, 
pater, patribus ; megne virtutes ; ber iuli. To this there is nb 
parallel in pure A.-S. manuscripts, except perhaps in the dialect of 

3. In those cases where the West- Saxon dialect has ea, the 
Northumbrian for the most part leaves the vowel unchanged ; thus 
before /, r and their combinations it usually retains a. Exam- 
ples : — aid vetus ; said dedi ; walde voluit ; halda tenere ; walda regere ; 
bald audax ; al totus ; tSarf necessitas ; aron estis ; siofenfald septu- 
plex ; galla/<?/; gewsldpotentia ; galgre patibulum ; slt^ es. This is 
so constant as to be one of the surest chai-acteristics of the dialect. 
In a few cases only, and by way of exception, we find t5u eart, es ; 
middangeard, orbis terrarum ; but ea does not appear to be found 
before / or its combinations. 

4. It necessarily follows that y, which arises from the modifica- 
tion of ea, must be extremely rare. It is usually replaced by te ; 
thus aeldo seniores, Durh. Matt. xxi. v. 23. 

II. in the Northumbrian dialect, the short t has not yielded to e, to 
anything like the same degree as in Wessex. This peculiarity, which 
is perhaps attributable to period quite as much as to locality, is found 
also in Kent, before the end of the ninth century. Examples : bi 
for the usual be ; bihalda conspicere ; biform ante ; bilucan claudere: 

VOL. II. . Q 


gi for the usual ge ; gihuaes for gehw^s ; msecti for meehte ; ^ci for 
^ce ; drictin for dryhten ; ^rist ; giwundad ; gist6ddun ; mic for 
mec (ace. s. of pronoun) ; witgan, witgenafor witan, weotan ; hifun 
for heofen, ccelum ; birhtu for beorhtu, byrhtu splendor ; nitSerlfc 
for neot$erlfc, imus. Still no doubt we find numerous instances 
where the e has replaced i : such are were opus ; weolerura labiis ; 
heofen ccelum, etc. In a majority of cases however where the West- 
Saxon dialect would have required eo, and especially before the 
liquidV and its combinations, the Northumbrian affects the sharper 
sound of ea : thus fearran, eafSe, hearras cardines, heara, hearta 
cordium ; forgeafa ignosci ; sealla dare. Of this peculiarity we find 
traces in the contemporary dialBct of Kent : thus wiarald mundus ; 
wiada sylv€d ; Osbearhte, Osberto ; agiaban rependere. This may be 
looked upon as one of the strong characteristics of Angle dialect. But 
the most remarkable peculiarity which we have noticed respecting the 
short i, is the substitution of a, e or a for it, and in cases where 
a pure liquid following might have been expected to preserve its 
sound in piuity. Thus, waelle voluerit, D. Mat. xx. 27 ; huaet wallat5 
gie, quid vultis ? D. Mat. xx. 32 ; cuoet^a waella dixerit, D. Mat. xxi. 3 ; 
^rmo nvptia (usually feorm), D. Mat. xxii. 2, 3, 4 ; wsella suoeriga 
furaverit,D, Mat. xxiii. 16, 18; wareo forweorca, D.Mat, xxiv. 8; 
hwaerflung from hweorfan, D. Mat. xxiv. 24 ; hwaelc, D. Mat. xxiv. 
44. This seems to be a nearer approach to the Gothic practice than 
that of the common West- Saxon ; a remark which will have to be ex- 
tended to some other peculiarities. With a singular perversity, this 
dialect selects the verb niman and its parts to exemplify a change 
which is extremely rare in all the rest, and it nearly always has 
nioman for niman to take. 

u. The only point in which the Northumbrian differs from the 
West- Saxon in the use of this vowel, is in the comparative rarity of 
its replacing it by o. Thus it retains it in the terminations of 
verbs and nouns: cwomun, arun, wearuld, fi6di\m oderunt, somud 
undt atur venerium^ faedur pater, birhtu, fyrhtu, di6ful, we earun nu- 
mene, weotudlfce, wuldur gloria, etc. etc. The modification of u 
into y continues : thus fylde rep/eriV ; kyningkrea?. One remarkable 
exception is found in the preposition ^orh, usually 8urh, in which 
form the Northumbrian monuments rarely if ever apply it. But 
this exception is probably merely apparent and has no real foun- 
dation in fact. . The Gothic diflPers in this respect from the Old 
High-Dutch and Anglo-Saxon, that it forms the preposition thairh, 
not thaiirh, i. e. with an t, not a u. But the Northumbrian uses 
^erh quite as frequently as t$orh, perhaps even more frequently, and 
it may therefore be supposed that even the tSorh itself was rather in- 
tended to represent i than tr. 

di. The long vowel a which represents the Goth, di, remains in 
the Northumbrian, but probably had a deep tone, verging upon 6. 
Thus g^st spiritus, hSL sanus, h^t calidus. The modification is also 
unchanged: h^tu ca/or, h^u ^a/t^ ; cl^ne parvus, uncl^ns'minqui- 
nare, etc. Generally the notation is separate, a and e, not cb'. 
ei. The usual long ( remains unchanged. 


iu. In Northumberland, as well as in Kent, this vowel is subject 
to considerable change. We may be sure that it was originally iu, 
for the Kentish tradition asserts that Hengist and his comrades 
came over in three ckiulce, i. e. West-Saxon ce()l, Eng. keel. A 
Kentish coin of the ninth century still has CiulnotS ; yet at the 
same period we find CialnotS, in Wessex CedlnotJ ; frj^ndum amicis; 
hi^ ilia ; heh\£de jubeo ; ge^i^n proficere ; bi^n esse ; and in Northum- 
brian M^e have a large number of examples, of which the following are 
specimens : gece^a captari ; gese^ videre ; neusade visitavit ; ge- 
fre£de liberavit. We have also te, as in onsiene faciem ; and even a 
plain 6: thus l^ht lux, Rit. 2, 4, 5 ; galgatre j9a/i^M/Mm, Kit. 23 ; and 
l^gatS mentientur, Psalt. 200. At the same time the common West- 
Saxon ed makes its appearance frequently in the same monuments. 

^. The Gothic long i continues to be represented in the Nor- 
thumbrian, sometimes by the usual cb', sometimes by 6 ; but as this 
is merely a mode of notation which involves no difference of sound, 
it requires no notice. 

6, The Gothic long 6 still remains as 6, The modification 
however of 6, viz. ^, is subject to a different notation in Northum- 
brian. In the oldest monuments of all, we find 6i : thus Goinraed, 
usually C^nred, Coinwalh for C^nwalh, C6ifi or C6ifig, the ardent, 
from C6f. At a later period, both in Kent and Northumberland, we 
have not e, but 6e, which like the 6i shows clearly the real origin of 
the vowel. Examples are, b6enum j^recf^u^; d6Qmsijudicare\ foeda 

u. The . long u, and its modification y, are the sanie as in the 
other dialects, and require no further notice than this: that in D. 
Mat. xxvii. we find the resolved form ue (i. e. ue) instead of ^, giving 
evidence of the origin of this vowel. 

du. The long Gothic du, as has been observed, answers to a 
West-Saxon ed. This is retained in the Northumbrian, as well as 
the modification into y. But frequently a long e is substituted 
for it, which sometimes, but very rarely, occurs south of the Humber. 
Its recurrence in the Northumbrian is so common as to make it cha- 
racteristic of this dialect. Thus geMfa fides for gele^fa. and even 
gel^fu credo (where the modification would require gel;^fu) ; b€h, 
b^g torques ; h^h altus ; e6 facilis. A still more remarkable pecu- 
liarity however of the Northumbrian is the substitution of ed for ed 
or i : thus de68 for deatS ; e6re for eare auris ; e6storlic for easterllc 

So much for the vowels. It may facilitate comparison if we ex- 
hibit them in a tabular form. In the following scheme the vowels 
are arranged according to the powers of the Gothic, which occupies 
the first column ; the second contains the usual Old High-Dutch 
forms ; the third, the forms current in Wessex ; the last, those of 



0. H.-D. 




a, e. 

a, e, 88, ea, o, y. 

a, e, o, 86. 

I, al. 

i, e. 

i, e, eo, y. 

i, e, ea, sb, eo. 

U, ad. 

U, 0. 

u, 0, y. 

u, o, y. 


ei» ai. 

^, ^. 



ou, o. 

64, f. 

e^, ^, f, eo. 






i^, ie, iu. 


ed, id, ea, ia, id, ^, d. 








d, di, de. 





On a future occasion we shall point out some characteristic peculi- 
arities in the use of the Consonants, which occasionally differ very 
much from the ordinary West-Saxon, especially in the order of 
Gutturals and Dentals* 


Vol. II. JUNE 27, 1845. No. 37. 

Professor Twiss in the Chair. 

A paper was read — 

" On the relations which exist between the preterite went and the 
verb go ; and also between va, and the verbs aller and andareJ* By 
Professor Key. 

It was contended, in a paper formerly read before the Society, that 
better was the real comparative of good ; and attention was called to 
the many cases where a deficiency of forms from one root was said to 
be supplied with the required forms from another independent root. 
Among the instances there enumerated occurred the words go and 
went of our own tongue, and va and aller of the French. The object 
of the present paper is to show that the irregularities in these four 
words are to be explained by ^he mere interchange of letters, and 
not by the doctrine of conplementary roots. 

It is commonly admitted that the Italian andare and the French 
aUer are correlatives in form as well as in meaning. The interchange 
of d or nd with / has often been noticed, and is very characteristic 
of the language from which l!he Italian and French are derived, as is 
seen in caleo and cando, whence candela, candidus, incendo, etc. ; 
scando andscala ; mando and mala ; pando and palam ; sedeo and sella; 
rado and ralla. It is also seen in the English substantive wall, by 
the side of the German equivalent wand, and in the German stellen, 
the factitive* form of stehen, stand. 

The identity moreover of andare and aller is strongly confirmed by 
their similar position in the two tenses of the Italian and French 
languages, viz. vado or vo, vai, va ; andiamo, andate, vanno ; and 
vats, vas, va ; allons, allez, vont. But if they be allied, the question 
still remains, from what Latin word are they derived ? The answer 
is from vado itself; from which, beyond all doubt, the other persons 
of these tenses have proceeded. The double form of the first person 
in Italian is an answer to the only difficulty which could present 
itself in the disappearance of the d ; and there exists an instance of 
the same change which is perfectly parallel in the double form of 
the great river of northern Italy, Pado and Po. But let us examine 
vado more accurately. It is a common accident of the Latin verb to 
have two forms, one ending in a single consonant, the other inserting 
a nasal in addition. Tang-o, for example, appears in the old writers 
as tag-o, whence integer, etc. Thus Terence has ne me attigas, and 
-Gellius quotes Pellex asam ne tagito. So again tundo forms a perfect 
tutudi and a participle indifferently, */tin^m or tusum ; &ndfundo has a 
perfect yiidi. The same modification of the consonants is exhibited 
in unda and udtts, and in the Greek cLv^avta and hdvs ; and nearly in 
the same relative position stsnd pando and pateo. Hence among the 
many dialects which must have existed in ancient Italy, vandere 



would probably have been found somewhere as an eqmvalent of 
vadere. Secondly, the initial v of vadere, or rather w if we look to 
the pronunciation, is precisely the letter of all others most apt to 
disappear from the beginning of words. Of this principle, the very 
words hyBavtit and d^vs, which have been just quoted, are examples, 
for it is well-known that they were once written with the digamma, 
Fav^avo) and Fa^vs. Nay, tiie other words unda and udus are com- 
monly held to be the Latin equivalents of our Saxon water and wet. 
We have another example of such a disappearance of an initial w in 
the name of the Vandals, who migrating through Spain into Africa, 
left their name indelibly impressed on the map of the Peninsula in 
the title Andal-usia, That such was the oiigin of the name of that 
province is a fact historically known, and indeed the Arabic appel- 
lation for the whole Peninsula is to this day Wandaluz. Again, the 
Greek verb ao), to breathe, had for its full root the syllable Fay, con- 
nected with which are the Greek avefios, and both of the Latin words 
animus and ventus. 

There still remains one difficulty. The Italian andare would have 
corresponded more accurately witii a Latin verb of the first or a 
conjugation. This is a difficulty which may be satis^torily ex- 
plained. As the great mass of secondary verbs in the Latin lan- 
guage happened to belong to the first conjugation, there was a 
general tendency in the mouth of the Homans to draw all verbs into 
that form. In this way we may account for the irregularity of such 
verbs as sonar e, tonare, etc., in making perfects and participles in ui 
and itum. These terminations denote an original verb which was 
not of the first conjugation, and in fact we find in the oldest writers 
sonere, tonimus, etc. In the same way the substantives spirttus and 
haUtus afford evidence that there once existed the infinitives spirere 
and halere, which were afterwards supplanted by spirare and halare. 
These considerations put together render it perhaps not improbable 
that vdd is the parent of andare and aller. But there still remains 
another Latin verb which seems to claim kindred with those of which 
we have been treating, viz. amhulare. 

The meaning given to ambulare presents no difficulty, for even in 
our own language we find the verb go frequently used in the sense 
of to walk by the older English writers, as Chaucer in the ' Frere's 

" Somtime like a man or like an ap>e, 
Or like an angel can I ride or go." 

(vide Johns. Diet.) But the pecidiar form of ambulare requires more 
careful consideration. The Latin and Greek, like the Teutonic 
dialects? abound in verbs of a secondary character, which affix to the 
simple root a syllable containing one of the liquids, more commonly 
r, / or n than m. Examples in our own tongue are waver, slumber, 
flatter, etc.; suckle, ruffle, grumble \ open, hasten, reckon. In the 
Greek tongue it will be sufficient to refer to ixavdavia, Xipvavnt, 
fvyyay<a, and in the Latin to generare, strangulare, suffarcinare, 
pQstulare, It may be a question how far these secondary verbs 
are formed from intermediate substantives, and also how far they 


partake of a diminutive power, but these are not matters for dis- 
cussion on the present occasion. That ambulare, with the con- 
sonants mb, might be formed from such a primitive sls andare or 
undere, will perhaps be admitted by those who compare the Latin 
lumbi with its German equivalent lende, the Latin tundo with its 
Greek and English representatives tvvtw and thump, the Latin scan^ 
do* with the English climb and clamber, the Latin mando with the 
English mumble and the German substantive mund, the Latin venUer 
with the Enghsh womb ; or by those who compare the several forms 
of our own round, roll, and rumble; — growl, groan (Fr. grondir), and 
grumble ; — or the English lime-tree with the German linden. 

Before leaving the languages of France and Italy, it may be a« 
well to observe tiiat the preservation of the i; in the singular and the 
third person plural of the verbs andare and aller is probably due to 
the brevity of the forms vo, vai, etc., compared with andiamo^ 
mndate, etc. 

Proceeding to the northward we find in our tongue the verb go^ 
which in signification is the precise equivalent of the words we have 
been examining ; but there is primd facie no similarity of form. 
This consideration should not be held to be at once fatal to the pos- 
sibility of a connection between them. Who, without a full exami- 
nation, would have assented to the identity of talis and such ; qualit 
and which ; aut and or ; hi and they ; ille and yon ; ego and /; quin- 
que and Jive ; duodecim and twelve ; centum and hundred ; oculus and 
eye; caput and head, etc. ? and yet all these pairs of words may be 
shown to be exact equivalents of each other. Indeed the whole 
Saxon basis of oiur language diflfers from the Latin tongue, solely aa 
one dialect diflfers from another. 

. As regards the word go, the diflference even at first view from 
mndare is scarcely greater than that of the Italian vo ; or rather, we 
may say, va, for tiie o in vo is the exclusive property of the first 
person. But be the diflference ever so great, it is precisely among 
the primitive words of a language that apparent anomalies and 
violent changes occur ; and that go belongs to the early verbs of our 
own tongue is established, partly by the perfect participle, ending as 
it does in n — gone, but still more by the present indicative in the 
Old High-German gam, gas, gat, etc. (G^mm, i. 868), where we 
have one of the few examples of tiie first person retaining the sufiix 
m. But we must examine die various forms of the verb before us. The 
Scotch gang, confirmed as it is by our substantives gangway and presS' 
gang, and by the German participle ge-gang-en, presents us with the 
vowel required, and that vowel followed by a nassd sound. We should 
have preferred nd or mb to ng, but the three sounds are not unfre- 
quently interchanged. Thus the German termination of the imper- 
fect participle is efid,hvLt the English ing, — habend, having. Again, the 
English hunger bears a strong resemblance to the Spanish hambre, 
formed from the middle-aged Latin /amtna. So again the Latin 

* The insertion or loss of an / is seen in the Ladn top-or, tomp-nut, beside the 
English sleep and German schlaf; in the h^tin fiigere, beside the English fy and 
tiie German /if \£n$LndJlug\ in the Latin cfudo beside the EngUah ^hut, etc 


lamhere is connected with the French langue and Latin lingua, and 
therefore with the English tongue. We must not avail oureelves of 
8uch*degradations as in the Latin cambiare and French changer, etc., 
because the ng in changer or change has a sound widely diflferent from 
that oi gang. That our English verb should begin with a g, when 
the Latin has a r, is in no way surprising, especially when the vowel 
follows. The connection between good and well is a parallel case, 
and in the attempt in a former paper to establish this connection, it 
was shown that while the guttural g preferred the neighbourhood of 
a, 0, or tt, the appearance of an e in the root generally led to. the 
introduction of a preceding lip-letter. The perfect tense went, as 
compared with go, is another example of this change, and indeed the 
present wend is also used in the same sense of going, and there seems 
strong reason for believing that wend and gang are only dialectic 
variations of the same word, as ward, guard-, wise, guise, etc. 

The word walk deserves a few words. Our etymologists are not 
happy in dealing with this verb. A comparison with hark and talk 
will probably throw light upon it. Now hark is evidently a secon- 
dary formation from 'Aear, corresponding to the German hbrchen, and 
not less certain is it ,that talk stands in the same relation to tell. 
Hence the final letter of walk is no portion of the root. We are 
thus reduced to the syllable wal. Now this form of the root exists 
in the German, as in the substantive waller, a rambler ; in the com- 
pound wall-fahrt, pilgrimage, and even in the verb wallen. But in 
considering this verb care is required, as the lexicographers have 
placed under one root, translations which belong to several. We 
speak on the present occasion of the verb wallen, as used in the 
Psalms, 42, 5 : " Schon waif ich auf der Bahn die uns zu Ehre leitet" 
When the same word signifies to * bubble* or ' boil,' it is a root alto- 
gether independent of that we are discussing, and belongs to the same 
family as the Latin unda, the German welle, etc. The English words 
walk, walker, in the sense of fulling, fuller, belong probably to a 
third root, and therefore need not be considered here. 

In the German tongue our root has produced two secondary verbi 
wandern and wandeln, the latter of which has the same sufi^ as the 
Latin ambulare, and precisely the same meaning ; while the form 
wandern, in its sense of * to travel,' differs not very widely from our 
own verb wander, which is evidently a secondary verb, like clamber, 
wonder, etc. Probably wandeln and wandern themselves are merely 
dialectic varieties of each other, for it is not a rare thing for the 
same word to appear twice in a language, with a slight variety of 
form and meaning: see Grimm, ii. 119. where he speaks of these 
very words. If this be the case, there is nothing to surprise us in 
finding vandre and vandra in the Danish and Swedish with the very 
signification to walk. 

Attention has been already drawn to the fact that the English 
noun wall is in German wand. Hence it was to be expected that the 
verb wall, as seen in the diminutive walk, would enter the German 
tongue as wand in wandeln and wandern. 

The ordinary doctrine, that our perfect went is borrowed from a 


terb wend, signifying ' to turn/ has a difficulty to contend with in 
the signification itself. No doubt the German verb wenden means 
to ' turn/ but it belongs to a root wholly different, viz.* to the same 
family as our verb wind and the Greek FuXew, The verb wend in the 
sense of go is actually used in English, and bears the very closest 
resemblance to the radical syllable of wandeln, etc. The same 
change in fact has occurred in a word which has been already ad- 
duced, viz. Vandals, for these people, though held in subjection by 
German masters, were themselves probably in race no other than 
the Wends of the present day. Compare also Elbe, Albis ; Ems, 
Amisia ; Hesse, Catti, etc. Another argument in favour of the iden-' 
tity of the roots go and wend is found in the fact that wend, like go, 
sometimes signifies ' to walk.* Thus Chaucer in the Prioresses Tale : 

** And thurgh the strete men mighten ride and^^ende. 
For it was free and open at either ende." 

Lastly, it may be advantageous to compare what we have found in 
^the Teutonic dialects with the forms which 'occur in the Latin and 
its derived tongues. In the north we insist on a prefixed guttural 
or digamma ; in the south this initial consonant is dispensed with, 
except in the form vadere. The vowel a appears in sdl the forms 
except in our own wend and went. And as regards the final cdn- 
sonants, there is not a trifling parallelism between the all-er and 
anda-re of France and Italy compared with the German wall-en, and 
wandeln or wandern*, 

* The Greek paivut has fiav for its radical syllable, and is probably the corre- 
lative of the words in discussion. The Neapolitan dialect strikes out every d which 
follows an n, and thus gives us anare for andare. And the initial j3 is a fair re- 
presentative of V in v<ido. We may observe too, that the final consonants 4isappear 
alike in the Italian va, in the Greek root, which so often appears as j3a alone^ and in 
our English go or ga^ 


Vol. II. NOVEMBER 28, 1845. No. 38. 

Professor Wilson, V. P., in the Chair* 

The following works were laid on the table : — . 

Two MS. Lists of Provincialisms ; one presented by the Rev. 
Dr. Williamson, the other by Dr. Roots of Kingstpn. *' Winer's 
Grammar of the Chaldee Language," translated by H.B. Hackett, 
Andover, U. S. ; presented by the Rev. Dr. Davies. " Rimes 
Guerneseaises par un Catelan," Guernsey, 1831 ; presented by Pro- 
fessor Graves. 

A paper was then read : — 

" On the Anomalous Verbs of the English Language." By Ed- 
win Gu^st, Esq. 

Our grammarians, for the most part, consider as anomalous the 
verbs which form their past participles in n. In this light they 
were viewed by Hickes ; but the arrangement was objected to by 
Ten Kate, and the scheme, of which the Dutch grammarian first 
drew the outline, has (with more or less of modification) been gene- 
rally adopted by continental philologists. Ten Kate appropriated 
three of his six divisions to those verbs whose participles end in «, 
and his sixth or last he assigned to certain verbs, which deviated so 
widely from the ordinary conjugations, as to merit, in an especial 
manner, the title of anomalous. The peculiarities of these verbs, 
so far as they have been developed in English syntax, it is proposed 
to examine in the following paper. 

There seems to be no one characteristic which runs through the 
whole of this class of verbs ; but they are distinguished by a ten- 
dency to adopt certain forms which it may be well to place clearly 
before the reader, before we investigate the conjugation of any verb 
in particular. 

In the first place, the present tense often takes (in part or wholly) 
the same inflexions and the same change of the radical vowel as the 
perfect of those verbs which form their past participles in ». The 
peculiar nature of these inflexions will be seen at once by comparing 
together the present and past tenses of the verb to come, as they 
appear in our Old-English MSS. 

Present Tense. 

Past Tense. 

Sing, come 


Plur. comef or come 


cumen or cume. 

The second person singular of the past tense sometimes takes st 
instead of the vowel inflexion, even in the Anglo-Saxon ; and the 

VOL. II. s 


substkution becomes proportionably more frequent as we approach 
our modem dialect ; we are therefore quite prepared to find our ano- 
malous verbs taking such forms as canst, darst, wost^ &c. The change 
of the radical vowel may be traced as late as the fifteenth century : 
sing can, dar, shal, &c. ; plur. cunne, durre, shulle, &c. 

Another peculiarity of these verbs is a tendency to adopt t as the 
inflexion of the second person singular* : ar-t, wer-t, is-t, was-t, 
migh't, wil't, &c. The distinction between the inflexions t and st 
is probably one of mere letter-change, but it is deeply rooted in the 
antiquity of our language, and forms an important landmark in some 
of the more obacure paths of philological research. 

The preterites of our anomalous verbs generally resemble the 
preterities of those verbs which form their past participle in rf:— sing. 
shulde, shuldest, ahulde, plur. shulden or shulde ; but was, the preterite 
of the verb substantive, resembles cam both in its form and its in- 
flexions. The formation of the preterite depends on laws which vary 
with the different verbs, and in some cases on laws of letter-change 
which are both obscure and diflicult of investigation. As however 
no deduction is here drawn from these laws, and they are referred 
to solely for the purposes of classification, the mere enunciation 
of them, without any formal proof, may perhaps be considered aii 

As we trace our language downwards from the Anglo-Saxon, we 
find these anomalous verbs more and more assimilating themselves 
to our ordinary conjugations — to the northern conjugations in the 
north, and to the southern conjugations in the south of England. 
According to the usage which prevailed in our northern counties, a 
verb was often used without inflexion or change of structure in bdth 
numbers and in all the persons. Hence in some early northern 
MSS. we find the anomalous verbs stripped of all their peculiarities, 
and not even taking an inflexion in the second person singular. 

The singular of the verb substantive has in all the changes of 
our language preserved nearly the sanie forms, am, dirt, is; the later 
plural, aren or are, was borrowed from our northern dialect, the 
form which preceded it in the Anglo-Saxon having disappeared at 
the time when our language melted into t^e Old-En^sh. Aoeording 
to modern philology both singular and plural fcn'ms consist 6f the 
root is combined with certain verbal endings, and acted upon by 
letter- changes, the history of which has been hitherto only partially 
iuvestierated. It may be suflSeient at present to observe, that the 
change of the * into r between two vowels, as in aren, is a very 
marked feature of the Anglo-Saxon. We may have occasion here- 
after to refer to it. 

Tlie root is is found in all the Indo-Buropean languages, and in 
some of them is used as a verb in an uncompounded state and with- 
out any change of structure. In Irish it enters into construction 

* In the Icelandic, with some few exceptions, the verbs which usually form their 
past participle in n take this inflexion in the second person singular of their prete. 
rite ; brenna, to burn, is inflected iti that tense, as follows : sing, brcmn, bratint, 
brann ; plur. brunnum, &c. 


i^'ith all the personal pronouns : is me, is tu, is e, is sian, is sihh, is 
iad; I am, thou art, he is, we are, &c. ; and in some of our northern 
xlialects it appears to have heen used with equal freedom. 

1. Now may I say that / ii but an ape. — Ch. Reves Tale, 282. 

2. Our manciple I hope he wol be ded 
Swa workes ay the wanges In his bed, 

And therefore is I come and eke Aleyn.-^— Ch. Reves Tale, 111. 

3. With alle dayntethis on dese, thi dietis ar di^te, 
And / in dungun and dill is done for to duelle. 

Antur of Arthur at the T. W. 15. 

. 4, I is made a pursuivant against my will.— rB. Jons. T. of a Tub, 2. 1. 

5. I kna not what to dea — Is'e laath to leav the barns.— Wheeler's First 
Westm. Dial. 

. 6. Ise reet fain, Ise cum this hefler-nean, etc. — Wheeler's Westm. Dial. 

7. — pou ert comen fro feme & riche kyng is of fe. R. Br. 193. 

8. Myn heritage I crave of >e that is my heued. R. Br. 90. 

9. Now Symond, said this John, by Saint Cuthberd 
Ay M thou mery, and that is faire answerd. 

Ch. Reves Tale, 200. 

10. He was a wight of high renoune, 

And thou'se but of a low degree. Old Ballad, Percy. 

1 1 . Siker tkou *s but a lazy lad. Spens. July. 

12. The teeth of time may gnaw Tantallan, 

But thou *s for ever. Bums on Pastoral Poetry. 

13. Scotland and me *« in great affliction.— Buras's Earnest Cry, &c. 

14. I is as ill a miller as f« ye*. Ch. Reves Tale, 125. 

15. WilleGris! WilleGris! 

Thincke twat (qwat) you was and qwat you is, Lanercost, p. 52, 

1€. ^t- three pmls of hhn 

Ii ours already. Jul. Cessar, 1. 3. 

17. All liittigs It ready, how near is our master? 

T.oftheShrew,4. 1. 

18. Marcy on us! times is fearfully awtered sen I war a young woman, 
&c.— Wheeler's First Westm. Dial. 

19. — - our nebbors it sic a spiteful gang. 

Wheeler's Westm. Dial. 

This use of the verb is may either have originated Ih that confu- 
sion of forms which often distinguishes a mixed and broken dialect, 
or it may be a remnant of an earlier and simpler gtammar than our 
literature has handed down to us. That is was considered as a 
verbal root long after the forms am, art, are were elaborated, appears 
from the fact that it gave birth to another form of the second person 
— ist, which is clearly identical with the Old-Swedish test (Petersen's 
Hiat. p.207). 

* The reader need hardly be reminded, that the passages qnon^d from Chaucer, 
ex. 1, 2, 14, are imitations of our northern dialect. 

8 2 


,' 'l2!o, 1 see thomi! an amritltiatsTyWn kfi w^Vfit trt fmirhtfaam. — 

Whedpr's First Westm. Dial: 

As this form ist in aD probability originated before our dialects 
^.ere buolqen i|piithe.^coii4 of the above hypotheses se^ms to be the 
preferable on^. 

As late as the fifteenth century, was t»ok inflectioiis similar to 
tho^e of cam : sing, was, were, was ; ;phir^weren or were; tli^ « bdng 
ch^ged into r between the two vowels, according to fte hew idready 
noticed:—"' ^"- ' '■'' ' ^- ' • ' .■ ^ - ^' _ ' •'• - 

.j^l^y ^x^^y^exi.'^^t^xwaf in the Ifalle hyi^ethe, pon of the dauiesels of the 
higl^efite;preste cam Ssc, & $?ide, ^^inithou w^^rc with Ihe&iis of I^az&reth." 

^I^cUffMai^^^ ;\J^ ■ , ,' ■■' : ^ \'\ ■ 

^^^, Apd I wepte,W<^V» f*"^ TiOQXi was fonndun worthi to opene the book 
&c. And thei sungen a newe sopg & seiden lord oure god thou art worthi 
to take the book and to opene the seelisbYlt^forlf^oftf^e^^^lain^^c^'^^^li&lif, 
Apocalyps, N&4 *> :> ,7 ^ r, 

23. O Sathanvenidoiis sin tbiHifr^Ugr :vs - t r- 
i That ihou were chase^l fforn our her j^gj^, \m : r * ' 

yfei ]^)owe8t thou to wc^^f)^ itlie olde way. 
.i^.aix.-^-nn ,v.^^' , rn,:,,,,'in,:" Ch. ^M. of Lawes TaJ^ 256. 

24. Thorwe my sinne man was forfom, 

And man to save thou wore alle torn, " . 

Andofamaydin Bedleenihohi. Cot.' Mysfe 344. 

The Norse dialects change. ;f|l^r* even ia the singular; thus the 
Danish has, sing, var, plur^ tMire^ ;\ Bunilai^ fqrmSrW^e usj^ in the 

•yn1k6,^Wtmmm'1h69m^)m9 tothet d^y tfeoh yuitewtey wi' th^ dpg prethee ? 

rf^ljWr 3wr-tCQ)li«f!f yim;Bohhi%-i6.r,-. ^,)o-,o^ . J: '.;., :,t .^VM.. ,v 

ni SW* jffiM|i^ogttngm:!teB')th'-^m%Ttod^iWttow iw#TnOBfcj-^«rT Wheeler's 

^WastnlUiJDiaAk.J.v jv-- ■:■ r-.: ■ '■ ji ; -^'^ -aj >o .,.■..••.-;■ ^ ;. bAiu.)^ • 

This letter-change wa^ nbttrnkndwtt ev^-in dtif 'ttOnia«ei« ettufi- 
jbeV; Ifi^'inTS^etAhii^t^^^ ^ng. 

'w&f,^Dersi,Wef', pltir. «^(?r'^arnei, Tfiss. p.^); andtte s^^ fortiis 
se^m to have plfevailed in Somersetshire, though wersi IOa tui^ been 
mejt with ip any. spedmen of that did 

,t37^, . My father's cottar ^esolate, 
. ' , ' An ail lool^*^ wild verlorn, . ' 
• ' Th6 ash i^riir stunted that iror fiet- 

" The dfi that / itia^ borh.^ ^ JT^nriing*, Thd RMkei^. 

^iH.iiyw . ■,'>; ,,,■. ;. ..,i^ . ! _^; , . • . ^,. . *',..:,.':* 

j jSpc^ of,the Pacret the followi;^ inflexians are ^ed ; smg. wa^* 
m^t,rumif\^\\ii.were. , 

V agi >-*^ )<*»«« 4he^ rofl'st upon m« «ip to Doraty VrogwiUs i^itting, 
whan tha vangst (and be hanged to. tba I) to Eabbin— shou'd ^eemihawart 
sjfiek «|ift^. Wl^lit fnd |ne-ftl,.&c^^ 1. ; 

• The laws which reg^tf^ thp flwnge o/ i to r were much the saine Jn La^n 
as in the Gothic. Thus the change is n^quent in Latin when the consonant occurs 
between two vowels, genus, generis, &c., an* Ocoosiotaillf^kes place even when 
xh^sht ftAal, as XkMot, kihor, ar^orj Ac fm kofamiahdS^ a^9%^t»,'j 



Hosegood, whan tha wawter w<i8 by stave, hpw tha/midirin' « 

Hugh drade thee out, &c., whan tha wart just a buaHrgd.^^£.\ino\'>r 

Scotding^ 1. '^ ^^ 

30. Is' did'n think thee wari so zoon a galled.— Dev. Dial. 1, Palhier's ed. 

W^rtvr^sk oqcaaionaUy; u^ed even by our qI^sIqielI writers (vicl. 
Johns. JHct), JhjB modern term tra^f worked its wa]^ into ojy 
written langi^e dvurmg the fifteenth century. It is formed fmm 
was in the same way as if^(ex. 20) from vs. TFer/ in its forma^on 

runs parallel to ar^. . , 

Thk verbs ca» (to be ablie), a» (to pVe)'riiiid Tiiari^ (t^bp 
obliged) closely resemble each other in their itt'flexionjs, p,ft4 alsQ'm 
tlie formation of their perfect. The following scheme exhibits their 
present and past tenses, as they appear in our Anglo-S^on\M4S^. 
imd «lap jtije past tense fitpngynnun, to be^ ;— ': 

Present Tense. Fast Tense. ; ^ <: ^ 

Sing, can an g)^^manw Siry.tai*^^, 

cunne unrie fee-rhaiist. ' ' on-|cunne. 

, . , can , ^ ^ ^ "ge^aiir * "' ' "' bn-gan. 
Vlur. cunnon linnon ge- munnon. Plur. on-gunnon. 
Past Tens|^^^^. ■_..■,.. '^^^^ ,.."_■, ;^ ;^^_ Trr- .-■ V 7 

H , 5)u^ q^ ufe ge-niunde^ J / ^J; ' [^ ^ , 
cu))est u^est ge-mundest. 

Here we have the inflexions of the present tens€«^t»iii,^ ii«;^*i4itt*^, 
Bg^eU^Sfi e^rf'pKi^imldlC tH(ih{thci^tof tke^jont tems^ aa^ 
that ge-man forms its second perko^ !i^ ;^«- ^k lie^KHlOfi MUPi^ise 
lis, tvli^irTCNr relnember l^htit^ An^o^SititoBDOeciuioiia^juseavtf in 
the second person of the past tense. Indeed we ofteft ^xd-^^i^/ 
u^ ii^t(^ of ffiiwe innt^j^i^ . i ;. ,rj 

The iprmatioa of Ui^ past tenae^ cu^^ ti)>i, yemt<»<ip,,6eein9 to be 
pei^nliaf^ The final , syllable hfw prplM5)ly noting inppnxinpjP ^ft^ 
J^dfyf.^^ ^biqfi fq^iB^/sQ,ip?jMiyi.i^^ |^g^^?)i,Iir?t^ji)9s.7X^^ 
are reasons for believing thatit r^pr^entSptt^ii.pj^ tfe^rjesenttepi^t^s 
can^ an, geman ; and that n, nd, and b are merely^ difierejit mbditica- 
tions of the same literal element But 'we fiavd'sjiaclfe neither to 
examine these reasons, nor to discusa the stift inore im qnes- 

tioft wJtoh>^la4»sJ»^ttie final vowd in c?^)»A-^>^*!ie'OT''*^- 

The primary meaning of can is ' to know'; the secondary meaning, 
• to be able.*^ The liinJc which connects A^'t tliei'fol- 

lowing is the Old-English conjugation : pres. sing, can, etmW'^f^t 
phxr. cAnnen or ciinikf; ji^rf* c(w]ie or ctmde; lol $o (»Mie,^paft. (Htitth. 

31. 1 can ho mote ^xpbund in tjiis matete ' ' ' '*; " 
I lerne sohgfi /fctfnhut smal|rammete. 'tlv.'Prioreis^^^^^^ 

2^. He seid^ t;o the tribune, wher it is leeful to me, to speke any thing to 
teef!^pseide>^fl^ " r ;,^ 

Bot he jtei aiU Wotoj and aU« ^uig'seft afid^^ik R.Bx.2lS.- 


34. — ye cunnen deuie the face af hevenes, but 

Ye moun not wite the tokenes of men. Wiclif, Matt. 16. 

35. Lewede men cunne French non 

Among an hondryd unnethis on. R. C. de Lion, 26. 

36. Couthest hou wissen ous he way. woder out Treuthe wonyeth. 

Vig. dc P. PL pass. 8. 

37. Thei couthe much, he couthe more.-r-Gower, Conf. Am . 6. Ulisses . 

38. His felow taught him homeward prively 

Fro day to day til he coude it by rote.— Ch. Prioresses Tale, 93. 

39. Alias said Richard that ever it suld be kuth, R. Br. 184. 

40. — while there is a mouthe 
For ever his name shall be couthe. 

Gower, Conf. Am. 6. Ulisses. 

From coude, by virtue of a false analogy (vundd, should), aided, it 
may be, by a vicious orthography*, came the modern form of the 
perfect could. 

Even in Anglo-Saxon we find the short o interchanging with the 
short a, as mon, con, stonde, &c. for man, can, stands, &c. In the 
fourteenth century this letter interchanged just as readily-^xdth the 
short ti. Hence in our MSS. of Robert of Gloucester W9 find con 
and conne representing the singular and plural verb; and Tyrwhitt 
uses conne for the plural, and sometimes con for the singular. Our 
northern MSS. generally retained the a, and sometimes used the 
verb without any change of structure, in all the persons, thou can, 
we can, &c. In the sixteenth century can was occasionally conju- 
gated like one of our ordinary verbs, he canneth, to can, &c. The 
verb to ken, which we now use as a synonym of can (to know), is 
properly its causative verb. In the Old-English, ken signifies * to 
show,' * to teach.' 

41. Clerkus ]>at knowen ]>y8. schoulde kennen hyt abrode. — Vis. de P. PI. 
pass. 2. 

42. Furredles may ze ren 
With all zoure rewful route 
With care men sail zow ken 

Edward zowre Lord to lout. Minot, p. 23. 

The verb an was rarely used in our Old-English dialect. 

43. ' — lateth dom this plaid to-brekef 
Al swo hit was erur bi-speke — 

Ich an (grant) wel, cwaah th^ nijtegale. 

Hule and Ni^tingale, 173. /. 

* As early as the fourteenth century, i appears to have been often dropt in 
pronunciation after a broad ▼owel-sound. Hence came the orthographical expe> 
dient of adding an /, merely to show that the preceding vowel was pronounced 
broadly; older for outher (either), nolt for not (ne wot), nolt (ornowt (neat-cattle), 
&c. Webster, the American lexicographer, makes could a distinct word from can. 
He connects it with the IVelsh gallu to be able, and thus accounts for the presence 
of the /. Unluckily for this hypothesis, the / did not intrude itself till the fifteenth 

t That is, ** Let judgement decide this cause, as it was before agreed." 


44. Urgan thegeaunt iinride 
After Sir Tnstrem wan — 
Tristrem thought that tide 

Y take that me Gode an (what God gives me) 

On a brig he gan abide, &c. Tristr. 3. 7. 

45. Gif hit wule iunnen waldende hsefuen 

Ich wolle wurthliche wreken alle his witherdeden. 
If it will grant He that wields the heavens. 
Worthily will I wreck all his misdeeds. 

La^amon, Battle of Bath. 

The t in iunnen represents the Anglo-Saxon ge, which is sometimes 
prefixed to this verb — ge-unnan, to give. 

Mun, there can be little doubt, is the same verb as the Anglo- 
Saxon ge munan, to think of. In the Old-English it often indicates 
mere futurity, like the Icelandic mun ; and the peculiar sense now 
given to it — that of obligation — appears to have been its latest deri- 
vative meaning. The phrase ** we mun go," may have taken suc- 
cessively the meanings ** we think of going," '* we shall go," " we 
must go." llie change of the radical vowel must have been early- 
lost. Minot uses mun in both numbers, and in other northern MSS. 
we find man or its substitute mon similarly treated. The preterite 
munt is dtill used in some of our northern counties. If it exist in 
our southern dialects, it would no doubt take the shape of mund, 
answering to the Anglo-Saxon ge-munde. 

46. I'm e'en sorry for itr—munneh (mun I) hold it beeod, while it heart 
brasts o bit?— Collyer's Tim Bobbin, 7* 

47. I sail nocht lang remaine from your presence, 
Thocht for ane quhyll / man from you depairt. 

Lyndsay, Pari, of Correction, 2. 7. 

48. Monestow never in Icde 

Nought lain. Tristr. 1. 60. 

49. Who so lifes, thai sail se 

That it mun (will) be ful dere boght 

That tliir galay-men have wroght. Minot, 12. 

50. I trow the king Correctioun 
Man mak ane reformatioun 

Or it be lang. Lynds. Pari, of Corr. 2. 6. 

51. King Markes may rewe 
The ring, than he it se 

And moun (wiU). Tristr. I. 21. 

52. Calais men now may ze care 

And murning mun (shall) ze have to mede 

Mirth on mold get ze na mare 

Sir £dward sail ken zou zoure crede. Minot, p. 34. 

53. Ze man observe, that thir tumbling verse fiowis not on that fassoun 
as the otheris dois, &c. — King James, Reulis and Cautelis. 

54. Now duil fall on me, that we twa man depairt. 

Lynds. ParK of Corr. 2. 7. 

55. -— he neamt a felly, ot wooant abeawt two mile ofTon him, so / munt 
gooa back ogen thro Rochdale.— Tim Bobbin, 3* 


5f^, — yet we ffimt do 3oni^,q^ds jiix.^si^fl^/^tt^/^oathorbr^q^ i^o^^- 
wArp lioled, 6i*, ic;,---Tim Boljbinj t. ' ^ r , 1 i . ' 

a pi^etjerite ^ itQi:n)jed o^ thj?i,s9«^^ anftjQgy, as omUhM-b^gmtiki wa* i^ ia 
n^W proiw^uac^^r^^?*^ mG^«I» SM|4 Ae^ww ^e iie?er,itiis believed, 

escjpited^aliilig tbw-j4^ : , 

I ogj/ ^ J tat fift, <)uoth ae».nQw q^lia,UegMis^~r\ , , , . . ^ < ; 
^ . "^ Witti that tlie fowl sevin Jead|y sipls V , ,, , .> . 
^ ' '^^ ' jSe^owM to leip atanis. , l)uhl)ar,'t1ie Dance. 

59. Auld Saunders begoud foi; to wink, A , ^ilson'? l^oeinf^ jp, ^ 1 . 

jB(>» Now /ie beguid to goo (it|l)ega^.tp fr^fibeift) fra th^ pju^T^aet^rT^e^ 
landl>ial.ftiBbertVShetfiuid,_p.^5^ ,^ ^ .., . i. ; ^ h'i 

ifi»y (to be,ial^je)t ^«? (tajje^^jig^ bsy dvkty^* i^^d rfotw.^tqi ftfpiper) 
fqjm th^ir.,^erfec^^ ^acf^Qr^^g 4o tb^.,U8J|^. rotoaer, byi*f*»g the 
ei^^t^,d^', df 1i)ei§g( chaQge^; \j^U^<t€ }s^ yjrtiii^ of tte^pimte pre^ 
c^^^g^«^ij9rA;/^,^attv^ ^jiflfAn^e^ I^,foH(<>^ii^ e^nj^pi?- 

n^i.:;,." IViBtBem thtt^tbief ia ii€ i ; 

^.}V: r TlMit:«i^b^*aotfQrifihi;; . > *> 

,^; ;, Tlie peic« /A<?w w^A^ (m^^y'^t) her 8ft / , ; 

/^ , %hat fro mill ^mew^ drain. , : , Tristr> 2, 43. 

. 02|. And tH^ ic)j^pide hin^^a^d 90yde|o hioiy; wfaiit here I thralhitig a£ thee? 
yeld^.rekenyng,xi'^hi J5ayly<i i<)r7^M,i^^^ (may^pt) not now l>e B^Iyf.-r- 
WipI.i:uVl6. ,_^;'^ :''V.. ■^.".1,, ':-, . ^.. i,/v':r n, :.-■■.; ,: •/:;. 
63. pe stanes stonde}> )rer so garete,,. n#jpore joie moufg he^ v > 

Evene vp ryjt and 8wyJ?e bye, faVwpi^der it is to se, 

6<n .1.) *And 6(;^^r liggeyhy^abbue, )>at a mah iway be of afe^ 

':■-. ^.■:- r-r- 't^ --^^ '-^-' -- . '■■K GloU.K 

'iW/' ' iif eii m^we hi^r6 en^iumple nime to late hire sones wyve 
And geue hem vp here land al bi hirelyre 
\ :: '?.: \WQtmisk<V^ay a symple Ftvacoleyn^ in in^«es^ hynb so brynge. 

ft. Glou.35. 

6.5. No man may serve twey lordes/^Mr&c. y9 mmtnifkoimfwe God and 
richesse. — Wicklif, Matt, 6. , , . , ' (' 

'66, — that broughte T!r^f& to-de^tYUOtit^iTy 

' • * '^ , t As ; m^h inimh m these olde gestes rede. 

V Ck ?qufere« Tale, 204. 

67^ . ' / . ; xj-i/fcli bidde >at *Mi»ofW (subj. tnbodyniy stat holde >oi^ >e 
, , , A|iid,)fat \oi^ ivp ^ym jBretayna' momt (subj.) wyoncf: >oi^ me. 

,MV.;;i JI .:.;,,... -.i:-t. -'( ^ ..',.., i-.- ■<:.• .. .IL'GIOU.54. 

68. I spye to you monye seken to entrfand tliei scljule^i fiot moo^.— 

Wiciiii'iiik 13. ^^■' • ■•■"■ *^ ' '■ ■ ' '■ ; ■' ; ^'; 

^^\ Hie greet dai of his wratbthe cometh, and who shall moive stande. — 
Wiclif, Apocalyps, 6. '^ > - '^ 

III ouir glos^'arieB' thd pltital mom ! is almpst always cbnfouncled with 
the verb m«», of which we have already spx^es. 


Bf a la#df letter- cbknge "«rhich prevwled widely in the Old- 
English, the final ^ was changed into y when it followed a narrbw, 
andfiAtote^Whfett it followed «fbfoad vowel. He^el^e Anglo-Saxon 
nuB^ is represented by muy, and the plural mo^oit by mowen or movn. 
There a,te indtances lioweter, even in the Angio-Ssixon, in which 
the €^gidar t«rb is written with th^ broad vowel— majr, and Ormin 
always writes it ftMiJr^; ilil^ Would be represented in the Old- 
English by mow; and it is psrobable that ^8 foirm o# tbe singular 
verb m«y'^e^*whd inour 'Old-English MSS., but it is difficult to 
give satisfactory examples, bwin^ to the confdsion 'Wjiicli prevailed 
between 1j^ two ^ods, the indicative smd subjunctive^ and also to 
the frequent rejection of the final vowel. 

Chkucer i(ppears to liave lobkied upon might bs an obsolete form 
of >tbe^^d«nl'^rsdn; knd'tise^ mdysi "as a. st&a(titute ; ancjf ifi Tyr- 
whitt's edition we even find we may, ^& may, &c. Some of our 
nortliewai MSSi^^ite^i>M^'fdr all thi^ persons, 'M(W» fn&y,w& may ,hc. 

3V^Mi^%(rp?^sen«s^^%hd ^^lo-8axon d^^ to iiave; to possess, and 
is>ot^£tt4^tl^giune^v^[^Ma8 the^reek.^tti^. Oi^e of its secondaiy 
mestningia expresses obligation arising from dtity; *^ I Owe (ought) to 
860 himV' iOidinfanHfor language WeatSI seiy ^ I h&ve to See him.'' 
In lik& ttia^n^r we may perhaps corniest the inodem Sense of owe 
with this its primary meaning. Tke phrflsesf '^heiowes me ^tn 
pounds," and '* he has ten pounds fopiiie/* ttay have a closer ety- 
mological connexion than our knowledge of the world ini^ht lead us 
to expct^tV fiUM^e use of the verb without the dative— '* he owes ten 
poaaii)dS"-**^itiay b^ icHmded on a «ierely derivative mteattlrigL This 
verb ii&'rai»ely ttiet With eiccep* in oiiur liorthern MSSl> and conse- 
quently ' exhibits but few changes of structure : pres. ouH or ow, 
^eri. oughte^wi^^mtx\^mt^^ffhti 

70. Sir/said Saladyn, ^ank / auh (ought) joW conne^ / R, Br. 193. 

71. .; > A certaine breid worth fyve schilling & mair 

Thow aw (pw^st) this dpg. Henry«o», I^pg, ^itijf and Sheep . 

72. I am God most mighty, 

-) . -Toluf me wdlethou mme*. Towi^ey, Myst. 21. 

73. ' Ab wif aA lete sortesf (qy. sottes) lore 
vr 3 IThah^uiiiigb^dmidmnebethsore. 

But woman ought the fools lore dismiss, ' ' ' -^ ■ 
Though wedijEQ^krhanda seem to her flore. 

Owl and Nightingale, 1469. 

74. I wold ij»y myghte were knowne 

,i ,A^^ hp^oui^das ^aii^e^ (oiight). Towuley, Myst. 55. 

75; 'Now.'wex ]>e Scottes wode, now haiie thei nytlie & onde 

Who of ]>cat fals blode ouh to be king of the londe. 11. Br. 249. 

76. ' Lordynges of my chance, wele je awA to wite. R. Br. 249. 

77. Sir ye ow not to be denyed, Townley, My&t. 38. 

♦ Awe in these examples is a mere clerical error for aw. 

t The Oxford MS. reads, ** And wif auh lete sottes lore," &c. Mr. Stephenson 
points the passage thus, ^* Ah wif, ah, lete,** &c., but as he ^ives us no £nglish 
version, it is not easy to siy hoir' he wmiM tr^n^tatfe it. 


78. -^ Steuea >at the IcNid auht (possessed). R. Br. 126^; 

79. The knight, the which that easUe Qught, F. Q. 6. 3. 2. 

80. He said the other day, ifou ought (owed) him a thousand pounds.-^ 
Sirrali ! do I owe you a thousand pounds ?~1 Hen. IV. 3. 3. 

81. — Sire vor Oodes loue ne let me non man owe (have) 
Bote he abbe an tuo name. E. Glou. 432. 

82. — and besides give some tribute of the love and duty I long have 
ought you.^Spelman. 

This verb appears to have early lost its proper conjugation and 
took the regular inflexions so generally, that from the fourteenth 
century it Qiay be qonaidered as qioa of the regular vierbs of our 
standard English. 

83. I Otoe (ought) to be baptised of thee k thou comeit to me. — Wlclif, 
Matt. 3, 

84. A.stemgeautit ishe 

Of him thou owe^t to drede. Tristr. 3. 39. 

85. JLend less than thou et^M (poseessest)* Lear, 1. 4. 

86. He that ereth, oweth (ought) to ere in hope.— ^Wiclif, 1 Cor. 9. 
Dow signifies to avail, to prosper, to be able. In modern proviu« 

cial speech it is treated as one of the ordinary verbs, "He neither 
dies nor dows (mends), Forby Ray. *' He'll never daw," Rf^. In the 
Old -English it was rarely i|sed except by northern wntere, in whose 
works it shows but little variety of form : pfes. dow; pei^. doughte. 

87. I 'U laugh, an' sing, an^ shake my leg 

As lang 's / dow (am able). Burns to J. Lapraik. 

88. For cunning men I knaw will sone conclude 

It dow (avails) nothing. Lyndsay, CompL of the Papingo. 

89. — the streim is there sae stark 
And also passeth waiding deep 

And braider far than we dow (are able) leip. 

Montgomery, Cherry and Slae. 
9Q. Threier'in carebedlay 

Tiristrem the triwe he hight. 

Never ne dought him day. 

For sorrow he had o night. Sir Tristr. 2. 1 . 

91. — that drowp, that docht not in chalmir. 

Dunbar, Twa M. Wemen and the Wedo. 
Brunne represents the Anglo-Saxon deah by deih instead of dow ; 
as in other Old-English writers, we have sigh instead of saw, the 
preterite of see. 

92. Philip of Flaundres fleih, and turned sonne the bak 

And Thebald nouht ne <leih (prospered), schame of >am men 
spak. R. Br. 133. 

93. The kyng Isaak fleih, his men had no foyson, 

Al that tyme he ne deih, his par tie ^ede doun. R. Br. 159. 

Here we have deih used as a preterite. Ow is occasionally found 
treated in like manner. 

— he saw 

94. As to his sycht dede had him swappyt snell 

Syn said to thaim ** he has payit at be aw *' (that he owed). 

Wallace, 2.251. 


Wat (t6 know) and mot (to be obliged) Uke ste bm the affix of 
their preterite, and the final t dieaf^eaiv before the bMk both of the 
preterite and of the second person singular. The first of these verbs 
is conjugated in our Old-English MSS. as follows : pres. sing, wot, 
W08t, wot; plur. wite; perf. wiste; subj. pres. witei inf. to wite; 
part, wist or witten. Like most verbs beginning with w, wot gene- 
rally coalesced with its negative ne. 

95. And seggde thuss till Habraham thatt witt tu wel to sothe 
Hald Abraham hald up thin hand, ne sla thu noht tin wennchel 

Nu wat i thatt tu dredest godd. Ormulura, Sacrifice of Isaac. 

96. I not how that may be— 

He wot well that the gold is with us tweye. Cb, Pard. Tale. 

97. What ! Frankelein parde Sire wel thon wast 

That, &c. Ch. Frankeletns Prol. 24. 

98. But wete ye wel in counseil be it seid. 

Me reweUi sore I am unto hire teyde. Ch. Squieres Prol. 13. 

99. / woo^ fro whennes I cam, & whider I go, but ye witen not fro 
whennes I cam, &c.— Wiclif, Jon 8. 

100. — *the Spirit bretheth where he wole and thou herist his vois, but thou 
woati not frem wh^ines hecometh ne whedar he goeth, 9k, Trtuli treuli I 
seye to thee for we ^eken that that toe wUen, &c. — Widif, Jon 3. 

101. Lord p woot that thou art an harde man, thon repist where thou 
hast not sowe, &c. His lord anawerde and tMde, fcc. wuteet thou that I 
repe where 1 sewe not, &c. — Wiclif, Matt. 25. 

102. Thai nu/^cn hon to fare 
The wawes were so wode 

With winde, 
O lond thai wald he gede 
Yif thai wist ani to finde. Tri9tr. 34. 

103. Tbi frendschip schal Y fie 

Til Ywite (subj. may know) that soth. Tristr. 3. 53. 

104. Who so wille wit his chance, his lif & his languor, &c. 
Open his boke and se. R. Br. 131. 

105. Virginius cam to wete the juges will. Ch. Doctoures Tale, 176. 

106. — sore wondren some on cause of thonder 
On ebbe and floud on gossamer and on mist 
And on all thing, till that the cause is wist, 

Ch. Squieres Tale, 252. 

107. Thocht I wald not that it war witten 

Schyr in gud faith, I am, &c. Lyndsay, Pari, of Corr. 3. 6. 

In northern MSS. of the fourteenth century, we often find wot 
used in all the persons, thou wot, we wot, 8ic., and in the fifteenth 
century this verb was generally conjugated as follows : pres. sing. 
wot, wettest, wotteth ; plur. wot ; past tense wiste ; inf. to wite» 
According to Tyrwhitt's edition, even Chaucer used the phrases ye 
wot, they wot. But we may doubt if so scrupulous a writer would 
have used the two forms wettest and west within the compass of a 
few lines, as in the Knightes Tale, 152, and in the Pardoneres 
tale, 480. 


pffrQiH th^ ipactt teme iwisile^ our glottonit^ ftoi^ oiMiiifiEiictiA-ed the 
YieAxiQ^a {«ee iJblHiidnr Nare^i Janiieaon, &0s);^ iukt tifl latdbf, our 
editors always converted the innocent advei^ i^towt^bevtainly) into 
/lom^ii know. Hie ciitieiansof the last six or eerea years have 
sbon^n thpoB/their nnsti&e*, 

. i> JfotsecoBS to have eigkiified i)iriiiianly> to hare HceBse; and'in ka 
secondary sense, to be obliged. It waa< conji^^ed ^ii^v ihe Old* 
English as follo\y|i, ,pi:ea» sj^ip^.wM^, jplur. tmt^J^ 9X mut^ i iperf. mo^e ; 
imper. m^^ji wlJK.pres^.wfl^^ Aijl^>p,e«f- mw^» 1 1 > r 

16^. ' ' Man schal bo stille and nojt grede 

lie mot (must) bl-wef^ his mis^ed^; ^ikU and Nj^tingale, 978. 

|^j^9. ^^{^^iShe told bem al that tide 
^ ' what was her wille to gay/ 

"Ki^wo^fn (must) Wkn and hide ' i ^' ^ 

' BteKgWain, Ikat mH-y may." TlTStf. t. S8. 

fid. — j^ys |od man Scyri Dunstdn i -: l; : 

i Ac:>ONNA«iiM)«/*i|ii|deytdo. E^6!^^299. 

Ill; ' ' ^^olleii Two^e ir/m (mayst tbW sbiiek) so b^je *^ 

^ irbdrthii b^^ Hule^ndNi^ting^le,987. 

1 12. -Ever mote thu y>\\e and wepen (mayst thou shriek and weep) 
That thoitftnrhfoai<ie^(8«lrjj) fotkteri.' tiittlsbH^^I^iingaie^^dHd. 

fhJ. ^^^ ttow longi^ x^o/^ if^oti <maysf thou) isallen By th6 coste 

Thou gentil maister^^feritii^miQri9iiM.'^Cb;>l^ot«i^ p:'048. 

114. Were I unboundi?n^ alj sS m6iigTi^4 (^k) 1 sp^edi 
p; < w. i L?.?f?^'i^1^^M t^^^^^^^ ililbesnafe." -' '^Cb/Mkrih. Prol. 15. 
, 1J5- ,, Qwe, peacjp and r^st from the hie Trinitie ,. 

* - ^ ^ ^^mi^rcst amdng Mrf ^aiie «6m|an*J^ ^ '^ '^ '^ ' ^^^^^ ^ ' 
t' y J/ n-Ji I ,^v:i-.; ji x;<i -u:\^ j-..'^v-.^l«3rttdiigi?^Pail^f Conv^ 3. 

116. Mischief mottjr^^ to tbat^iteiielnMerbefldl ' wii -^- 

That so has reft wki d£ <tap imfiffcii^diit. j c ? > > ^^ m i iSptns. August. 

' 'ii7i ■ ^ ^ T?h^nnte 'fcb wiinidrede what he was — 

And prayede Pacience, th^1^Ali]^il^ hfmm<Hit^(\rn\g\\ty 

_ ; -f- -^ •■'■^' ;-.w-.:i r •r:.^:,<.:. \--,\, ,.,^ , ;.' Vi«. dfe'Fl Fbuh. pass. 7. 

lllg; ■ '^ttfe wep on God vaste ynoii, i cryde mylce & ore 
^^'^ ^^ Alid'b^ei^^*^i*<*<Wi(%atjrpt#fi*ttl^*«)lybb<i;^flfet he^^^^^ 

1 ife. = >Art5d swore onon so mo«i^*»^thie (fatglA he' ^^^rp 

He wolde wite who wapr^bf^* o ac it • \ io snr - Alls. 547.3w ,• 
120. Mih;^^i&bi^ke^?« lilsttSfli^€Wt> ^^ I- ^^ ^- ^ ^^^ 
? r ■ Jf wiii*/^ (subj-. perf.) ben a rethour excellent 

K , ,v Thalt,cci«de bis col^iuj;^ l(mgb)f 19 lb^t[art>, i f :; lO 

J' i , : , If 'he shuld here descriven any part, ,,r ,i , ; 

J am not swiche I mote speke as 1 can. Ch. Sqiiieres Tale. 30, 

« k^tb^lG^loi^y «Oiff;SVr €ii^Ayne^3edite«]rf»B0 darft ot fetir years ag<Kt»y Sir 
F.;Mftfl4^itU*^iMi6ded that t u'Mf i|iivc#C!4^i»a«dyffrbs<ibttd|ef#ditor doubts if 
it were " not regarded as a pifp^pjiQ apcl,vp^Ji) ^ t|^^ writep pf the fifletnth ce^Miry." 
This hypothesises in th^ opinion W* the write? wi^olly gratuitous.^ 0el>elieves there 
is not a single instahci^ in which wisse has been used in the sense of to know, till 
our mddern glosbaiists and editors chose to give it that signification. 


bjiYie oi^nfonsdedjito^^ Injl^mi^^ t .r- ^^^ - i < ^ -otr -- 

AiitQX)g{Qi»r^xwrtJiQni liraatem ::there Boei^ ilsra^a 

disposition to treat the present tenses df ii^seTeriid aBi|)tbtc»it€d; 
We h^Q ali!Hi!d|r- aet» dizotx^i^^i^tft #ui^^ a^^ .taed^ «Dd;^vto^>]^a7 
iio\\l sidd nm^ to.«^;iraiabeE;Ar il ,;.>-\:''rj en '\^ /-/-'■ v->i;.^-n>vv^^: 

lUIV He cbirtanaidliis^icfiivio 8Tjm«^^o^i^ ])fe^bu«nt j ^i 

The godeak1«l*hikb4j,il><tiJ^ •^H«ii|lll|t^^ Ik^fP- ^ ; - 

He slouh withouten numbre, beioi; him m(jdx\oxk sts^d. 

Dar might claim to be ra»|ced,1iptii^^ ithe tyo yerba Ia«t.mentioned, 
ina^mubcl^ a^lH; formed its preterite in ^ f h^i tibere areito many in- 
terchanges of meaning heffw^e^. 4^^ ^^tkprf (to need), that i% may 
be con^eni^nt t9 .pp^sid^r the^ Yerb^.7^ thus 

conjugal;^ :„ /pres. sing. dar,darst% .rf«f ; i pluf\irfiirrtf» or iurre ; perf. 
durste; SKL^ffrcs^ 4ufTf\^^g^t^ft^^ perf. tl^fifte, 

Wp fini^tbe £in3(i of these verbs v^4bQthfanttii^ SQQtW Jif fo dare and 

423» i J iW8awb©hiid thibel&,/in!*ra>igftootrtpBifaic (♦ t f J 

; Worcks fat, er^^ t^ |^^/*f <^(ir, J>^ 5^^1^,^j^^ ,; ^, J^. Br. ^£j^. 

That y^rf pfcsume^ or 01189 thinken it, f .7 v ;:,» 

: ,. Tli^t h\».con8eil sliuld pas^^ii8]6r4<?s Wit* * . t 

:' ^ '^ th^We March. Tale, 258. 

125. Dare no niari answ^ in ^^case of tnitt^j,^ ,; ^ I ^"" ^^' ^* ^' 
1^26;' ^Wh«^ |i^ Plaibtagenet dare not be seen. 1 Hen. VI. 2. 4. 

127. — thu ne dSBMjdumtB^tAn^i^s oi ^v^ ;:/'>^*.v t^ui:-; r/' f^ 1 1 
-i riiiH^-thou darestJlot^ndgflmantabicbJtvt zui r , ^ ji 

. .^ >^' ::> ;rj r;^^^'HlJS9<?ngale^^^^^ 

128. fi 51i»«e.(B©p*>h to %re Waski ...^ ;i . > , b. A 

3, ; . Afid isei^ea, ** Sire no darst nought (needest not) tarye 

Of Aljsaundre Y schai the wreke," 5 ^-^ A^p. 201(), ^ 

120*.,; t JSwcb W^ tby^^hi»«;rfi4tTr hiw Rcea Ofiok at hio^^ Alia. 1995. 
l,*^. i^ Heve fon heo durre (need) ]>e kttt^ dmite^ bdC liit be thorw gyle 

0^^<Mk),<rfJ^,#^lve,lo||d. ,, ,. .,:./... ;R,Glou.<J,, 
13k ^ i /• — nisofow nonso^tfne ♦ ^ ^ ' ^ ^^ 

That J{irr« (subj. woul4) IJA|!?> #bi4«^linitie iHi€i<in<!?* if, • 

.,. • r ^ i. i r i MM ( ; ., Hwle and j:<Jij<|ngale, 1704. 
132. Brut huld Cd^hytii Ehgt^lond^ he n^^sr^/e (nei^d^d bot) hym not 
playne. if Ri Glou. 22. 

Both these meanings are also given to the verb thar, -pert, thurste. 

l^Sv:^ ^v ;H^io8Wi>is4r>^fbr'd6s'i>A )Ni^<i dav«>TBf lyf^ * 

< iv ^l]^td^Kaiidiredfi4w«idude^^^^ ' ^ ^^ ¥JBi de Debet, )^. 4. 

134. I was dastyn in c^e so fHglMjf>ifVayd, ' J' '^ ^ ^, 1 1 

' " Bot / Mflr {need) not dyspayre,. for Jowts he Ja>*d ' \ ' [[' 
" ' " fhat I n^ost dred. ! . . ,,.. , . ,'! 1 IpWnl! I^lyst^ liil 


135. YfTye wyll oghtte tlmt we kanne dp 

Ye thar (ye need) bot commaude bus tberto. Sir Amadas, 513. 

136. Your dome this day thar ye (need ye) not drede, 


137. Wbo 80 maybyde to se tbat sigbt 

Thay ther (need) not drede I wene. Townl. Myst. 159. 

138. Tber was no raton of al )»e route, for al tbe reame of Fraunce 
Tbat thersie (durst) bave bonde the belle, o boute \e cattes necke. 

Vis. de P. Plouh. pass. 1. Whit.ed. 

139. Scho ne therst (durst) speke a word for fere. Octoviau, 205. 

140. -* tbe Lord Douglas 
Hyr in da3mte ressawyt baa 
As it war worthi sekyrli 

For scho wes syne the best lady 

And tbe fayrest tbat men ihunt se (needed to see). 

Barbour's Bruce, 14. 693. 
llie southern dialects ofteu changed the initial d to M'*'; and we 
might therefore infer that thar and thurst were m^re dialectical va- 
rieties of dar and durst. But in the south and west of England, f 
when it closed a syllable, and especially when it followed r, was 
often omitted t ; hence we might be led to suppose that thar was ^ 
corruption of tharf (to need), more especially as we find ip the Old- 
English thurte, which is clearly a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon 
preterite thurfte (needed) : — ^ 

HI. Your fre barte saide tbeym never nay-- 
^ As oftesitbes as thai waldpray 

Thai Ihurte (needed) bot aske, and bave tbare boyn. 

Townl. Myst. 317. 
As the German durfen signifies to dare, we can account, on this 
hypothesis, for thar taking the sense of dare in ex. 133. 

Perhaps the best way of reconciling these difficulties is to suppose : 
fir^t, tliat dar, in its primary sense, signified (like the Greek Ba^elv) 
to dan^, and also that it took ti secondary sense, ^o need, though it is 
not very easy to say how the two meanings were connected. Se- 
condly« that dar in some of our southern dialects became thar^ And 
thirdly, that it gave birth to a derivative tharf, which was some- 
times corrupted into thar, and confounded with thar, the dialectical 
variety of dar, ITie chief objection which a modern philologist 
would urge to these hypotheses, would doubtless be the difference in 
the initial letters of the Anglo-Saxon dnrran and \urfan. But the 
change of the initial d mto th in our southern dialects may be re- 
ferred to as one of many arguments, to show how much exaggerated 
has been the value of the rules — the " canons," as they are termed — 
which have been publbhed on the subject of Gothic letter-change, 
and may probably leave us little inclination to follow tfiem oa 
the ])resent occasion. 

Shall changed its vowel in the plural till a very late period, but 

* In the Romance of Octovian, we find than, thwiright^ thefende, &c. written for 
den, downright, defend, &c. 

f As sar, sarrant, harras, ater, &c. for servCf servant, harvest, after, &c. 


in other respects was conjugcited much as at the present day : pres. 
sing, shall, shall, shall ; plur. shullen or shulle ; perf. shulde, 

142. Alle ye shuleii sufire sclaundre in me in this nyght, for it is writen / 
gchal stnyte the scheparde and the scheep of the floe schulen be scattered, 
&c.— WicUf, Matt. 26. 

143. But daies shulen come whanne the spouse «cAa/ be taken awey fro 
hem and thanne thei schulen faste.— Wiclif, Matt. 9. 

144. But sone «^<i/ Ae wepen many a tere, 

For women shuln him briugen to meschance. 

Ch. Monkes Tale, 70. 

145. W^at shuln we do ? what shuln we to him seye? 
Shall it be conseil ? said tlie firste shrewe 

And / shall tellen thee in wordes fewe 

What we shuln don. Ch. Pard. Tale, p. 334. 

. 146. llie erthe xal qwake, bothe breke and brast, 
Beryelis and gravy s xul ope ful tyth*, 
Ded men xul rysen, &c. Cov. Myst. Prol. p. 18. 

147. Thei xul not drede the flodys flowe. 
The fflod xal harme them nowht. 

Cov. Myst. Noah's Flood, p. 43. 

In our northern MSS. shall is used in both numbers, and Tyr- 
whitt gives us in the plural both shall and shulle. It would be 
diflicult to say whether this latter inconsistency is to be charged on 
Chaucer, his ** scrivener," or his editor. 

The verbs we have considered are most of them distinguished by 
using in the present tense the forms of the preterite,— a peculiarity 
which stands out in more marked relief, the deeper we penetrate 
into the antiquity of our language. Another of their peculiarities, 
which, though it may be found in the Anglo-Saxon, has chiefly de- 
veloped itself in our later English, is a tendency to use their regular 
preterite as a present tense ; ought, must, durst, would, &c. are used 
with a present signification, not only in familiar language, but also 
(some of them at least) in the measured language of composition. 
The reason of this Is tolerably obvious : the past tense subjunctive 
is our conditional tense — ** 1 had gone, if* &c. — and it differed frbm 
the past tense indicative merely in rejecting the inflexion {st) of the 
second person singular. Hence the two tenses w^re readily con- 
founded, and as the transition was easy from a conditional to a direct 
assettion, the phrases ** I should like," •* I could wish," &c. at last 
came to be considered as if they were mere ^equivalents of " I wish." 
Arguing from analogy, we might expect that the same hypothesis 
would account for the peculiar inflexions df the present tenses, can, 
ouh, dar, &c. ; but the forms of our earlier grammar present an in- 
superable difficulty in the way of such inference. For instance^ the 
Anglo- Saxon inflects the hkt verb in the singular of the present 
indicative thus, dear, dearst, dear, while in the present subjunctive 
all the three persons are represented hy durre. 

Will differs from the verbs we have hitherto considered, in making 

* In this work the radical vowel often remains unchanged, particularly in the 
first and second persons. — we xal, ye xal. 


its first and third persons end in e. E is the proper inflexion of the 
present subjunctive, and in the Mseeo-Gothic will takes the in- 
flexiona of this tense throughout. We shall not attempt to explain 
the anomaly. As we gradually clear up the obscurities of our lan- 
guage, the relations which these irregular verbs bear to our ordinary 
grammar will be better understood, and ftpeculation, if needed, may 
then be adventured upon more safely. 

This verb varied its vowel according to the dialect. In our 
southehi dialects the broad vowel was generally retained both in the 
pnst and in the present tense : pres. sing, tcolle, wolt, wolle ; plur. 
wolle ; perf. wolde : — 

148. Deye we ra)7er wy]? honour & sewef me in j?ys place, 

Vor icholle (ich wolle) my lyf dere mon selle, j)oru God grace. 

R. Glou. 397. 

149. — here over fro me thia cuppe; but not that / ti;o//, but that thou 
woUhe done.— 'Wiclif, Mark 14. 

150. An th(m woH Louerd, help be to hyni that faderles ys. 

R. Glou. 329. 
161. ^- why wait thou lelten me 

More of my tale, than another man. Ch. Prol. to Mclebeus. 
152. Wovlt we^p? wohU fight? ujoult fast? woultie9X thyself? 

Hamlet, 5. 1. 
l.W. Knightes hii iteyde vrheXwoUe ^el R. Glou. 397. 

Wiclif's use of these forms shows that in the fourteenth century 
they had pretty well established themselves in our written langua^. 
In Shakespeare's time they were once more provincialisms, and like 
other provincial forms of speech, were used by him merely to give 
force to his irony. 

In some of our dialects the narrow vowel seems to have been pre- 
ferred: — 

154. — Iwille neuer more in ]}i trespas j,ink. R. Br. 201 . 

155. — if he wild com ageyn, the loud forto were 

Neuer more to Daneis kyng fai)>e suld thei bere« R. Br. 45. 

156. — he suld voide ]>e lond, if he his life wUd saue, R* Br. 14. 

157. Sone therafter bifel a cas 
That hiraelf with child was^ 
When God wild sche was unbounde 

And deliuerd. Lay Le Fraine, 86. 

158. — and volks wid stop me to kiss en. 

Dev. Dial. 3. Mrs. Gwatkyn's ed. 

There appears, at one time, to have been a tendency to use the 
narrow vowel in the second person singular and the broad vowel in 
the other persons : — 

159. My fader, if it is possible, passe this cuppa fro me, netheles not as 
/ wole but as thou wilt. — Wiclif, Matt. 26. ^ 

1 60. — if thou wiU werchen as the wise 

Do alway so, as wpmen wol the rede* Ch. Monkes Tale, 114. 

In modem English we have returned to the usage which prevails 
in our Anglo-Saxon MSS., and use the narrow vowel in the present, 
and the broad vowel in the preterite — will, would. 


Vol. IL DECEMBER 12, 1845. No, 39. 

Professor Ksy m^eCiiair, 

The following works were laid pa. the. table :— 

" On this Antiquity of the Book of Genesis," by H. Fox Talbot, 
Esq., and ** Hermes/' Nos. I. and II.> Ity the fame author ; presented 
by the author. 

A paper was then read : — 

" On tiie Origin and Import of the Genitive Case." By the Rev. 
Richard Gamett. 

To constitute connected and intelligible lianguage, it is not suffi- 
cient to place words in juxtaposition; it is also of parsunount necessity 
that the t ^lations of the words :g ith each other should be cCTrectly 
ind icated .^ In tfae Indo- Euro pean languageirffie jelations of verbs 
are denoted^by^personaTlermmaHonsT elem imply i^ ^™?» ^^?-* 
tipg^pny^=r-v^ri:7 q^^-^nd3ho se of noun8~by1ehange8 oifbrm called 
cases. It has been compaon among grammarians to regard those 
^terminational^uiges as evolved by some unknpTpraiH'O^ett from the 

or a s elements u nmeaning in themselves, but employfid iurbitrai^y 
or IconvenSonaDy to modify^the^jneaningauJoLw^ This latter 

theory is coTOtehdnced'^ylJrW. SchlegeL in a well-kno^^ra passi^ 
in his work, 'Observations sur la Langue et la Litterature Prp- 
yen9ale8,' the following extract from which will suii^ciently explain 
the auth(Nr'd views. Alter dividing all known languages into, hxtt^ 
classes, — languages destitute of grammatical structure, languages 
employing affixes, and i«*»pp^o^^c yjth infl**^^'^"°, he observes, re- 
specting the class last- mentioned i-^ 

" I am of pinion, nevertheless, that the first rank must be assigned 
to languages with inflexions. They might be denominated the or- 
ganic languages, because they include a living principle of develop- 
ment and increcuse, and alone possess, if I may so express m.yself, a 
fruitful and abundant vegetation. The wonderful mecb^a^ism of 
these languages consists in forming an immense variety of words^ > 
and in marking the connexion of the ideas expressed by riioae worr^a > 
by theJielpLof gmmconsicierable number ofsyllables,jvhict^ viewed L 
separaltely, have no sigfuficatibn^'^ut wlilctdet^^^^ f 

the sense 'of TliBVbrdi tO" Whit^*'thiey are atSw 
radi eul icllci B, aud by adding ttetivative syllables to the roots, deri- 
vative weards of "varioufl sorts are formed, and derivatives firom those de- 
rivatives. Words are compounded from several roots to express 
complex ideas. Finally, substantives, adjectives and pronouns are de- 
clined, with gender, Bumber and case ; verbs are conjugated through- 
out voices, moods, tenses, numb^s and perioas, by em^oyiog, in like 
manner, terminations, and sometimes augments, which by themselves 


signify Wt&ing. 'jThi^ i^etlidd is attends <#ithth^^^Nitt«age of 
^r^UQ^iating ir^a^ single Word tlie princi)pd ide*^ freqti«itt 
in9(Jifi«d an4 exiSetodely feojti^ kd ^ivii^<6 altay of 

accessory ideas and inumSle relations*'/'' " , : ^ m s 

lli^ writer baying already stated his olj^ctit^ artist' tMs^flieoiy 
of Schlegel, in an article ma well-known perio^K^i ^^fo^i iiotnieed 
tQ repeat tl^em fit presett. It is dottl^tless kno\ini t6 tli69el aei|<iai0t6d 
with the ngiodem School of German phflblbgy/that ftfeyeial^dktiii- 
guished cbnt^piporaries.of Schl^gel haVe espcmsedu diN^ti^dkme* 
tricaUy oUopite to his. Not to meiitibn W. Htttabdldl? atid'Pdtt, 
Professor Franz 3opp has, in his ' Com|mmtive Oiumitaan' itttttitutcd 
an elaborate analysis of all the gramrnkticat teMiba^cya^ftlftth a 
view of identifying 1;h^ni with piiopbttns or pifenttii^arfoiti^ 'We 
phall not npw iiijq^uir^ ^bWhdr M his assumptions ^t6f he dflfpli- 
citly relied upon : but fab bhfe acqtiafhted with hi^>w6ri<»^>i«dH^^d«e 
him the credit of jgi^^at tearning, i^searcH and ingfe^ 
be has made put a »Hm<!^ari^fcase fo^ W pbsiti^'d^eSttrting 

atleast an atteiitive febMderatibn^'^' ' i ^^ ^ * ~>k:j u^ 

EJbun^ln d, which Tfthfey do ncit ribtftCittiti^the bu&^ t)f ^l^linetiagfe, 
form at 8dl^evefat4 a cbhfefajfei^li^^)^^ Th€i(36»mtti«ion 

in question is spa\ jioi(^:M 

identifies with thie V6diaiitthi6uh«5^^ t^fis^pfontruh 

i^ Qvidenitiy compounded friom thti dtetft6ti&t?tttiV€f »it:firthte;'aBd-tte 

^mbinalioA J laoi? has he, *^y bth'^Gei^nafi HtrAiOti^ as 'fa# «f w© 
know, shown by isiji e^'teMv^ itidtiiftibfa ' ^fi^ta^^iytlterlttli^u4|fW,tAtft 
tbere is any proper or usriai connesuoli b^tWe^ti Vh^^toibtiotis^iidfitiie 
relative pronbUtf ahd those d^ the? getfiti t ar^ /r ♦ v 

_ It would be /ash to assert that the genitive always and neeiewsa- 
jcfly includes a relative prdn6^^^ ^^o^dOttlft tliatlthis 

HiLodificatibri o^ the 36iise bf a nbtiti^ay 'Be; a^d ifni ^fa^^ific^QCiftly 

Jisi Q^presse^i^ howis^i^b^ prdddcad to 

ysKow that i Cjiin &V sb feStfes^^^ 
quiring wbeth5jhf''^^Bcfi^^ iti't^dea^wlikkii hate 

. riot hitherto beetfsupp^^^ 'o / ^j ? 5^^ 

L Tbe Semitic lan^Sg^^^^^^^ 
eroplpy vario us coTi triv ajicesfe^ ekp^cf^fttg jh^rgfatioti^f pgese sMon 
or qualifica'Sbri, usually denoted % - the^^nitiv^^ the fado^K^ 
rgpeaas^- The mofet commofraetlv^nn is the. 

/ ^Q^^^^rs tt t tu/ tW ggrtfg^ Iti thlsT tuT is wdl known, the modi- 
fied word 'is ndt,^as wittFtis, thte Jrrddidat^^o]^ quaiifjring inoim, but 
the subject or feadifag one. For exahiple, in the Hebrew phrase 

father of the ^t«^ (ibi-melech), ab, fat^r, shoi^n» its vowel and is 
augmented by a terminal syHable ; while me^A, king, remainB un- 
affected : touch as if we were to any pd^r^is^f^iH, insslse9Ax)i pater reps. 
Some remarks on the supposed analy^i^ bf t^ eonitmotioiiimU be 


give^fBe^er :: dt j^^igat ,i|; is mox;e properly ponnect^^ witji the 
1^94019 fiyeptoitl^u^ present essay to oSs^rveV that besi des thi sjae- 
tkodr^expceiiiBipf tK^ eiritijv ^ caj^t;, d ien g yr'pgnphiu^ 
relative ^^jmSS Zy^ i"^st c%im!m)ft o^^rre^ce in the Aram fean lan^ 

Thu«i ^^. m^^lis^,}^ 31^elQjap^ob, the sgng of Solom^^^^ 
iBaUyf^fther 99Bg? tMch to SqIoiuoh. Syriaq. riausp rf-sitjip>, chest 
QfiWlVfit SR rfj^s^ pp^ich silyey. , ^r^uen^y f this cohstructibn , |s tM- 
deredflscdteprecjis^. particularly in Qha^e^ and Synac»,hy con^ect- 
iDg'^wilh ^ ^jwpniqnipral sufla : jem-^ i- Je^ua = ^^^^ mother ^ 
Mm'^'imip Jtftsm>y, f, a t^^ xwcxtb^r pf Jesus^^ Wtn-Aoi<f-llei*odifi^ 
Ihedftug^f^r of her W]l^ Herodia^. i^^ form furnishes a com- 

plete aad iit^iHgiWe ri^sojutipii^, of t^ ptws^i i^ is possible that there 
may be m ei^psis^ of the pe^qnid ipronpUQ juqi those cases wher^ the 
rdiktive alon^ i& employe4 m a^ppo8itio^ which may not fee, without 
its use when yr^ .^poie tp consider. paralleJ c^s^^ from otjier languages. 

The Sadp4iit^ ff, rtie E^hfopic <2fl ^A tjie Apabwc ya are, in like 
manner, at once relatiye pron ouni^.a^.sjijg:n^^ ^) l^e g^ nitivp r?\%9, aa 
■yj^^jg^ gboya by ^ 8ubs e<q|u5it exaippl esV Tlie last- mentioned is 
reii^^r^Sle for hs ex^e^iud jdenitity with the Sanscrit relative ya, 
^hidiiihflWftW^iM fliUvpi^rti^^iHty is, purely accidental. . The vulgair 
A!nbv^lmi:^y^rifi^jm^9&^^ l»et;hoj^ 9f exjjreasing the genitive, as 
foayobe^^fi^njiti I)Ql3athay>;t^0r^^l^I^^^Q{( Ma^ bf 

th^:Mgb»(^i^^m^o^,,4saii^^^^ )vith the 

lEthiopcsl;^ f«r^n^ly-ra^fffjatjy^ pfppi^Ufli. .,'Ofjth^ vanouis prLfixes 
indif»ldngrj^te^i|iti«€^giK^4^^^ contribution to 

our kil«wk»te%^ theBerlBii^r.l^^pgu^ge^^^ in the * Zeit- 

8cl»ift^fi»i di^iKw^^e d!8j^^^^0^ dearly iden- 

titri,^i|;h)|itffl|&T<^^ ^rfilfiti^e;prQn a future oiu 

portHudityi of if^^iftl^ipg^^vyt^ i^pj^e t"JJy^ T,P^» W tW way. may ^erve 
as a further confirma^odp.;|Qf the tr^^ $epi|;^ »f the 

It ii Aluebtbf^#i(Mit).gra?3pja»riaflis^^^^^^^ 
liii^ve Matk^Mi^Tk it^ is ^he^n of the genitive case, not as a reli- 
tite, btifcrR ^^if^^m^m OTvparticle, equivi5ilei)i>; ,tp ihe^l-atin de. We 
have hofWic^ «r <te^vf^ ;pv>pfi to the CQu;tranr inj^e Kthiopic, When 
the kwiteg;n^5»inriB4aB,a6cvdine,5r«,;^ is employed 

as the sign of the'^^Wtiver,? bji^; when. t)ie gpyerning nqun js feiAi- 
Diiie, tiie/fion^^tiye is i^ot ^iii, bvit etUa^tlie feminine form of the 
rda^m. itiisr Jwdly ^ ne^oessary to saiy that a were particle could not 
be affectedfint^tl^rwayf th^tfemir^ij^g^ftdef of ji preposition beltig 
soiaetfasiigidiffiaeulj; to eonqeive. it ; r r t ., . r 

Sei»tal,t)th]^iAfirica2) Iftngu^ges pre^p^t xe^ults perfectly analo- 
gous. The fcfft^ASfoiotl^ QQ^ti9 ch«ve,jnQ:^,l)§en, sufficiently studied 
to justify thfet expression of a positive .qpinion as ^Q ^beir nature. 
Several faov^ ^' of the sirgfis o| the,, gi^uitive pase cpri;espond so 
tsloaelyiaa:fgfrar5viSiSadop*4€moi?u5^ pronouns, as 

to* caoite^ a siTjOJig isu^cioi^^f the cDimQun|t;y of, th?ir origin. Ifda- 
ving'thifiipoiiitibr^fther iayes%atiQn,.we.pr4tf€^ed ip^observ^^^^ that 
in the Galla language kan is both the relative pronoun and the sign 


of the E fP'tWe !^^^' ^v^^' eni kan duffu, be tKitt comes; kitaba 
^^da^ta, thru Jaisiis Ghtisto6, the bobk of the geheratibti of Jfestis 
Christ: 7/ f , iftfe book which i^e generation who Jesus ChtistlTie 
yBruTrti ^l^rtgnag^, «poken on tiie western coast, exbil^ts precisely 
riie '^kmt phsenoinenbn, eXdept that ft stippHes the place of ktmi 
itU ti jm) WO, the house ijohich 1 pulled down ; ille ti babba, house 
o/father. The siiriilanty of the Yorruba /t to.tbe Sytittc rf and the 
Ethiopic za is probably accidental, but th6f functibn^i df "each are pre- 
cjiieljr^the samfe. ' ■ '' ' • ' ! '' 

^otne of the Polynesian languages express thfe ¥el^ibn Hbf pos- 
session bjr the mere^tnrtap?5§ition of the terms, and conseqfuently 
throw no light oh the point which we ai^ discussing. The grieater 
part bfihetti however employ prefixes, many of which are idfentlcal 
with fonhs brdemoiistratiVe <nr'relatiHre proubuhs, or so similar as 
tb encouitigte the belief tHtth^^y-rere^^ kindred origin. Thus, in 
MalagAsisy, ity^ ia'Uutli dtjtilUll g Hiatr i lc pi * buOCm oi duflmttnrr ticle, and 
the sign of th^ genitive base: ny filAzany ky ratzany >iy Jaisosy 
Kraisty, iA^'book of the generatioil q/" Jesus Chriist. - In the Mar- 
quesatn, the HaSihiiian and the New Zealand lainguages, tia is equally 
the pronotm bf the thifd |)erson = ifce, fh&t^tLc, and the prefix de- 
notitig the getritivfeV- Respecting th^ lajst-mbntibnedl^guage, Dr. 
Bieffenbiidh obfeek*^es iti thettketc^^dFN^WZ^land'&r^mmar ap- 
pended' to ;hik *'TrarcfU,^;hat the tifektrvd is expressed hy the genitive 
of the '][)ei^on;kl' pii6tibiin7 i?. jri^. 'the^'msih wAo showed, t^ tangata 
ii^tt%mtmiii^m the ii^^toshbwfedV This tesblutiOn of 
the phtisfta^pbiBj^ #o inneh it ^I'i^ntee '^it^ the pthrci^i^af of logic 
that thete fe gre^t "rboih ta'i^ne^tibli it^ s(biin^riess. Thdratl^ogy of 
other lin^ui^sr • woifld iither 16id" tis to believe, that ftn- the' sake of 
g^kter'precis&hV tiie dembristratii^ ^l^mtiit m»;is'^dublte&if6^f6rm a 
r««trv€i; much a!!^^in*Nbrs^iihdAng^ i'tf-i^, i^i)^;^ rt; Who; 

IH, HYit-ilit, dr the^thit. Thfe object' of * this dupllciitibti appears 
to be to establish a mor^ preciisfe cbttiiexioii 'betWie^ii the; aiitebedent 
a^thti rdaitive clauses, a portion i>f the "cdtiij)!^ =clx](iressfoii being 
refejted tdeach.-'- ' ■' ;-- -•■ ::-•>*• .v.v. .-s' ,:^ i;^ :;.^;..!- 

The^bmis wi^h w^-ha^e Bi^rto^cbnsddelfedlre stWctly ^alytic, 
ai^ in some df thetit, especi^ftly €h^ Araitoeiaii* and the Ettiiol)ic, the 
iden^y if the geniti^ prefixes Witti the relative prdnbun does not 
admit of a dbul^r Now, though synthetib fbrtos are not nfei^essarily 
strictly partilM with the analytic ones of the same impbi^t; it is 
clearly possible that they may bb so. No one disputes thiit the Latin 
nr^dmt isf inf aH^irespt^btisi eqtiiValbtot to &ifp ifioh or that the Spanish 
future cantard, I will sing, is a mere transposition of hd de' cantor, 
I have to lsS%. In like manttef,'when Wefind in Sanscrit or any 
similar laxigufige a termination potentially equivalent to a prefix in a 
Semitic tongue, or to a sigmfibant postfix in a Tartarian or American 
one, there is at least an ostensibfe ground for inquiring whether all 
niky Tibt Virtbiaify be cMerent shapes of the same thing. ^ 

'^We ca;n indeM have no (firect evidence respecting such forms as 
the Sanscrit iHT^rtsyo, isirtce we know too Htde of l£e Sliest state 
of the langbage^o pronounce positively respecting the precise force 


and composition of its numerous af^xes. B]u<twe pica jpercelve tW; 
the termination of tKe^^rd in question is to the pye and tjbe ^ir,^e\ 
same as the re lative pronoun ya ; and wp ^^Y ^r f^ Y^^^^ft^ ti JTOV*^ 
tat ion of ai)LV gfei^l^ ra^|^p^ y- tpa,% ff yjfiiciL ujo^f c^ rsievi^of,^.w^ lf, 
in Synac o r Ethiopic, wolf which may have precisely thej^we 
po rtmlniDT^her tongu e: — Thi s viW'5aay^e> strengthened by further 
agflo ges, some ot/y^hlCh We fehail briefly J^Pti9g.> . ; 

"Tniffie popular dialects of India related to Itjamscrit, and commonly} 
supposed to be descendants of it, the genitive is in inosti cases fpmea 
by affixes^ commo nly ka, kj ke^ whic h exhibit the, ijema^kaMe pecii- 
liarity of always agreeing in^ gender with the goygming nouli.. ^ust 
in the phrase " th&bwther of Jesus" the genitive would, b.e JesuA:a ;. 
but "the mat h^r of Jesus" would require a Afferent /fornix Jesiiii,' 
Here, we may observe in the first instance, tbat tUai ,pl^n|Omeno|:^^ 
proves clearly th^ the affix does not be long to the ; nou n to w^ nqiii i^ 
is attached, butto tl;^e Qpewhin^ governs <f.j.^) r^f) \yit j\ ^y j^^tpi it i^. 
in gya mmaticg Tconcgtd. Secondly, the tern^natibn; i^ inthe inajjop? 
rity of instancesT3entical with t^e $ax^aQrit,.^ij^^pga^fe pronomii^ 
which in many languages is notoriously plqsely cqnni^t^d.with th^ 
relative in import, and frequently in forni, a^^ may in fact^cinq^. 
a substitute |br it in propositions wjbiere' 4onbt or contt^ 
implied. We shall probably therefor^T npl; ^greMJy^err if wg>r^o^y^. 
the expression into the component part3--Tbro|J^; who jTig^vis^ iifio^. 
ther who Jesus, up. q/" Jesuit ^alogpu^ to the opiistructioi^ ^^c^< 
we have been considering in apalytlc lang]il^ei|. It inay bi^; fdspj 
worth inquiring whether the saxn^ solu^qiiv is i^t.^i|fpliQ4£lf ,t^^ 
numerous Sanscrit attributives , in jca ; and jfUi which are geiite^y . 
equivalent to the genitive, of, the'^^npua ^pm^w^ich; t^y are, forpACf^*, 
and are qompoun,d^4 with aa element e^t^^wjHy not cttfff^rfng %pji^ 
the interrogative and relative, prono^i^s. In Slavonic ther^ |s f^ 
general disinclination to the employmejit of tjtie genit^yiec^yj^- 
place of which is ^vipplied biy ppsi|?^siyfj Vj^tiy^*- M^^-.^M^?& 
form of those in ii, ifem. iya, is identical with tlie empjiajtic^^ or dfi^-jr 
nite form of ordi^airy adj^tives, wluqh iQ ,th^ ,C|(^g^Q;a^e I^f;];iu9Af^ 
are visibly formed by afh^wg the dempiist^r^U^ive ^xQt^xx^jis^ ^^PP^: 
in his ' QpmparAtiveGrjammar.V refers this elj^paeni tp t^ S^f^scr^f.; 
relative ycf, and argues with great probabiUty/^t thec^efii^t^ ifpi^^f^ 
of adjectives in all the ancient Teutonic languages are, of ihe same, 
ori^n. Supposing this ppin^ to |)e established^ ^tjs Q^vipiijS tl;aj^j|.; 
genitive case, equiyalcQt in,impprt and §imilar: in, fp;|[m^,iif^^y ^ni4^4^t 
the same element within it, s » .i ./ \ w jm^ 

Here again the analytic, langijf^es !^Twp ta ai^i^^ ^^Hr Sjl 
prefixing the relative, the Syriac* Ethippjcj, fw^d ot^er tpMjuifsJfprnqiv^ 
adjectives from substantives^ ordinal nunjib|$rs froiga carxSnalsi a^ 
possessive pronouns from personal sufExe^^ a^d tber^ j^eenxa J^P^^i^gj 
extravagant in supposing that a relative or apy othepf p^nou^. may^ 
exercise the same functions at the end of a ,iyord thatjiti.dpeisut the 
beginning. It woi^d indeed b^ ea^y to ppint vpu j; ina^y in#)^ces f 
where the postfixes of older languages have become prefixes or di«> 
Btinct prepositive words in more recent ones. 


We inky here pn^eily consider the Afghan or Pushtu i both on 
account of its local position ahd its ^lieral affinity to the dialects of 
India rrop^. Soxhe of its forms are remarkable, and it is conceived 
of great iiniiprtance for the elucidation of the present inquiry. Re- 
s^ectin^.tne getritive piase. Professor Dorh in his valuable Memoir 
on tihe Piihfta* inakes the following^ observations : — 

'^'Thfe ^0hi^e i^ foi^etf t^y^pi^fiiing the word rfrf, which however 
to b^SrefiMtfed^^'^T^ttiofbf^SM and Se- 

is ibt to b^^rt^anfed i^'^ pittiof bf ^ffiifAty 
initic (Ih'dsnrtidi is HK3h8adfe^^ fdrtn the genitive). 

This d ^ii'V\^s\i\xi'l^ h^ eS^id^^ origin as the German 

S^r,dii',ka^Y^A'yfe'^ Ind' it a^n Amottg the pro- 

nouns. ' fiiM6ehfe^^Ake^f^n.\i:i^^ written rfa^, 

and th4t ft iii hothinfe inpre thfm the ^onbxin demonBtratiyc. This 
idea is cbiifli^etf |by^6ut ff^flitig <feA fc ftwhttt Wbi^^s -ei^lqyed as 
a 6ign of ^thef'geratiye icksc/^^^ ddh da ^m, of both 

PfofeS^r 'EWdd tdtei^ tfce ^tMe i^ew^^ the mattef inrlils paper 
on the Afghan lan^uag;e published in the v^S-eitscHrffl; fiirdie^'Kunde 
dei Jjt^orgtt^BtodtS^/ isoiiie t^ appeanintie 6^ Bbrn's Me- 

moir ^eW If^ bbs^irv'es tii^t 'ijte^^ geriitivdi prefix; rfa Is a demon- 
stiutit^- wiffi tiie foifeeof ^relative. : Neither Doni noif fewald gives 
any ipmtfy^ ■ bf itifoQiei^ iefiiaM^W^ ^t€&k W the gemtave, viz. tsa. 

testj^e^1ix^Wit)^Ai^^ fitet person, 

but proya!Wv'^idettttcl4 in brigitt^ -^ of the second 

vre^ ia^^^ |»iectiB^to the 4%^^ ^*^" 

^^e. tf nbtVel^d J^ me &ri the palatah, 

ipmg ij^ '^t |p;^q^^tlj^ CQ^ we 

^laydft^r^lors j?9ftft9Pf^bly JB^fjjf^^ as a 

jQfm4^^9f itbiaig^^^ si^ it j^a^n^rf miLit^tW* <?f the relative 

iTfe$ ^b|ereepbpji<?ijpae©ft f9x§vthe i^i^rf^^ ^^^ fi?om ; the circum- 

^a^fi^ t^,it}i€ i'Pi:iftetov is <5^pgB^d}y; a?| ^np^Q J&uropean dialect, 
aOCfin|q^k^giaiP«y»res^eJb!^ dialects of 

.Jli^/iiMt^^s^ fef^%«rc^ ?;§fi#ofi:*cb Ww<5*si|»rS^itifrt pre 
^f^.im^»m*jmf ¥^m^;w4 9P&f^t/^:m gai^tp tHer^Btfixea of 
t the Jp9?i^g ;^ate<?t^ ,^;tbo8(?)<9gaifl[ti»t^y;^ Sanscrit 


t9a.M^?p<^»^^Lfef »^mt^,w^P5^c?<^f»W,ib5 <>e4^f»l#fnM»^the foot. 

IJt i||,|?e|n9^1|abl€||Jif^,*^'pq8^ffcth!^.g^^ or Pun- 

are traces of i2a as a demonstrative root in various fo#a;y -l^ngmges : 

ffWi^m-^i^fim^^mi ?^«4<3ffeWfs*fli ^,Smm^l(m. Or- roy : 

V ?^§!«^?^oSilifU!te»Pmt8ativf^|^^ is pes- 

sible indeed tl»t,(|bw^5^i^ajfj[)ei(^,^jiip<(ft^ more 

mxm^^^ kmrn^m mmmf[im€^¥m^^^ it may 

,:-*Withj^peQft. ti^m9^/^iJ^patg%^^aLlSQxa^^ to 

» Mtooirtf de rAead^mie Imp^riiile des 8dci«i«iiaiP9i^l^6lei«Bolir|j*; IMO. 


Sanscrit, , t^e Tamul, of which , thfs ojtbers are x)i)^y sub-Tdiatects, 
presents no 4irect wigjogy, sijojce in it ^he ^^eUtive pr9^<)viii is eii- 
ti^'^ly w^ng, b^in^ H^^F; ^upp^|ed^ h;^ t^epjsjctici]^^^ , is 

h9wev^r5^, pgn^tru^t^niii t^^ }^jx,^^pX,,fif $l^^,t^\4f. ,vhich 
sQ&Pfi&. ^o .^esei^e 9. iit^e ,];^9^tic^y , „4 9^!^^ P^^ Pf^^^P^ IfP^i? cajkd . 
vineiyechchams M Ji^, ^^^^^ ,j^,i\]^]^yf^^,^ 

ti9»^a§4?P|ft^^W«^^?ft- 'r^^ ^^ 

ejw%^^tf^ ^<3 ,8ay:, tQ .qaU^^ fuoictifm,.Ql^ifl^^ pr 

vt) aft4 1^^ frt^Vi;;^^^ ^p^defio^j^ge^ej^'p^ 

the4;^?:Rf. T^c^ rJt .fio^^^ ^, ThMs. 

whi^^, be^ .9r fe t9^:^-p,,call^ caoifte.,%,flt^^3y^^^ wa^ ^^. 
specting ^hicfe cj^^iid^ f^j, pp j^di^^^qip j^^^^^ffc^c^efff^fiiQud- 

potentially equivalent t6 to Xeyofxevoy ; and thus ir appeare tw the 
above construction bears a close analogy to the bulk of tho^e whicli 
we have already analysed^^ ,. , ,.j ^^. |, ji ,^^ , 

The Tor tan ail class of languages @(lso fumisl^,.^ valuabte epc- 
firmation of tins theory, whieh cannot be better stated than ift the 
words of Dr. W* Schott (ycraucb iiber die Tataji^'^hcn Spi'*^eni 
pp, 52* 53) ; — " The Turco-Tartarians denote the genitive by the 
form ningr which may be recognized as the Manchu ui with a na^al 
increment. This nasal addition answers [in sound] with the Ti^rco- 
Tartarians to the Gemian ng ; with the Osmanjis bowey^, it is 
softened to ^, The nlng of the Turkish dialects may be regarded 
as the full form of the genitive of the higher Asiatics, or at least 
most nearly approaching it : and we actually find in the Manchu 
itself a postpositive particle nijigge, which does not Indeed become 
a genitive in that language*^ hut expresses a relation , or stands for 
the relative i^ronoun. The agreement in form of both is too striking 
to be explained as merely casual; and as to the tF^fi^ltidti 5f ^Uie 
relativeP&td^ ^'^ftfltti^ml paM<a€f^^'^^^^ ^M^mm^^ff^m^^^lA, M other 
langoag^ ; Se^^ml -toMhe^e'^^jIfetheiits; ^whf^^^*^ otfl^«ek- 

presEfed^tt neiytkat^ t^^itaf^l^ ^i*ed6{S^g;^^sd1f i^^i^lfit^ t^o^dtin 

tion/ ^ Hi§ tfa^^it^id ^&o#ti^« i^t6^^ll% iille4lllk>ti^^^ftier 
by ^ fi^iele^j; |f<^ti)^/ Wtti^i^ ^lilek Js dd'f^^^fly 

a 8ig^^fhi'^«iJi^@%s^^'tig}ativ^^^ : 

thusy licf^l^/Sttf^i kr^ ^dld^i^V^F^Ih^.^d^^tt «Me'^ialil^^'^x^ei)^le, 

vehM%^ddteeaf «iOfili«i^d Md^%he g^^ i^m^i ti^bi^^ 

seB«iW*^fet*i^.^^'''^-'' -^ ^^^"2 '^'■uy,^^i^n-im\^t^ js -iS: :r,\i 10 eeoii:? siti 
Sl^lf^ l^ei^S^dif I9i^ eiit^si^^ tfa^^j[^iii^k f^fl^FKinlsb 

abriftee(ilfc#fti#Wfitfdi1a'l)l4taBrifl^te h^^hat ^uii. 

W^y«klN^»9i%^mdti6(^ tlie^S^tilJ ^^^^^^^^^'^'^^^^^^^^ 

* It appears however as thell^nhad^'of^Yi^^li^^tt^^ 
is taAolriauA|iiallkitlii2 tlgyfaiite<^iiaiiaayaftigyifiss>i& gA 4a^i(iggiu^U mien. 

t The identity of this Chinese particle witli the H of the Yorubas in form and 


at'tie 6bmmettcemerit bfthiB pr6$^eiit i^^ In Hebrew nii4cufl&es 
slrigulir, th^ goveraing i(l6un dois riot alter its tefmihatiori,' except 
iti a^few instancesr but iA Ethiopic, the syllafble tfisi tegttlaiiy affixed : 
c.'gr. wald, son ; walda MarySm, the son of Mary. A probable ex* 
planation of this form may be found in languages where the go»verh' 
ing noiin is regiilatly accompanied by a pronomind ^ffit d^oting' 
Aw, her, its : v. t, q. as in Hutigarian, where "the l)irtli 6f Jiteufe," 
Jesus, or Jesusnak szfilettes-e. is literally ** Jesus/* 6r ** to Jesus, 
birth—^/^;*' If therefore we suppose tfeat the tehniitiittion tar in 
Ethiopic taohstruct liotihs, 4 and « in Hebrew and Awtbier ori^s/and 
t Of tn ih feraitiin^s, are derived from pronomixlal affixed, whiclttliey 
are not unlike in forin, Ve slfall baVe, tit aH events, a pkusiMte Solu- 
tion of the matter, j '" '' ^ ^' 

In the Albartiaji lari^age, the g6verniri^ riouh. If mksculin^, re- 
jriilarly subjoins t, but if feipSniiie,^, "^hich atfe in fikctn^dernonstria- 
tive pronoun of the 'third iVersoii . Simito to* tbis lis the izafif con- 
struction Of 'the' Persian^, where an -i; Wrttteti ih certain c^es, but 
m6re generallt in unpointed texts bnljr pei^ceptible in the prbttun* 
ciatioh. is subjoined to the ^vemiki^ noun : do^-i pti^^, the friend 
of the h6y; thtser-X ddst. thefbdf 6f the fi^tidf. Pottiii iiiu re- 
marks on the Beliicbi language higenibusly suggests, ^^^ 
lable is ih fact a tektiVe jprbribttn, iognate %ith flie Stesct'it pa. 
Supposing this to bethe Ckse, it ^otild beexactlj^ anklogoitifr to the 
Semitic constructions witb tlhe relattre ptefix.'feit lirbiild differ in 
the ordei' of it^ airrangenient fixim ttie Saintscnt, asi^rhiaitfg Ifhe litter 
to include the relative in t^e tierminiition 6f th^ getiiti^. 

According"^ ^6 ' Lassen, thb same foi^matioti 6f the 'gbhitiVe occurs 
in Pehlevi: *tt/7W-Far«, iidtnitaiil df PeMa;; i^^^i^ 
b»ym c9J!Wji!9cliye,Mtwe(^rt^e sulbpt^^ andtftjieiquajify^ig eidjec- 
tive : andarvai t rushan, the bright atmospheiie. ReapecUng these 
CQ«^tr»G^iQli8. l^fM^ j^b^^^esy.V ]( beU^ that this is in both cases 
to be explained from the relative ji [yi] for^a fy^]* .Oonatructions 
in Zend like gatim ji(in ^Mfffido safa^em =^Te^onem quam Sughdae 
sitifpo. ^ puthremjat AurvoJt i^ispaKe == filium quod (quern) Aurvataspis, 
in which the relative denotes the connexion of a qualifying word 
witb a preceding noun, lead to this assumption." This Zend con- 
struction is' remarkable foi' its feithilkiitf to th^^ analytic fotms em- 
ployed in Semitic. 

The above is only a small part of the evid^fee vi^hich ftiight be 
adduced itt ^pbrt of the Bsfetimedconwecticttbtetweeii the tcnmi- 
nation or prefixed sign of the genitite case and the relative, 6r occa- 
sfdnjQly, =^t^e interrogative W (temoiMtrativep^^ Even lan- 

guages which have no distinct relative, but express it synthetically, 
help to confirrt the theory ; aa for instance, in Basque the relative 
postfix is an; vnid'aooimzion termination of tke geaaltive en. Similar 
ph»nomenft are presented by several American languages, if the 
analyses in Adelung's ' Mithridates' are to be relied on. 

In conclusion we aoBfy' briefly observe, that the object of all the 
different forms of the genitive case is to establish the same sort of 
connexion between words, that the relative does between clauses ; 


namdy, to show tha^ one of them may be predicated of the other; thus 
serviqg; as a kind of logical copula. It is m fact of the very essence of^ 
humaiir intellect to perceive the relations of things^ and of human 
language to enunciate them ; and if we co>ild not refer those rela- 
tions to their prqper subjects and objects, y/^ should not be able to 
make our ideas ir^tellig^lb^. Jhe particular ppint which we have 
been discussing is stiU qpen to further ifivq^tigation.; since ;nany of 
the phenomena connected wjitji it hav^ not eveh been adverted %o» 
Cquld the view we have (taken. of it jbe finjiUy est^Ushed, it would 
lead to the presumption that Schfeg^rs jtheory pf t|ie.Jion-&i^nificance 
of gran{«?i*tical inflexipps mi^t be^rwii^ally unsoup^, since it is clear 
thfit tf ope terminatjipii ]b^ oi;iginaliy .^igjiijipaiitt. all others may be 
equally so ; and it is reasonable to suppose that the languages of the 
Indo-^urppea^ class, :\|jrhich, Schlpgel, hacj j^ vie^v, are 

org^i^ thrpughoi^t o^.the si^pe/gep^r^.syste;^ Ax^Wmgh priori^ 
it seems more rational to. presume that the human mind would em- 
ploy mean^ pbvipu^sly a^i^^tpd to a definite epd, than that it, would 
be . guided by blind chanci?, qr mere ptwpqc^ in its .operations. It 
would also, be fUflJcuU to j^vp a plausibly reason why the barbarous 
Finns, Taitars^fand sim^ar t^^l^^ ^^^ express logical c^nd gram? 
maticfd reWonfiby s|gni^papt.posthxes, an^ tna,t the most culti- 
vated: and ii^eU^Qtiie^vFa^^^ ipe|-p iF&^w^^ 
for the^ s^^^e.,p[HfW^• ^^ r^i^^^ ^P?^ i^9\ ^^^^F re^^ted to 
thp e3fplpd^Adc^tffi^e/>f,9ccull;ca^ ^^^^ 
they are to h^, ^^i^flwtt^, tn^y^^ oijg%,,i^|;^^ a!^, '^yents ^9. V«i, n^pre^ti^-^ 
factorily proveji thai^ b/^ ^ftiLp^-l:^^^ 

A fow^selpctcex^plef ,pfj;]the prii^pipsA copstruc^^^ ^\ided,to 
in tbe p^epedipg iijiqi^ky ^fp^ere suj)jqi^/^ , \ > 1 

Hebrew, .^^/i^^i'Retktive: tf^^ lo hayjrain, cikjiis estmiai^; UK 
wh<y tphirii'ps] the'sea^'-'-; -'•'■"' ^■^ ;■' ' '-'' ' ^ •^••■-^'-•> *•^- 
Sigh of Genitive V hag^bbbrim ds^ I^-Dftvid, iSbe m^iMtnim 
- ''"^of'David.^- ' '■■' ' ' -. ■ ''; ' '\ .:■•.; /^ :.- -: 

Contracted jfonn, 5A. 5fe-I-i, of me ; ft/. Which to mei. -^ 

mittatho ^A^-!e Stieilbnio, the "couch of f^oloi!non ; Ht. ih6 couch 
o/'Aim, Vhb, or which, to S 
ChaldePr S:- Rel . ^ di medar^4p/t, whose habitation ; tit who habita- 
tion of them. !. 
Gj^i^, ; nphfir rft n^r» rive^ of fiye. 

Syiiatvrf- ; Rd-x ^-bur David, who [wafiQ the ^Qn:pf jc^vi^/; - 
: Gen. : cthobo rf^musiqi, book of music. 
— br-et cf-Gh%kiTOi the fpipt erf Ifekim ; lit, spnof him who 
Samaritan, d. Rel; : cul d^^mmiachi all which creepeth. 

Gen. : bariha (f-Phttran^ the wildemess of Pharan^ . 

Ethiopic, za, enta, Rel. : wald 2ra-rakab-o, the son who fotmd him. 
e»/fl atmaq-o, [she) who baptiited him. 

Gen.: Mazmor;ara Dawith, psalm of David. 
— Anqatz enfa samly, the gate of hefaven. 


Amtaric, yd. H^l. and (jeri.;' yutiBhki^ptt^HiWVSiisli, ith^ 

Vulgar Arabic, dsa*, dse. Gen. : el sifr dse 'I kitab, tte yoljimfe of 
the book. 
The Be];ber fonris iare so ^(recufiar, and With^ so* rinpofttmt/-lfiat 
they ap^^fib: td des^rte a mdre detailed eiiLriiitoatibrt. Tb^ftfst thing 
which ""Btiiibeiiiiiif kitM /vsnety of^ fonnairgreatly e^^^m^vf^S th^ oi 
any other Semitic dialect; Soihe i^ the^^e a];« evidently icpiapoundy 
Qtjjer^ abbreviated} and some appariently mere dialectical variations. 
It is' difficult to determine tbe original fotms with certilpty j bicrt as 
far as may be judged from a comparison of the connate dial^tis, the 
following appears t6^ h4 an^li^(3|rrdxiiiaalkioiv to the real<«tate of; ^^^ 
case. Tliere is on^^e^^ft^orMs^c^nmtfng of avonsona^ 
by a simple ypwel:\%'(iitbfi9r ta, gita or ifa;n(»yda px d^ft; ka; 
(^iroici^iaon^^i^wit,^^ by a vowel : ^ aw y ath j agh dr. ay ; an ; 

aillqdsjH^Mi ah .=. ,.-^^ •.,•.■• - ■■■ :' -^ ■■ v-.-. . ^/' 

These are sometimes combined intp sufch forQis ^ a,tc;tct ; aghi or 
cfyyt; akka;^annii wayyii sayyi; winna; widsa; widsak ; anwa ; 
anta ; natta^hyaivmi \ 6f abbfeVi^ed iiito the simple fre^tesi W; u; 
ds or d; gh'oT p ihi^k} '^^ '""'' ' ■ ' - - ^ 

In their primitive acceptatioii;, :>th^4ij^i9^ finr'the n^o^jiart, if 
tiDtnalhigetbisi? to/haiife hem^emanstratk^s ^but Aeyare^^i^o exten- 
sively employed in the following capacities : 1 . persQidaJr pronouns ; 
2. relatives and interrogatives; ^pai;ticle$.^^;^spect^lly p^pq^tioiis 
Rpd:C[99J*n<J?tj^m8;\,4*?SP'^^^ prefc^es; $• foimaJ^iMes of yprbs and 
)^#t?^ii>^n|ff^-Tft,?i^^r.4n4;^ o^ the above divisions 

i^$H:|)4ify;xV^i4^ anjfl^aiy^ pf iJbe e?^tire strucjairp of the Semitic 
languages, on which, it is believed, they are calculated to throw con- 
^(^ey«^% Ugh^. J^^ l« sufficient for our present purpjos^^ to 

|ite^e;that tke s am, ajf,ay^aw,ghi oi pi, ni, h, w, 

i<^^^ar^ preferred as signs of ^e genitive case ; being at the same time 
Qpca^oiis^. u§ed as relatives, though not so frequently as the longer 
forms. A few examples may suffice for the present. 
''^ Mativfe; wf ikhik R^i, t^hom God'ciirsed. ' "^ 

•ur illi tt?-araykislmaii^thert?ia,lw»ifany]jwrU9 enjbeiB. 
^ Biu^mtbte^ akadxlBi izl& Wadrghat^-thi^riac^ ^tm^ ina%0 

The form most commonly employed ^ii^^flW^i^rdativiessJnd demon- 
*tji^%^^n4)^,^Jipi^iaJJ.y ;?vit^^ 

--^■c-^ J^ r:.i ''^':)^babni>i£Bli^]Eyi(gttUillin>^a^4-ii!V b ij>a ,n;-j; i;;.- 
^ : ^ tb€ddiile!Bak^ave^^ge^i:ail*$h^i. r-i^ 

^■i'Vj j: :).;t» '-..*aagh;^»dt)U?«')-. ^rv._u,; j^:<-2 ^^-^-ri i, 'i-.^.■-^ 

'Bometfrkes,' aid k^AramaicHhe {frotibiktiial miffi:^ iieiko ifsserted: 
ammi-« an-baba, son of th^ fkthet ;' 

'^ the same element appears to be Vncfuiied in*\fte rtlatlve j^Vdnoiiti etleihii q. d. 


, Ex^pl^e^ of tjb^ i^P^inm^ too nuija(B5ou»J;o l^e he]:e 9p^ 

cified, will be found in Newman's Grammar, and VentuipeV F^ 
an4 JPt^bjer jpic^ppary. lately; published by the SoQiet6 de GiSogr^- 
phie at Paris. ' ' "' '" ' ' '' ' '"' "'' ' ''^' '',' '^^^' '!■'- '' ' 

Q idlai :fi(m, ReU ji eni^ kan duffii^ ke tbat cpmejs, . , ^ 

Oe]j^:i A:aii, Jud^ia bosonat^ i^ tlie wU4^ro^ . 

Yoruba, tt* E^ : ille rif md wo,f die hiMrae^widdh I {mlkd di»wil.- /^ 
G^. : IHe fl babb», h6u»6 ofj&cther,' .: ' ii < i r >< 

Malagaissy, fiy^ Demonstr. and geti.: «y mpan^ak/ ny Jtosy, the 

. ^iiyj of t% Jew8._ './ -^, '^'"^^.^"^ ^'^,' ^.",'V/"''.' " ^ ',,'.'' !";!." -Z^- 5 

HAWaiiiilB;^(ii - [PtonduA of third pe^oiii hei i<,] v, ;, i / ; t 

Sahsciit; j^a,'^'[l^elatrtt.J jGten: tWrikas-yc^; bf a wolf. < > ^ ^ ;' 
the possessive, forms — mamaAa, meus;^' tal'aAiiti/ ''^us'-i 

lii^dpstajoi.t ^tgeiilV^.flaaaj^r! ^9TO» fKHda-i^Jbeta, spp of Qbi ; ;^^ 

Gen. fem. form, Yisu-/rt ma, oo^otl^er qf Jei^us. ^ 1 ^ 

Punjabi^ (JS/''tZ<^nd: dem6ns^^^^ ••-'- ^-//^i.i^i .S* 

(jeii.fkffei-dB, of i^po^.^^^= 
' ^esii^s: ^ rCon)|i^tH^lH^^ 
^ ' bf ^i klhSf.' &c.;' tliid tte itetfidristttttiV^ ptfoi^tt^ iki#^. 

■ '; ;';;'■;; th&'jiiffli!];;^; '' ''^^ -;■-_ i-v.:.,,* ., ji ,.i.,n,. m. ,..:.)u<-:..u 

In Qtliet ^lal^cti we 6^^^^ as'^ii^rniinationf pf lihe^^^g^^ 

nitives. ir^e^e ma!y • bie f)rbbab)y regaVded as iaodificatipiis' bf ttti 
Sanscrit interro^tive ^ and , relative "ptohomis, A:6-af, ya. ^ J^^jefntk 
relatives in tiarotu (juzeratt, and it is believed alsd'in bthefrdialeeti^. 

Persian, Pehl^vi, Qeli^qh^, ik rP^?^ • J^^W'I'Wf W^°^.?(?)?^"^®' 
AlBamfe]l,l>. [Defiiiiteiarticte.M^^ i .' 

Ge&i 2 Pifti il Abilihatmti dpmnof Abnbam<i ' FemifinjeHima e 

The'MancKu pdsti*^ TChttive irfii^^^e, npf^^, of wlii^h^ yfttyy^fs^m 
collateral form, has a variety ot'iniiBe^nsi^esmv^iititer alia, to form 
— i. Participles, aeld^ «fid piiasive r oradhoKil^rpfcjaRi^ ypdypas and ro 
ypa<^6fi€yov. 2. Possessive adjectivesiafoeniicaGhfible into a ge- 
nitive : niyalma-i-ii^^e, human, q. d. ofaarsttteri8tic;t|f man* 3. Pos- 
sessive pronouns: mini-n^^^, mine, q;di.^ ^tfv«Mtv^(est). This is 
with great pvcdAbility idtotified by Schist with tke ;ru^ci9^7;^|i|1»pi^i 
and Finnish forms of the genitive. 
Uighur, Jaghatai, &c., ntii^, nt-iifn^, <^aho?r««. , 
Osmsoili,, Ufit mn : adem-vn, of a man ; cheshmeh-ntf^, of a fountfin. 
Finnish^ L^|>pisb, ^c, n, en : eala-n, of a fish ; kabmak?^ of Ji boati; 


Huogarian, nek, en*: k-tenger-nek, oi or to the sea; d-hegy-ex-tal, 
on the other side of the mountain. 

The hypothesis of Bopp, that the possessive terminations pf Indo- 
European adjectives, numerals, &c., and the formatives of many 
abstract nouns were originally pronouns, seems to derive some sup-^ 
port from the following analytic constructions in Semitic 

Syriac, ruch, spirit, cf-rnch [/tY. which spirit = vytvfianKos]. 
Cardinals : tren, 2 ; tloth, 3. 

Ordinals : i2a-tren, second; efa- tloth, third. [Compare Sanscr. 
dwitiya, tritiyo, &c.] 

Ethiopic, tzarq, rag; za-tzarq, ragged: lamtz, leprosy; za-\amt^, 
leprosus : Maryam, Mary ; jsra-Maryam, Marianus. 
Cardinal: selus, three. 
Ordinal : menbaka za-selus, lectio feriae tertiae. 

* The variety of functions exercised by the element na and its modifications in 
languages of almost every part of the world is not a little remarkable. Compare 
New. ZeaL nana, Lazian nam a qui ; Gael, naitt nanif plur. gen. article ; Sanscr. 
ftom, termination of gen. plur. ; Pali and Armenian na a hie, iste, &c. Other ex- 
amples have been already given. All these significations may be referred to the 
simple demonstrative pronoun as the radix. 


Vol. II. JANUARY 16, 1846\ ( >. ., >No- ilO-s . 

Professor Wilson, V. P., in the Chair. 

There was laid on the table — 

** A Comparative Gmmmar of the Sanscriti Zend, Greek, Latin, 
Lithuanian, Gothic, German, and Slavonic Languages," by Professor 
F. Bopp. TranslatedprincipallybyLieut.Eastwick: London, 1845. 
Presented by Lord Francis Egerton. . ' 

The following gentleiheii wer« elected Members of the Society :— 
John William Wilcock, Esq», of Lincoln*s Inn, Barrister at Law. 
Rev. Dr. Hume^ Professor of English Literature, Collegiate Insti- 
tution, Liverpool. 

Walter Deverell, Esq., Secretary to the School of Design, London, 

Two papers were then read : — 

1. "Notices of English Etymology:*' — Continued, By Hensleigh 
Wedgwood, Esq. 

Backgammon. — ^The word bak, in the sense of a wide open vessel, 
is very widely spread. We find it in Dutch, signifying a trough of 
any kind. In French, a ferry-boaL In Italian we have the dimi- 
nutive bacino, a basin. With us, a back is the large wooden tun 
used by brewers. In Danish bakke, a tray; bakke-bord, a tray- 
shaped board (Molbech). Hence bakke^bord-gammen, or bakke* 
gammen, would signify the game of the tray, or tray- shaped board, 
an exact description of backgammon, although the writer is not 
aware whether the game is actually known by that name in Danish. 

To Busk. Boun. — The primitive meaning of the Icelandic verb 
at bua seems to have been to bend, in the sense in which that word ia 
used in such expressions as ** to bend one's steps anywhither," ** to 
bend the cannon against the enemy," viz. to exert power over an 
object to a definite end, to give it a certain direction — hence to pre- 
pare, to dress, to clothe. 

It may be remarked that the Latin ^aro must have had the same 
original meaning, as appears from the compounds separo, to push 
things apart, to give each their ovni direction ; comparo, to bring 
things together. 

An example of the primitive meaning may be found in the ex- 
pression ** at bua sig,*' to betake oneself: — " Epter thetta Ayr «^ 
Jarl sem skyndilegast or landi," After that the earl betakes himself 
with all haste out of the land. " Haralldur kongur bist austur um 
Eythascog," Harold the king sets out eastwards through tlie forest 


of Eida. Compare this with the meaning of busk in such cases as 
the following : — 

Many of the Danes privily were left, 

And busked westwards for to robbe eft, — R. Brunne in Jam. 

They betook themselves westward. 

Now it is admitted that the reciprocal form of the Icelandic verb 
in St, at buast, is a contraction for at bua sig, and must, like tmasc, 
fiascy in the For Skirnis, barsc in Heimskringla, at one time have 
sounded at buasc, leading us immediately to our equivalent, to busk. 

We thus see the connexion between busk and boun, with which 
it is 80 frequently joined in our old ballad verse : — 

They busked & made them boun, 

Nas there no long abade.— -Sir Tristrem in Jam. 

Now boun is admitted to be merely the Icelandic participle of bua, 
buinn, prepared, addressed to a certain end, from whence the verb 
to boun, to make ready, to address oneself ; the regular participle of 
which, bouned, is still in use, although somewhat disguised in form : 
•'bound for London or New York," i.e. addressed, set in motion 

Pedigree. — From Icel. Fedgar, father and son collectively ; Lang- 
fedgar, ancestors ; Lang-fedga-tal, an enumeration of ancestors — a 

Wanton. — We are led to the true derivation by the ancient 
spelling wantowen. 

I wedded a wife well tvantowen of manners. — P. P. 

It seems to be the precise equivalent of the German ungezogen, 
ill-trained, ill-mannered, lewd, from the negative particle wan, cor- 
responding to tlie German un (of which we see examples in the Old- 
Eng. wan-hope, despair; Ang.-Sax. wan-hafa^ poor; wan-scrydd, 
ill-clothed ; Dutch wanvoeglyk, unbecoming, and many others), and 
getogen, educated, from teon, to draw or lead, identical with the 
German Ziehen. 

Kickshaws. — Niceties ; dishes suited to tempt the palate rather 
than for the solid satisfaction of hunger. 

Certainly not from quelque- chose, but perhaps the Dutch may 
afford us a more probable etymology ; for although at the present 
day the importation of a word from that source would be extremely 
unusual, yet it must be remembered that for a long period of our 
history the intercourse with the Low Countries was much more ex- 
tensive. Now we find in Dutch, from kiesen, to choose, hies, kiesch, 
nice in eating ; kies-kawen, to eat in a piddling, picking- and-choosing 
manner, — a word which might easily be corrupted into our kickshaw. 

To Burnish. — Fr. brunir; derived, even by Ihre, from brun, brown, 
. on the supposition that the denomination may have taken its rise at 
a period when arms were made of brass instead of iron. But brown 
would be as improper a designation of the colour of polished brass 
as iron, and almost universally implies dullness or absence of polish 
as well as mere colour. 

The truth seems to be, that instead of deriving the Icel. and Swed. 


bryna, to sharpen (whence brynsten, a whetstone), from the signi 
cation of polishing, we ought to consider the two ideas as related in 
the opposite order. In barbarous times the most obvious example 
of polished metal would be a newly- sharpened weapon, and from 
thence the designation might easily be transferred to the polishing 
of metallic surfaces in general. 

Now bryna, in the sense of sharpening or giving an edge to an im- 
plement, might most naturally be derived from the Icel. bryni, Dan. 
bryne, an edge, in the same way that eggia (which like bryna is used, 
first in the sense of sharpening, and secondarily of exhorting) is 
from egg, an ed^^. 

Bonfire. — The guesses usually hazarded oi boon-fire , quasi Fr. bon- 
feu, or bed' fire from bed, a funeral- pile, will not hold water for a mo- 
ment. We find however in Danish the word baun, a beacon (probably 
identical with the * fire-dome or beekne' of the Promptorium Parvu- 
lorum), and there cannot be an object from whence the designation 
of a bonfire (" a fire voluntarily kindled as a token,'* as the word is 
explained by Richardson) might more naturally be drawn than a 
beacon-fire. It is probably from this source that the towns of Ban- 
bury and Banstead derive their names, which w^ould thus be equi- 
valent to Beacon-tow^n and Beacon-place. There is close to Banstead 
a field containing a tumulus, still called the Beacon-field ; and near 
Banbury a high conical hill called Crouch-hill, where the crouch or 
cross may probably have been erected on the site of the ancient 

Seldom. — Icel. sialdan, Germ, selten, quasi sialf-dann, selb-geian, 
made after its own fashion, singular, and hence (what is a less de- 
gree of singularity) rare. 

Many examples of a jectives formed on the same termination may 
be seen in Ihre and Schmeller, under the heads Dann, and Tan, Getan 
respectively, from whence we may cite Swed. sa-dann, Icel. sod- 
dan, Ang.-Sax. so-l^an. Bavarian sogetan, sog-tan, sotan, sottan, sotten, 
so-formed, such ; as showing the same degradation from the long 
accented tan, into an unaccented ten. 

If the Scotch seindill, seindle, seldom, be (as there is little doubt) 
the equivalent of the Swed. sina-ledes, after its own fashion, from 
sin, suus, and led, via, it would be a strong corroboration of the fore- 
going explanation of Seldom. 

With respect to the word selb itself, it is suggested by GriraTn 
that it may be resolved into sik-liba, from leiban, to remain, that 
which remains in itself ; but may not the second element consist of 
the word leib, body ; as we find in Old Fr. the expression ses cors 
in the sense of him-self ? — 

Et il ses cors ira avec vos en la terre de Bahiloine. — Villebardouin, 46. 

Butter. — We find in Schmeller (Baierisches Wort.) buttern^ but- 
teln, to shake backwards and forwards, to boult corn. Bufter-glass, 
a ribbed glass for shaking up salad sauce. Buttel tr'db, thick from 
shaking. Butter-schmalz, butter, i. e. grease produced by shaking 
backwards and forwards, by churning^ as distinguished from gelassene- 
schmalz, grease that forms by merely standing. 

X 2 


ClifiisE. — tcel. kdss 6r kds, gen. toar, a heap of mpiirt things as 
fish, flesh, or th6 likfe. Hence kdsa, to put' such things in k heap in 
order to turn rancid, a process adopted in Iceland ^ith respect to tlie 
flesh of seals {havkalvekidd ; Haldorsen), too coarse to be eatable 
fresh." JCi^^/r, iri^afteattis, having been subjected to this process; 
kasddr, SUbacidus, ' ' veteris casei sapore," says the Idelancfic lexico- 
grapKeif, who was doubtless acquainted with the taste of victuals so 
treated. \'['' ' ' ' •'■; // • '" ■ . '- ■■ 

ft is Remarkable ^H cheese Itself is knbwn by a totally diffetient 
name, ost ; but the use of tlie word Aic^iV,' rennet, shbws their know- 
ledge of the identity of the change takinff place in cheese and in 
vietuals treated in this unsavoury manner. ' : . 

Fbqf . —The i)rimitive isense 6f verbs formed on the syllable /^ seems 
to consist in rapid yariabte movement. Ficken, figken (Scnraeller), 
to make ^hort alternating movements. So fykcy fidge, '^c— fidget, 
Eng., nearly in the same sense. Flcoly Ang.-Sax., fickle, "variaole. 
Fiuka, Icel,, to be carried about with the wind. Fok, light things 
so blown about. Fiadrd-foi] a flight of feathers. ' Dan . fyge, to blow 
about ; fog, that whicli is blown about ; snee-fog, k snow-storm. 

It appears then that the primitive meahihg of our English fog 
consists in a reference to the drifting of the mist with'the wind, 
just as we have rack or wrack, thin driving clouds, frbm rekd, Icel., 
to drive ; and it is probabjy the exemplification of the same phseno- 
menon m another subj'ect that has given the name of l^o^ in some 
counties to the long dead grass of the preceding summer that remains 
oyer the winter,^ blowing back\vards and forward^ with the wind. 

B ApGEii"'-7-A corn- dealer ; one whb'buy s up corn in the tharket for 
the purpose of selling again ; as Well as the quadruped M<eUs taxus, 
l^ow WQ ljia,veTnFrencK hladier,^ corn-dealer, the diminutive df which, 
according to the ^hb^o^ oihlaier,hldirie, i/^He, would be htaireau\ih^ 
designation of the quadruped 'badger* in the same language, which 
would thus appear to signify a little corn-d6aler ; and the designations 
both in French and English would seem to point tb some' suppositibri 
respecting the habits of that animal, with which the general sjiread 
of cultivation has made us little familiar. But, further, it is probable 
that the English term is actually derived from the French hladier, 
the corrupt pronunciation (^ whlchy in analogy with soldier, solger, 
sodger, would be bladger ; and though the omission of the / is raOier 
an unusual change, yet instances may be giveti bf synonyms differ- 
ing only in the insertion or omission of an 7 after an inirial 5 or p. 
Thus we have botch ai\d i/o^cA. (Dutch boisen and bluts&fi), with 
nearly the same meanings ; Dutch baffen ov blajfen, to bark ) jwtreie/t 
and plaveien, to pave ; paitjjn and plattj/n, a skait or patten. The 
English speak compared with the German sprechen is nearly ana- 
logous; '" '-''■ •'.^'- ' ' -i-vn 

2. "The Lapp and Finn toi^esiiot unconnected with the Indo- 
European family.'* By T. Hewitt Key, Esq. 

'ilie aggregate of languages included in the sb- called Indo-Teu- 
touic family is gradually absorbing within its sphere more apd more 


of those once deemed altogether foreign to it. No one now doubts 
the elose affinity of the Celtic dialects to this family, and there 
seems good reason for the opinion that investigation alone is requi< 
site to demonstrate that yet other tongues are fundamentally of the 
.same origin. The object of the present paper is to establish the 
Y claim of the Lapp and Finn languages to sidmission into the family, 
^ VoA so to prove that the Tatar tongues, of whic^ these are acknow- 
ledged to be a portion, are not justly set apart as altogether distinct 
from the great stock of languages which extend from the Ganges to 
the extremity of western Europe. 

In the comparison of languages, relationship may be proved on 
the one hand by a similarity between the vocabularies ; on the other 
by a similarity of what are called gnunmatical inflexions. But of 
these two tests the latter is by far the safer. The influence of col^- 
quest and the intercourse of commerce may be the means of intro- 
ducing many new terms from one country to another, so as to 
produce the appearance of an affinity, when in fact that appearance 
belongs only to the surface, whereas the terminal syllaUes, which 
constitute the essential part of grammar, defy the dictations of con- 
querors, and perhaps never perish altogether but with the language 
itself. Secondly, in the vocabularies, the most trustworthy guides 
are the pronouns and numerals, and for the very same reason. But 
in truth, if a similarity in these respects be established between two 
tongues, it will, perhaps, always be found, that there is likewise a 
decided affinity in a considerable portion of the general vocabularies. 
|n all these investigations however, the candid and intelligent ex- 
plorer must remember that accident alone will account for some 
riesemblances, seeing that languages contain so vast a nun^ber of 
objects to be compared. With this necessary caution, in a field of 
inquiry where much mischief and discredit has been caused by hasty 
inquiries and inductions, the attention of philologists is requested to 
the following evidence, as regards the languages of Finland and 
Lapland, which the present writer has deduced from the two gram- 
mars whose titles are given''', selecting these, because being written 
in Latin, they will be more generally intelligible to Englishmen than 
later and more complete grammars in Danish and Swedish. 

A. Lapp Tokgub. 

The personal endings of the verb happen to exhibit a fuller deve- 
lopment in the past tense than in the present, and therefore, brevity 
being an object, the former alone are here given. The essential 
part of the verb which signifies *to change' is moUo (Fiellstrom, 
p. 66), and the addition of an t constitutes the past tense, whose 
persons are as follow (p. 67) : — 

S. 1. molsoib. D. 1. molsoimen. P. 1. molsoime. 

2. molsoi. 2. molsoiten. 2. molsoite. 

^3. molsoi. ^. molsoikan. 3. molsoin. 

• 'Orammatica I^apponica,' by Fiellitrom, Stockholm 1738. 'Grammatica 
Fennica,' by Vhael, Abo 1733. 

X 3 


The dose eonneaion of the oonsoniiiits b vad m i» w^«koown ; 
and the Gennan dative hi m, as contrasted with the Latin la ^t, ex* 
hibits an acknowledged interchange of these letters in a grammatieal 
sufhx ; but in the present instance we need not look beyond die 
limits of Lapland for what we want, as the southern dialect of Lap* 
land gives us molsoim in Heo of molmb (p. 57). 

The second and thurd person have lost all trace of personal suf^ 
fixes, the obscurity which might thus be created being removed by 
the now universal prtdice of prefixing the personal pitonounb, afli-itt 
the other lai^ages of modem Europe. In the dual tiKse suffixes 
appear to the greatest advantage, and no one can Isil to recognise 
m fnohoi-men: and mohot-tm % similarity to Hie^ Greek suffixes of 
Tvwrofiev and rvTrrcrov. The sole difficulty is, that the former of 
these two words is the property of the Greek piural, and not of the 
dual. To the present writer tins is no unweltome opi^sitioir, for he 
has elsewhere, kmg. before he opened a Lapp grammar, put" forward 
the doctrine jbhat dtml and plnral suffilxes are metedialectic vatietiea 
of each other, often difiering solely in the fact that the one has pre- 
ferred a final It, ^be other a final «, both of which are ordinary 
suffixes of plurahty, and probal^y are themselvea intimately fdiatedi 
as no two letters are more liable to interdbange. At otiber times the 
final consonant which denotes phirdity Xpvobably the « raliier thai^ 
the m), has been altc^her disearded. 'Ilius ^le Latin ki^Qiige has 
scribitis in the indicative and Hribiie in the imperative, where the dL> 
9tinctionbas b^enere&ted altogether by aa accident,for the imperative 
also must once biave added the final ooftisonant to denote the pkural of 
the second person^ The dual and pluffal therefore of the Lapp veili 
must he considered, to be incnri^ but one, the pl«#al having lost a 
letter wUdi the dti%| has had tb^ better fortune to tetain. 

Turning from the verbal, inflexions to the personal pronouns in 
their independent form, we find (at p. 32)--^ 

N. mon,l. toda, thou. soden,he. 

p. mo, of me. /Of of thee, «&, bfhim. 

in whicji agai)^ ]^ i^i^ el€»ientts bear a close similarity to those 
existing in ^hf c^sifsal l^lguage^* Evidence of the same kind is 
to be seen in a peculiar construction with the possessive pronouns, 
which are attached as afibiea •to nouns (i^p. 20; 21) :^ 

paim0, son; pmndm, my son, 

nipe, knife>; nipati thy knife. 

' a(;«, grandJEatfaeer ; , e^^^, lu» grandftither. 
And here the mere^ nouns it iedifficidttto pass by without suspecting 
a possibility of connexion between them severally and the Scotch 
Mrn, the English A^e^ ami the Latin ai;o ov ^. ^imintttive eiMif. 

But^ tp return tp thQ Vieisb.. The gemndial form is m^o-num 
(p. 58), and the imperfect ipartioiple is nu^o-men (p. 67): here 
agam there is enough to remind one both of tiie c^ Greek in&iitive 
tuptemen and the partipi|^le 7tip/omea09. The latter, it » true, is 
coinmonly used witba passive sense^ but there as strong ground lor 
believing that all jparticij^fis in origin belong to the active voice. In 


the IJMvd place, attentioii nay ber^breotcdt to ttefonftaefeini of the 
Li^p paMcve* 1M%, sayvi imr^ author, i» maiier by aiUkhig to 1^«$ 
•ctiisrmbecme mwU^ sj^li^]^ idioR ^lottgtst fona i» II0)%mi or 
jfS^!(p« 63 ;&c.), bvt.tliiff is^reduoed to -^0|%iot »q/ii^ aiideF«i td 
^0» or ^OM (p. 65 &c*). Now iir thejlnngiiagn ivkiiiiiitbe Md^ 
Teutonic range, perhaps it;woidd be 8als^to^«dd:ifitiK>«t vtamffdooai 
the obIj! Uieor]ryet|HopaRiiided teachea^Uft<tfaittlie pissxre^ie fmmed 
precia^jT is tibe aame ^va!]^, tiz.! the .tfdfb^iaa of a i^41id>le denoting 
gmjeraUT: f aetf/ Nor is At mmtysrm ttbe^^gfemral^^nritiei^e Of the 
paasiseiorHBtiDn than the agvewaielitnexiitfl^ for the 0«eekpronomi 
ci tins lignificaAion h».for Itsr^eaaeiftkl pbrdoff iit^. and the ha^ 
has nr (m, eair^^ both he«i!mgiia^ imavlMd' i««mildi^ lAipp 

Of the proTOiina^' ^ose^ ealhd peraonil > aqd' po nieaa fc r e hafre b^mt 
considexed. Besides l^ese, we have 4 ome tii i m r > lace Ite form^'^ie 
mif^lrope to £nd.(pw 41) iai^the iaitervogatl^ ^ end-jntK Ni ^ff, 
and alao in ihe'rafaUi?e;^^vN^;;««<iiiV aSo^ theae^iqr be added 

Amoi^ the nnmeraU too (p^M, to aay ifethmg of ooft^ e^ 
whioh-is iiot^tuailike.1teSMBtterit^ we ^ve ai^^ataitfog siuiharify^ in 
the twoi fonna/ for 'tt»/ viz^/i»rib^ ecknpaied witii Etta wdedsm, 
and laeke, which reminda one o^ t^e litfauaiiian Uka^ whieh enters 
into the oom^und tenna ^oi that langufcige froan ' eleven ' onwards 
to ' nineteen. ' The appeasaaoe of Ueht indeed eeemi^ to remove the 
only objection tiiajb can be made to Bopp^s expbaiatioit o^ tiie ternifi 
' eleirea' and 'twelve,' when he midtes the part, levm a ^idectic 
variety iG^ (Zfceni instead of a parUeiple ^om to leave* 

But perhaps the piost extraordini^ resemblance to a IbnUatioR 
of the IndOftTeutomo fiuldiy exists in the superlative (p. 22)— - 
Ai^ ehort; ^bid(«mt» shortest : ^ 

and what adds to the interest, this Lapp furnishes an explanation of 
this form which appeiars to be wanting elsewhere. It is a well- 
supported theory that superlatives ar6 commonly formed through 
the coaparativei mudi asi^the FVench meUlewr,hetbtr, witii thb' addi<^ 
tion of amaxtiele becomei ii^ meili^n the'biest. liie fortn of the 
Gothic supoiative, and thac one of the Greek langtiage whiish eiida 
in lenros, clearly adndt bf a: formation on this prinoiple; but whehce 
the Latin superlative^ suf^haspo^/tiaitt^, optumus ? in the Lapp com- 
parative the explanation appears to pres^it itself;-*-- 

Snek shorti p^'^e^^ dborter, Stnekwrnnd shortest; 

It has already been seeu in the first person of the indicative tiiat 
the Lappa^ readily interchange a final b and final m, so that &nekub 
is fairly a mean between the poutive and the 0»p^lteitive. It may 
be perhapa worBi while. to observe thsit Hie Lapp agrees with the 
rest of th» Ix^Oi^Teutonie langlUlgl^^in fordMtt^coiiipidratitea and 
superlatives j&om prepositions.. 

The eaae-endings of nouna <pk 1 3)v\t^g^ik!^r with |)bintex)f differ- 
ence, have their points of resemblenee'^ako'; and these so decided 
that they caa aearcdy be the re«Edt of aceident.^ 


The termination of the aocusatiTe is m or 6, oae more instance of 
the interchange before noticed. The suffix of the dative iqypears in 
two shapes, « and t, the latter of which agrees with the dassical, 
tongues. And even in tlie genitival suffix en, we have a termination 
far from unknown to the philologer. That a suffix commonly ap- 
pearing as 19 ^buld also take the form n, im d prhri probable frcon 
the convertibility between these consonants ; and in feu^t it is vir- 
tually seen in those plural genitives of the Sanscrit which end in 
fMrm, for the last two letters am serve only as the sjrmbol of plu- 
rality, . as they do in other parts of the Sanscrit noun. But the 
(German also has its genitives in m in those words which are formed 
by the union of two nouns, where an en is interposed* as khrehm^ 
dieb, mandenlicht, haaenUtger^ for this affix cannot here denote plu- 
rality ; and its genitival power is confirmed by such forms as rmda- 
hkie, rinderblaae, UaMmeclU. 

To what has been stated it may be added, that other suffixes and 
prefixes also may be produced which support the same doctrine of 
affinity. Thus the Greek and Latin languages have their adjectives 
in iKos and iciit, or striking off the nominatival ending, in ieo ; and 
the (German has adyectives of a similar termination both in form 
and power, via. ig, whence our English adjectives in y. Now the 
Lapp grammar (p. 25) places before us — 

• ^ dacktehone^dticktekhoixf, 

tUbrfwe horn, tihrfwek homy. 

So again there is a negative prefix of adjectives perfectly parallel 
to the Swedish, viz. o (p. 28). Indeed some have inferred from 
this very similarity, that it has been, in recent times, borrowed 
from the Swedish, but such a prefix seems to be an almost essential 
element of any language, and therefore not likely to be a recent 
importation from abroad. Nay, even in the ordinary negatives of 
the Swedish and Lapp tongues a similar resemblance prevtuls. The 
Swedish negative is tcArtf, and the Lapp is commonly said to be re- 
presented by the vowel t alone (p. 69), but in the conjugation of the 
verb with a negative (p. 70) the letters gg are frequency attaching 
themselves to this t, if a vowel follow ; so that we are justified in 
holding igg to be the fuller form of the negative. 

It may perhaps be fitting to observe, &at Bopp's theory of the 
Greek past tehses in a, ercOca, vnr\fa, rerv^a, erervfta, being formed 
by^the addition of the particle called a privative (the idea of past, 
according to him, being a negation of the present), seems confirmed 
to some extent by the feu;t that the Lapps attach an t, which, as has 
been just said, is their ordinary negative, in the same way to form 
their past tenses. 

B. Finn Lanouagb. 

Much that has been said of the Lapp has its counterpart in the 

The present of the verb masa, loosen, is the following (p^80) : 
fMxan, nuupat, maxaa ; nuupomme, maxatte, maxawat. Here the first 
person, in imitation of the Greek amrrovi has substituted a final n for 


a fmal'fit, and the seccnid< person hua the true sraffix/^of the second 
person/ ixriiich is seen ht theLa^n pronoun ft/r^ndiB the ttaffizies<tf 
the Latin ama-th, amavis^tit atnlixvi9*$is, oii^eYi as in the finglish 
art, wait, 3halt, &c. The &r^ and 's^c^md persons of the plund kvm 
a markedTesemblanee to^ 4he classical tongtieB. l^e gerund agaus 
resembles^ the ^beek iii£nitiv«B; for it has two forDaas, moao^and 
moxoi^inii^i^ (p. 83)^«eyefall5r isiivespo&ding^to rii^ and ryTT€fiev. 
Then^ ad regards tbe ^personal ^proiiotms^ if we ^separate ieom the 
plural those parts^ which ' «(nden% denote ease <and number (p« 53 
&c.)^ ^e arrlveaVtbeifoiiowiiig'fofmfbr the different p6rsafns--K > 

and the last is pTOf(Red>to be a eorranddn ol se^ first by the hi^sit of 
this liaig«ai|^e like the Oreeic to siUii^tute h lor s, Fof instance^ 
the Ito^ns8aNfl>rl(^^^ kirwe$^ caumtf form > the genitives an^mkany Jnr^ 
weken, caunikin; in which, by the way, the assiBiiiation of tixe Towels 
in the^suffiiSB to the' vowel ia the base deserves attentkni, and it is 
only a single instanee^f a pijaeiplle which characteriseathiskngiuage 
genciadlyi Bat tterets^awdMr^pro6f that j^is a looixup^ion of «ir^ 
and that is/ tlsat tto siagulaar< actually hasr an^ri vizv sb ^p. i fii^). v « 

Bat^tD pi<oeeed t^ t^^essential fiortioa of ^le simple demonsttatiYe 
prtAicmn'sigiufyii^ "^tlns/ is ta^ Qi tai; that is, a^^ord akeg^ther 
identical with the Greek. ; : i : ; v rrji v , i. 

Again, if the interrogathse or «^lati«re be iq^tUke manner divested 
of its suffixes for eime find liumber.^we^iftyeibefore us the syllable 
cttYp.,54^^;tl|e yery^fonn^f the Jjatin relative in euiui^fmhcumfJSLC^ 
And thi^ .word at time^ appears as A:fHt» reminding one pj jjiip V at 
the e»4 pf the. Greek interrogative riv-«s Viv^a, which is jadpiitted 
to be closely related to ^^ iJiiTa^quis, buf: differs froooi lit in the sole 
point of,as§ui?!Hng a >f. , ,, ,; ; v. ., r ^ 

Other forpns^ of the demonstrative areT^amfi aixd se (jf^ 52)> ^hicH 
deserve attention for the feet that in the, plural they ejfLchaiige t;he 
initials Qr u? for ai^ », thus agreeing with the Pali (fioppV V, G,), ?^iid 
also justiCyin^ that theory which makes the luatin nam, n^m^axii the 
German nopk of pronominal origin. Nor is it to jbe neglected, that: 
se is in agreeinent with the use of the.Greek <n^cf)ov fo^. ri^epov and 
our own adverb so and adjectiye ««cA,. which hjive iilsp, substituted 
an.* for,/.,,,.'. , . . \ ,'";,.,,,;',', ;,.^'", ' 

llie wQri ti/(?r of the Latin cau be demonsteated to have been 
once possessed pf an initial c, so as to hs^ve been ctt/er^ the ^act re- 
presentative of the Herodotean jporcpo*, and .forme<a by adding to the 
relative the (termination^ of a comparative, which is the ap)propipiate 
suffix, beeause the^ very idea connected with it isa limitation to two 
objects. Now the Finn form which represents uter in meaning is 
cumpi (p. 48), and the Finn comparative ends in mpi (p, 29), as — 

musta black, mustempi blacker. 
Deduct th^ the terminatbn which belongs to: the eompacative; ahd 
we hav^ left the syllable cu as in uter, i. e. cuter itself. 

* Compare the Greek ye vos, gen. 'jfeviios, fpryeifcocos. ,, 

t This form will be welcome to those who would deduce the relative and articre 
from a demonstrative pronoun, aiid Ihat again from a verb iSreJi, signifying 'look,' 


Among the namerals (p. 39) we have several striking similarities. 
In the first place, the term for 100 is precisely, letter for letter, the 
Sanscrit, viz. sata ; and the word for 1000, tuhat, is evidently formed 
therefrom on the same analogy by which a German deduces his 
tusund from hundt the essential portion of hundert and hundred. That 
these four letters really constitute the main element of the German 
and English words is commonly admitted, and is confirmed by the 
relation between the English words hate and hatred. Between the 
formation of the Finn tuhat from sata, and the German tusund from 
hund, there is the slight discrepancy, that while they both adopt the 
very familiar interchange of s and h, the Finn maintains the sibilant 
in the shorter, the German in the longer form. 

But there is yet another trace of a classical numeral. The ordi- 
nary word in Finn for ' ten' is kommen, but the form dexan is also 
found in the composition of the numerals, in such a manner that 
little doubt can exist about its power. In the series of cardinal nu- 
merals, occur yxi one, caxi two, cahdexan eight, and yhdexan nine, 
where it seems tolerably evident that the two larger numerals are 
formed by subtraction, 8= 10 — 2, 9=10—1, precisely as in the 
Roman symbols IIX, IX. The Lapp numerals (p. 29) confirm this 
view, being — ack-t one, qweck-t two, kacktze eight, &ktze nine, and 
tzecke ten. Indeed the same principle of formation is traceable in 
other Tatar languages, as the Aino* or Kurile: syhnap one, dupk 
two, duhpyhs eight, syhndhpyhs nine, and upyhs ten. 

The suffixes by which distributives (p. 40) are formed in Finn 
bear evidence of a similar character, as they take the suffix in, thus 
agreeing with the Latin bini, centeni, &c. A still more striking 
agreement exists in the formation of diminutives from verbs: as, 
lasken dimitto, laskelen paulatim dimitto (pp. 60, 61). Compare 
herewith such Latin verbs as ambuUo, and such German as wandel-n, 
to say nothing of the marked resemblance of form in the roots of 
the Finn lasken and the German lassen. 

As regards the vocabulary, a grammar is not the proper quarter in 
which search should be made for identity of forms, and it is not in- 
tended in the present paper to deal with the evidence of dictionaries. 
Still, even in the limited number of words which accident throws in 
one's way within the few pages of Vhael's grammar, there are many 
that deserve attention; nor need any allowance be made for the 
temptation to a philologer of selecting as his examples those words 
which bear an apparent connexion with other European tongues, 
for the philological writers of those days, so far as they were at all 
biassed by such feelings, sought everywhere and thought they found 
an affinity with the Hebrew, and Vhael himself exhibits this ten- 
dency (p. 60). 

The Finnyoca (p. 49) is stated to be formed by the affix of the 
particle ca to one of the forms of the relative, and in sense it is the 
equivalent of quisque. Now the Sanscrit has the relative in the 
form ya, and there cannot well be a stronger connexion than between 
the terminal syllables of the Finn ca and the Latin que. 

* Ritter v. Xylander, Sprachgeschlecht der Titantr, pp. 445, 446. 


But our limits will not admit of much more than an enumeration 
of forms deserving consideration. 

wirsi, ode, 

mylli, mola, 

paimen, pastor, 

utar, uber, 

kytos, laus, 

wieres, hospes, 

siemen, semen,' 

moni, multus, 

wesi, aqua, 

carwa, pilus, 

cuningas, rex, 

waha, parvus, 

suotiu-sa, suavis, 

sokia, coecus, 

paino, pondus, 

pistin, pistillum, 

paha, mains, 

wapa, yirga, 

putoa-n, cado, 

repia-n, rumpor, 

onto, peregrinum. 

As grain is with difficulty produced in any parts of Lapland and 
Finland or Finmark, it will not be safe to rely on such words as 
mylli mola, or siemen semen ; but on the other hand, pasturage being 
essential to the existence of the people, it is in the same proportion 
unlikely that a term for ' shepherd ' should have been wanting in 
the earlie^st stage of the language. Indeed it is more likely that the 
Greeks should have derived their term ttoi/^j?!/ from the North than 
that they should have exported it. In the Greek tongue the word 
admits of no complete analysis. We have, it is true, an explanation 
of the first syllable in the Greek wuv as well as in the Latin pecus, Go- 
thic fathu, German viehy &c., but for the second syllable we must 
have recourse to the Teutonic mann, so that the word would signify 
* herdsman.' 





(L. versus.) 














(ovdap, L. uter.) 










(G. wirth.) 














(G. wass-er, &c.) 





(Sanscr. kar.) 





(G. koning.) 










(sweet, &c.) 






















(TTi-Trer-w 7ror-/ioi 













(out, outer.) 


Vol. II. JANUARY 30, 1846. No. 41. 

Daniel Shabfb, Esq., in the Chair. 

There was laid on the table — 

•• Forby*s Vocabulary of Ea^t Anglia," with MS. Annotations. 
Presented by R. Bevan, Esq. of Bury. 

Tom Taylor, Esq., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
Professor of English Literature, University College, London, was 
elected a Member of tiie Society. 

A paper was then read :— 

" On the Anomalies of the English Verb arising from the Letter- 
changes." By Edwin Guest, Esq. 

In a former number* we considered the peculiarities of those verbs 
whose forms departed altogether from the scheme of our ordinary 
conjugations ; in the present paper we shall examine the anomalies 
which arise, not from any essential difference of structure, but solely 
from the effect of certain letter-changes. 

In some of our Old-English MSS. we find th changed to t, when- 
ever it follows in the same sentence a word ending ia d qt t. This 
curious law is followed throughout the Ormulum, in the Saxon 
Chronicle from 1132 to 1140, and in the lives of St. Catharine, 
St. Margaret, and St. Juliane. The Ormulum and the portions 
of the Chronicle referred to were probably written in one of our 
eastern counties, and the three works last mentioned in some county 
north of Trent. The east-of-England phrase " now and tan," and 
such northern phrases as " houd teh tongue," " I know not what to 
means/' are clearly relics of this very singular letter-change. 

Now in many of the Anglo-Saxon and Old-English verbs, the 
inflexions tt, th, were affixed at once to the verbal base, without any 
intervening element, as comst, comp. When the base ended ia d ox 
t, the infle^on J) appears to have become t, according to the law 
just enunciated, and the inconvenient combinations dt, tt, were re- 
placed by a single t. The peculiar form of the third person which 
resulted from these letter-changes was used as late as the fifteenth 

Ir The see goth hym (England) al aboute, he ttont (standeth) 

asanyle. — R. Glou. 1. 

2. Goth forth to Via Appia quod she. 

That fro this toun ne itant but miles three. 

Ch. Second Nonnes Tale, 172. 

* No. 38. 



3. He turneth the cradel, andjlnt the child quik. 

Sevyn Sages, 821, 

4. The messanger ^oth and hath nought forgeter 

And^n^ the knight at his mete. ■ Lay le Freine, 44. 

5* Valerian goth home andjint Cecilie. 

Ch. Second Nonnes Tale, 21 8» 

6. Whoso first cometh to the mill, first grint. 

Ch. W. of Bathes Prol. 388. 

7. He ys most prest paiere. >»at any pouere man knowe>. 

He with halt not hiwe hus hyr6 overe even. Vis de P. PL pass. 8. 

8. pe kyng, he seide of Engelond halt hym to hys hedde 
And ly> myd hys gret Wombe at Reyns a chlld-hedde. 

R. Glou. 379. 

9. Whan that our pot is broke, as I have sayde. 
Every man chU and holt him evil apayde. 

Ch. The Chan. Yemannes Tale, 212^. 

10. — he is here and there 

He is so variaunt, he abit no wher. 

Ch. The Chan. Yemannes Tale, 466. 

11. We mowen not, although we had it sworn 

It overtake, it ilit away so fast. Ch. Chan. Yem. Prol. 129. 

12. Besyhed care and sorowe 

Is with mony ache a morowe 

Som for seknesse and some for smerte 

Som for detaute other poverte 

Som for the lyves drede 

That glyt away as flour in mede. Kyng Alis. 8. 

13. What shulde he studie, and make himselven wood 
Upon a book in cloistre alway to pore, 

Or swinken with his hondes and laboure 

A« Austin bit, Chau. ProL 185. 

14. And Salomon for a womanis love 

Forsok his God that syt above. Kyng Alis. 7715. 

15. The lebn sit in his awaite alway 

To sle the innocent. Ch. Freres Tale, 357. 

16. But God that sit in heuen aboue alone 

Knowing his herte, &c. Hardyng, Chron. 372. 5. 

In other Old-English MSS.*, th is changed to t, not only when 
it follows words ending ia d or t, but also when it follows words 
ending in s. The usage which gave rise to this law may still be 
traced in some of! our northern dialects. 

17. Good lad, sed I, boh heaw far 's tis Littleborough off? — seys f lad its 
obeawt a mile, &c. So Ipowlert o*er yetes and steels till eh coom to this 
Littleborough, &c. — Tim Bobbin, 4. 

In accordance with tliis letter-change, we find the inflexion th re- 
presented by t, when attached immediately to a verbal base ending 
in *. 

* Set the Legend of St. Catharine and the Institutio Monialium, Titui, D. 18. 


18. Mid ivi grene al be growe 
That ever stont iliche i-blowe, 
An his hou never ne vorlost 
Wan hit snuith ne wan \i\i frost. 

With ivy green all overgrown — 

That ever standeth alike blooming. 

And its colour never looseth 

When it snoweth, nor when it freeseth. Hule and Ni^tingale, 618. 

19. Wan men carpen of Cryst. o)>' of clennesse of soule 

He wext (waxeth) wro> & wol not huyre. bote wordes of murthe 

Penaunce and pour men. the passion of seyntes 

He hate> to huyre of. Vis. de P. PL pass. 8. Whit ed. 

20. A tunne whan his lie urUt (ariseth) 

Tobreketh. Gower, Conf. Am. 1 . 

21 . Whan that the firste cock hath crowe, anon 
Up rist this jolly lover Absolon 

And him arrayeth gay. Ch. Milleres Tale, 503. 

Writers who have flourished during the last two or three cen-* 
tunes have generally mistaken the nature of this inflexion ; Spenser 
«ses uprist as a past participle, and Coleridge as a preterite ! 

22. Flora now calleth forth each flower 
And bids make ready Maia's bower 

' That new is uprist (uprisen) from bed. Spenser, March. 

23. Nor dim, nor red, like God's own head, 
The glorious sun uprist (uprose), 
Then all averr'd I had kill'd the bird 
That brought the fog and mist. 

'T was right, they said, &c. Ancient Mariner, part 2. 

The northern men seem at all times to have been peculiarly liable 
to blunders of this kind, inasmuch as the th^ represented by the final 
t, was properly an inflexion of our southern dialect, and but rarely 
used in the north of England or in Scotland. It would seem ifrom 
the following passage, that King James, notwithstanding his many 
years' residence at Windsor, supposed that abit and abyde might be 
used indifierently. . . 

24. All thing has tyme — thus sais Ecclesiaste— > 
And wele is him, that his tyme will abit, 
Abyde thy tyme ; for he that can hot haste 
Can not of hap, the wise man it writ. 

And oft gud fortune floureth more than wit. 

James 1. King's Quhair, 109. 
6awin Douglas also uses stant in the first person of the present tenie. 

25. Of Mantua am I beget and boir. 
In Calabre decessit and forloir ; 

Now stant I grave in Naplys the cyte, 
That in my tyme wrait natabyll warkis thre. 

The reader will feel no surprise at seeing nV, rist, &c. representea 
as preterites in our modem glossaries. 

In investigating the conjugation of the anomalous verb wot*, we 

♦ See No. 38. p. 159. 



found the / disappearing' in the second person singular — wost. This 
is merely one example of a rule, which once prevailed very widely 
in our language, and whose influence has not yet disappeared from 
our provincial dialects. When the inflexion st was added imme- 
diately to a verhal root ending in d or t, these final letters were 

26. Ah tet ihu fole thing me chiit 
And wel grimliche me atwut. 

But yet, thou foul thing, thou me chidest 

And full fiercely thou me twittest. Hule and N^ngale, 1330. 

27. Tho hadde the Soudan wonder meat 

And seyde, '* Palmer lyghtly thou areH (aread'st, i, e. tellest) 

Al the maner." Oct. 1425. 

28. Icham Swythyn wan >ou byai, 

I am Swythyn whom thou hiddest (t. e. prayest to). R. Glou. 337. 

29. Louerd he seyde pat ech >yne madest queynte and sley 
And changest poer and kynedoms al at thy nowe rede 

And monnes sones wreche 9€n$t (send'st) of her fader myidede, &e. 

R. Glou. 350. 

30. I ne wende nojt that eny man my dunte sgolde at stonde 

Ac >ou at iiorut (at-stand'st) yt no^t one, ac art al clene ahoue. 

R. Glou. 809. . 
. 31 . In evil hour thou hemt (hent'st, i. e, takest) in hand 

Thus holy hills to blame. Spens. July. 

32. Syre hyssop wy ne gyfst us of ^yne wyte brede 

That ^ou eii ^at'st) ^ self at ^y messe. R. Glou. 238. 

The preterites ending in de formed the second person singular in 

de8t. But in a few cases the e was lost as early as the fourteenth 

century, and the d being thus brought into contact with the 9t, was 

elided as in the preceding examples — diddest, did'st, dt^tt. 

33. po >ou versoke such travail, to be in God seruise 

And wra)>>edest so much God, )k>u ne dwt (didst) no^ as >e wise. 

R. Glou. 428. 

34. An thee behine or at my zyde 

Di'tt skep, &c.' Barnes, Dorsetsh. Dial. p. 232. 

The I of would, should, was also dropt in pronunciation in the four- 
teenth century ; and by a similar process of elision, we have for the 
second person singular the mutilated forms wost, shost — ^forms which 
are still in familiar use among our English yeomanry. 

35. — ich depude ye so vp, >at >ou thost yse 

To nyme an saumple afterward mylfbl & mek to be. R. Glou. 435. 

36. — ych was y suore to hjrm ar to J>e 

And gyf ich adde hym besuyke ye wors you woH leue me. 

R. Glou. 272. 

37. My levedi me sent the tille 

For ich am prive 
And praieth the with wille 
That thou woai her se. Tristr. 2. 87. 

38. , Quhat wostow than? sum bird may cum and stryue 

In song with the. James I. King's Quhair, 40. 


99. The tkne wuU come when thou wtut gie 

The wordle Tar to have 'er smile. Barnes, Dors. DlaL p. 239 • 

Generally the verbs of our southern English formed th«ir prete- 
rites by adding de, and their past participles by adding d to the* 
verbal base, and these inflexions were added either immediately or 
with the aid of an intervening element. When the verbal base 
ended in a hard or whisper letter, and de, d were added to it imme- 
diately, these suffixes became respectively te, t, according to the law 
which forbids the juxtaposition of vocal and whisper letters. 

When the verbal base ends in if or t, we rarely find more than 
one d or t in the preterite, unless the spelling require the two letters 
in order to indicate the shortness of the preceding vOwel, as fedde, 
betidde, mette, &c. 

40. — another stroke he hym brayde* 

Hys mase upon hys hed ne layde. R. Cksor de Lion, 41 1. 

41. He thoght hymself as worth! as hym that hym made. 
In brightness, in bewty ; therfor he hym degrade, &c. 

Towhley, Myst. 20. 

42. In to )>e lond of Grece he wende & )>o wonede he ^ere. R. Glou. 1 1 . 

43. — where late she toend 

To comfort her weak limbs in cooling flood. 

Fairfax, Tasso, 6. 109. 

44. pe kyng of Fraimce aftur folc wide aboute tende 

To awreke hj^ of )>e lu>er men |>at ys frend so ichende, R. Gl. 36. 

45. pe maister of the messageres, Imberd was ys name 

Bende ys bowe & shette aoon, &o. R. Glou. 16. 

46. And ful fast thai slogh and hrend. Mioot, p. 10. 

47. He cuffumd than that men suld fare 
Til Ingland and for nothing spare 

Bot brin and sla. Minot, p. 10. 

48. To that ilk lokyne bo)>e ^ei consent 

In luf )>ei departed, Hardknout home went. R. Br. 52. 

49. Loth him was that dede to do 

Ac atte last he graunt therto. Lay Le Freine, 318. 

0. porgh )>e grace of God, Gunter turned his wille 
Cristend wild he be, |>e kyng of fonte him Uft 
& |>ritty of his knyghtes tumes >orgh Godes gift. R. Br. 25. 

51 . pys bataile ylaate )>us from a morwe vorte non, R. Glou. 398. 

52. Every second or thridde day she/cw^ 

Ay bidding in hire orisons ful fast. Ch. Second Nonnes Tale, 139. 

53. O mother maid- 
That ravishedest doun fro the4eitee 

Thurgh thin humblesse, the gost that in thee alight. 

Ch. The Prioresses Tale, 18. 

54. The porter of the abbay rose — 
Rong the beUes and taperes Itght^ 

Leyd forth bokes, and al red! dight. Lay Le Freine, 181 , 

In MSS. written during the fifteenth, or at the close of the four- 
* « To hrayd a stroke/* means to fetch a stroke. 


teenth century, the final e was very often omitted ; hence we £nd 
the verbs mutilated in ex. 43, 46, 47, 48, &c. 

The past participles also rarely take more than a single d or t. 

55. Thou shuld hare bide* til thou were cald. Townl. Myst. 9. 

56. O my lorde of Yorke God hath prouyde * 

In this for you. Hardyng's Chron. Froheme, 

57. By whose aduyse all other rightes exclude * 
The kyug iudged to John Biulyol the croune 
That was discent as clearly was conclude* 
Of dieldest doughter of Dauyd HuDtjrngdoo. 

Hard. Chron. c. 159. 

58. — these black masks 

Proclaun an enshield beauty ten times louder . 

Than beauty could display^. M. for M. 2. 4 . 

59. They drew aback as half with shame eonfinmd. Spens. July. 

60. But now (thanked be God therfor) 

The world is well amend, Spens. June. 

61. Good is no good, but if it be tpend 

God giveth good for non other end. Spens. May. 

62. — hastit forth thar way, 

As the rod led thame, quhil ascend ar thai 

The hill. G. Douglas, Eneid. 1. c. viL 

63. O hie princess quham to Jupiter has grant 

To held ane new cyte. G. Dougl. £n. I. c. viii. 

64. — the kyngly gyftis schejm 

Quilkis suld be present to the lyall queyn. 

G. Dougl. En. 1. c. xi, 

65. To bataille haf tbei iwyn^f Harald & William. R. Br. 71 . 

66. — fill oft 

There as I mynt full sore I smyte but soft. 

James I. King's Quhair. 

67. — a braver choice of dauntless spirits 
Than now the English bottoms have waft o'er 

Did never float upon the swelling tide. K. John, 2. U 

68. With head uplift above the wave, and eyes 

That sparkling blazed. P. L. 1. 193. 

69. But now from me his madding mind is start 

And woes the widdows daughter of the Glenne. Spens. April. 

70. — he spake & commanded that they should heat the furnace one 
seven times more than it was wont to be heat. — Dan. 3. 

71. The element itself till seven years heat 

Shall not behold her face. Twelfth Night, UK 

72. Courageous Richmond, well hast thou acquit thee. R. III. 5. 4. 
Net (Car spells it hette) is still used in Craven. In the modem 
editions of our Bible, heat, ex. 70, has been changed to heated. Todd 
must have overlooked this fact, when he accused Johnson of having 

* The final e in bidst provyde, exclude, conclude, is no essential part of the word, 
but merely added, according to the orthography of the fifteenth century, to show 
thttthe preceding vowel is a long one. 

f To mint, to aim at, to attempt. — Forby, Brockett. 


** unwarrantably printed the word heated"; Johnson merely used 
one of the later editions. 

We have said that the proper endings of the preterite and past 
participle were, in our southern dialect, de, d ; and that te, t, were 
substituted for these endings only when they were affixed imme» 
diately to a verbsil base, terminating in a hard or whisper letter. But 
in some Gothic dialects te, t, were the proper endings in all cases ; 
and in other Gothic dialects they were used occasionally when the 
verbal base ended in a nasal or liquid, or some combination of a 
nasal or liquid. This partial adoption of the t appears to have pre- 
vailed in some of our northern dialects, from which our modem 
English has borrowed it in the case of certain verbs ending in /, m, 
Ji, Id, rd, nd, and t; ; as dealt, felt, dwelt, spelt, smelt, spilt, dreamt, 
leant, meant, learnt^ burnt, built, gilt, girt^ spent, sent, bent, rent, reft^ 
cleft, left. In our northern MSS., and also in some of the dialects still 
spoken in the north of England, we find this inflexion affixed to verbs 
which do not tolerate it in the written lai^guage of the present day. 

73. Then James Douglas seeing the king in his bed, wmt (weened)'* that 
all had been sicker enough and past in like manner to his bed. — Pitscottie, 
p. 140. 

74. Or it wer alle ent (ended) )>e worke )>at >ei did wirke 

pei ordeynd a couent to ministre in >at kirke. R. Br. 80. 

75. — at 30ur jugement I will stand and do 

With M >at it be ent the strif bituex vs too. R. Br. 86. 

76. Rimenild hire biwente and Athelbrus fule heo schente. 
Rimenild turned her round & foully Athelbrus she shent. 

Child Horn. Cambr. MS. 

77. — John Balyol— 

lliat was discent as clearly was conclude 
From theldest daughter of Dauyd Hunt3rugdon. 

Hard. Chron. 159. 

78. Now liest thou of life and honour reft — 

Ne can thy irrevocable destiny be ufefi (waved). F, Q. 3. 4. 36. 

79. The Soudan that left (believed) in Termagaunt, &c 

Octovian, 919. 

But in certain of our northern dialects, particularly in those spoken 
north of the Tweed, the t appears to have entered generally into the 
formation of the preterite and past participle, even when the ending 
was not added immediately to the base, as belevit, consailit, ordainit, 
mingit, kepity 8cc. We might explain this peculiarity by assuming 
that these northern dialects, like the modem German, used te, t, 
instead of the southern inflexions de, d; but it will admit also an- 
other explanation, which may not be altogether unworthy of the 
reader's notice. 

When the Anglo-Saxon participle entered into construction with 
the verb have, it sometimes agreed in case and gender with the object 

• Or was there a North-of-England verb to wint, answering to the Danish vente, 
to .expect? In that case wint would stand for winte, i. e. winUtt. S<t ex. 49, 50, 
51, &c. 


of the verb, Hae syntax resembling that of the Latin phrase '' adoles- 
centiam nostram habent despicatam." But more generally the parti- 
ciple was put in the neuter gender, as if in the preceding example 
Terence had written " despicatum/' and instead of " they have my 
youth in contempt," the sentence had taken the turn '' they have my 
youth as a despised thing," Now in the Anglo-Saxon, the past par- 
ticiple took no inflexion or distinctire ending, either in the nominative 
or accusative of the neuter gender, so that the construction " he hath 
hated me," would suit either the present or the earlier stage of our 
language, hated being considered as the participle in the accusative 
case and neuter gender. But in the Norse dialects the participle, 
whether it ended in n or d, did take a particular endmg in the 
neuter ; and the Swedish hatad hated, v&rmd Warmed, &c. became in 
that gender hatadt, vdrmdt, &c., just as in English the neuters what, 
that, hit (now written it) were formed from who, the, he. These 
Swedish participles are said to belong to the passive voice, and are 
used in construction with the verb substantive. The phrases " he 
is hated," " it is hated/' would require — the first the masculine form 
hatad, and the second the neuter form hatadt. But for the past 
participle of the active voice another form is used ; and in the phrases 
"1 have hated him^ or her, or it," the participle Aa^eJ would be 
represented by the Swedish hatat. As hatat and hatadt are pro- 
nounced alike, modem grammarians have with much reason declared 
them to be identical, and that the Swedish active participle is no- 
thing more than the passive participle in the neuter gender. In 
Danish, the distinction between the active and passive participles 
does not exist (at least in that class of verbs which form their par- 
ticiples in d ov t), inasmuch as the Danish past participle ends, in t, 
whether used actively or passively, or whether the past tense ends 
in te or de ; thus keffffeto lay, smdre to smear, /ye to fly, &c., have for 
their past tenses Usgde, smurde, fyede, 8cc., but for their participles 
lagt, smurtf fiyet, &c. Now it is possible that this adoption of the t 
may have arisen from the frequent use of the neuter participle; 
and if this hypothesis apply to the Danish, it will also explain the 
terminations found in our northern dialect : we have only to suppose 
that the preterites in de gradually disappeared before that love of 
uniformity, which always exercises so great a power in language. 
If the hypothesis here advanced be a true one, we have in the past 
participles of our northern dialects the most singular relic of his 
language which the Northman has left behind him. The history 
however of these dialects has been as yet too imperfectly traced out, 
for the writer of this paper to venture any decided opinion upon 
a question so obscure and diflicult. 

Verbs which form the participle in «, often substituted e for the 
final en. We call the e a substitution for, rather than a corruption 
of, the en, because the nature of this latter ending has not yet been 
ascertained, and its form seems to depend on principles which have 
hardly as yet been made the subject of investigation. Participles 
with the vowel-termination are not unknown to our Anglo-Saxon 
MSS., and in the Old-English they are found in such numbers, as to 


suggest a doubt whether the usual form of the past participle was nbt, 
even in the Anglo-Saxon times, charactmstic of the written rather 
than of the spoken language. In modem English the final e has of 
course disappeared, but with this mutilation many of the Old-English 
participles in e have come down to us. They generally belong to 
verbal bases ending in d or ^, as hid, hid, rid, bound, ground, found, 
bit, hit, writ, got, &c. ; or to bases ending in n, ng, nk, as won, run, 
spun, begun, hung, sung, wrung, slung, stung, sunk, shrunk, drunk, 8cc. ; 
that is, they belong to verbal bases which allow of a form bearing a 
close analogy to the ordinary participles in d, t, or n. There are a 
few modem participles which do not come usder this rule, as swum; 
stuck, struck, 8cc., but the exceptions are much fewer than might 
have been expected when we remember the vast number of Old- 
English participles which ended in e. 

80. — >e noble tour 

pat of alle the tours of Engelond ys yholde flour. R. Glou. 433. 

81. — in that lond, as tellen knightes old, 
Ther is som mete that is ful deintee hold*, 

Cb. The Squieres Tale, 62. 

82." po Silui hadde bi gete a child, fayn he wolde wyte 

What mon )>at cbUd schulde be >at he h&dde y gete, R. Glou. 10. 

83. Hast >ou /or ^ete |>e gret wo, and J>e mony harde wonde 

pat ich habbe y>oIed, &c. R^ Glou. 24. 

84. The messanger goth and hath nought /or^e^e 

And fint the knight at his mete. Lay Le Freine, 44. 

85. — the yonge sonne 

Hath in the ram his halfe cours yronne. Cb. Prol. 8. 

86. — thou hast now /or«a^« 

My dorter >at schulde be >i wif & to a kemelyng take, 

R. Glou. 25. 

87. He sterueth ate ferste word 
That we schal in court spekt I 

Thanne he wil of ous be wreke. Sevyn Sages, 350. 

88. — whan they ban a certain purpos take 

They can not stint of hir intention. Ch. The Clerkes Tale, 93. 

89. Now is me shape eternally to dwelle 

Not only in purgatorie, but in belle. Ch. The Knightes Tale, 368. 

90. — sondry folk, by aventure yfalle ' ^ 

In felawship and pifgrimes were they alle. Ch. Prol. 25. 

91 . Than seyd Clement " he schall be stole 

With some quejrntys*' 
And bad that counsell schuld be hole 

Stylle in Paris. Oct. 1353. 

92. When you have penetrated hills like air, 
Dlv'd to the bottom of the sea like lead, 

And risse again Hke cork. B. Jons. The Fortunate Isles. 

* Chaucer certainly wrote holde and jnst as certainly olde, the plural adjective 
agreeing with knightes. 


. 93. Hengiit faire hyni )>onkede, and hys bed lowCede a doun, 
" pou hast, he seide, geue me mony a fayr town,** &fc. 

R. GIou. 115. 

94. — unto a poure ordre for to give , 

Is signe that a man is wel y shrive, Ch. Pro!. 226^. 

95. The bestes were dryue hem fro 

Ryght hastyly. Oct. 714. 

96. Duk Perithous loved wel Arcite 

And had him knowe at Thebes. Ch. The Knightes Tale, 345. 

97. And whanne men of that place hadden knowe him, thei senten, &c. 
— Wiclif, Matthew, 14. 

98. For hardily she was not undergrowe, Ch. Prol. 156. 

99. He alizte with drawe swerd. R. Glou. 536. 

100. — as he wer wod he ferd 
He ran with a drawe swerd 

To his Mamentrye. Oct. 1305. 

101. This is a devyl and no man, 
That has my stronp;e lyonn slawe, 
The herte out of his body drawe 

And has it eeten, &c. R. C. de Lion, 1 107. 

102. Tho Octouian vnderstode 

His beste yslawe, he wax all wod. Oct. 1625. 

103. pe ty thing to Rome com, ]>at he y slawe was. R. Glou. 83. 

104. — God geve the euell fall 

Thou scholdyst be honged or hewe small. Oct. 213. 

105. Mi wif he wolde haue/or/at, 

Therfore ye schulle al dai, Sevyn Sages, 1706. 

106. -— Chesturschire and Derbyschire also, 

And Stafford schire, >at be)> alle in on bischopriche ydo, 

R. Glou. 4. 

107. — athefe 

That many a trewe man hath do mischefe. 

Ch. The Knightes Tale, 468. 

108. And he seide to hem an enemy hath do this, &c. — Wicl. Matt. 13. 

109. — the peple wondride and seide, it hath not be seen thus in Israel. 
—Wicl. Matt. 9. 

110. In Gemade at the sege eke had he be 

Of Algesir, and ridden in Barbaric. Ch. Prol. 56. 

In cases where, as in the last few examples, the base ended in a 
vowel, the final e was often absorbed, and that too at a very early 
period of our language. 

When in the i&eenth century the final e was lost, there was often 
great danger of confounding these participles with their preterites. 
In some cases this confusion has certainly taken place ; and authors 
of high reputation have not unfrequently used the preterite for the 
participle, and the participle for the preterite. No authority can 
sanction so barbarous a solecism. But in passing judgment in these 
cases, we must be careful not to take the modem usage of our lan- 
guage aJB our only guide. Many verbs followed different analogies 


in different dialects t gete, ex. 82 ; wreke, ex. 87; slawe, ex. 102, &e.r 
point to participles such as geten, wreken, slawen, Slc, though the 
bnly participles which have survived in modem usage take a d^erent 
form, gotten, wrocken, slain, &c. 

In the cases vre have considered, the inflexion of the verb has been 
the subject of the letter-change ; we shall now give some examples 
in which the Verbal base has been affected by it. 

When the aspirate gh immediately preceded s in the Old-English 
dialect, an a? was the result ; thus from high'st came the (Dld-English 
hext, and our Modem-English next was formed in the same way 
from nigh' St, When a verb, in which this aspirate was latent,, as to 
see, to lye, took the inflexion of the second person singular, the re- 
sulting form ended in xt. 

111. Dame, he seide, no $ixt )>ou wel, that les yt ys al >i8. R. Glou. 1 60. 

112. — Wille slepest >ou, xyff^ >ow Hs puple 

How busy |>ai ben, &c. P. PI. pass. 2. Whit. ed. 

113. Thanne saide the maistres to Florentyn 

What sextou leue child thariu. Sevyn Sages, 362^ 

1 14. " Out traitour of mi land," 
Tristrem spac that tide 

«* Thou lextf" &c. Tristr. 1. 79, 

115. — disputen — 

Till " thou luxt" and " thou luxt " be lady over hem alle 

And thenne a wake Ich Wrathe. P. PI. pass. 7. 

When the verbal base ends in k or its modem representative ch, 
k or ch was often changed to the aspirate gh (in the older MSS. 3) 
}>^fore the inflexions of the preterite and participle. 

116. A doun mid so gret eir to >e er>e he fel and pi^te (pitched). 

It Glou. 29. 

117. —tents 

Thus proudly pight upon our Phrygian plains. Tr. and Cr. 5. 1 1. 

118. With gaudy girlonds or fresh flourets dight 

About her neck, or rings of rushes plight (pleach'd)*. F. Q. 2. 6. 7. 

119. And ever in on alway she cried and shright (shriek'd) 
And with hire bek here selven she so twight (twitched), &c. 

Ch. Squieres Tale, 409. 
Gh sometimes represents a g, which in the other tenses of the 
verb is latent— f«V, pret. tight. 

120. And thereunto a great long chain he tight. 

With which he drew him forth e'en in his own despite. 

F. Q. 6. 12. 34. 
For the most part when the final vowel was thus changed to gh, 
there was also a change in the radical vowel from a narrow to a 
broad one. This change of the vowel is so important a modification 
of the verbal base, as hardly to fall within the scope of the present 
paper. It may however be convenient to notice a few examples. The 

* Plight may be considered either as the participle o^ pleach, or as the participle 
oi plight, to weave : see ex. 63, &c. It is probable however that Spenser, fond as 
he was of our older language, connected it with the former of these verbs. 


preterites ioufht, caught, taught, beiought, bought, br&ught, thought, 
are still familiarly i:^ed in our standard English. In the Old- 
English are other examples, — betaught, the preterite of betake, to 
gire, rought (reck'd), raught (reached), straught (Btretch'd), /aught 
(fetched), &c. 

121. — love when he betaught her me 
Said that hope wher so I go 

Shuld aie be relese of my wo. Rom. of the Rose, 4438. 

122. Thainoroff^A^ (reck'dnot) ofhisfare. Tristr. 2. 1. 

123. Until the raught the gods own mansions. Sp. yi8i<ms of BeHay. 

124. The aiild guid man raught down the pock. Bums's Halloween. 

125. — I would hAxefaught (fetched) a walk with you. 

Congreve, Way of the World, 4. 4. 

126. Thanne he sdde to the man, stretche forth tlm\ hond and he 
ttraughte forth, &c.— Wiclif, Matt 12; 

The final consonant of the base is subject to various changes in 
the preterites of those verbs which form their participles in n. Cer- 
tain Danish verbs ending in Id, nd, change the d into t : thus holde 
to hold, gjmlde to be valid, finde to find, binde to bind, 8cc., have 
for their preterites holdt, gjaldt, fandt, bandt, &c,; and the same 
letter-change seems to have been known to some of our Old-English 

127r His haner upon the wall he pulte. 

Many a grynon it byhulte (beheld). R. C. de Lion, 1921. 

128. Ne once did yield it respit day or night, 
But soon as Titan can his head exault, 

And soon again as he his light withauU (withheld) 

Their wicked engins they against it bent« F. Q. 2. 11. 9. 

129. Lo Adam in the feld of Damascene 

With Goddes owen finger wrought was he — 

And welte (wielded, t. e. ruled) all paradis saving o tree. 

Ch.MonkesTale, 20. 

The Anglo-Saxon wealdan, to govern, has for its past tense weald, 
which by virtue of this letter-change becomes welt. The final e in 
behulte, welte, ex. 127, 129, is no doubt a blunder either of the tran- 
scriber of the MS. or of its editor. Care must be taken not to con- 
found this final t with the inflexion f in holt, holdeth, ex. 8, 9, welt, 
wieldeth, &c., or with the inflexion te (often corrupted into Of hy 
which so many of our preterites were formed. See ex. 76, &c. 

Many words ending in a hard or whisper letter changed it to the 
corresponding vocal letter when they took an inflexion opening with 
a vowel : thus wif, half, thief, &c. formed in the plural wiv-es, Mlv-es, 
thiev-es, &c. In like manner Old-English verbs whose preterites 
ended in/ changed/ to t; before an inflexion of thisldnd — ^sing. gqf, 
plural gaven or gave. As the Anglo-Saxons had no v, they had no 
means of indicating the letter-change, but in all probability the / 
was pronounced as a vocal letter when the inflexion was added. In 
the Old-English, the difference in the spelling makes the letter- 
change at once apparent 


1^0. — to oon be gaf fyve talentis, to an otlik tweyne> fcc. Thaime 
the kyng schal seye, &c. Come ye thebletsid of my fadir, &c. For I ban* 
gride aud ye ^ao«n me to ete, &c.-p-Widif, Matt. 25» 

131. I — badde oede to write to you, and preie to #/fyvtf stron^y for the 
feith, &c. Whanne myghel archangel disputide with the devel and tiroof 
of moses bodi, he was not hardy to bryng, &c.-r-Wiclif» Judas 1. 

132. — with the rose colour #<ro/'here hewe. 

Ch.Knigbtet Tale, 180. 
1334 Alas Custancei thou hast no champioun 

But he that tiarf (died) for our reaemption. 

Ch. M. of Lawes Tale, 621, 

134. For which anon they #torveit bothe two. 

Ch. The Pardoneres Tale, 530. 

135. Let delu9 vnder the fundement & thou schalt be nethe fynde 
A water pol, that hath 3rmad that this werk ys be bynde— « 

Me dalfxi^ nethe, &c. R. Glou. 305. 

136. But he that badde taken oon, ghede ferth and ddlf into the erthe 
and hidde the money of his lord, &c. — Wiclif, Matt 25. 

A more curious, and perhaps a more ancient letter-change per- 
mutes M to (7 in certain persons of the preterite, and in the participle. 
The following are Anglo-Saxon examples :— 

Pret Part . 

Bing. cw8et$ cwsede cw8et$« P/tir. cwsedon, nay, 

snaS snaS, snidon gesnidden, ru^. 

seats sude seatS, sudon gesoden, hoiU 

wear^ wurde weart$y wurdon geworden, he. 

In the Old-English, the d seems to characterise the preterite through- 
out, and it is dso used in the participle. 

137. Seethe pottage for the sons of the prophets. — II. Kings, 4. 

138. Jacob eod pottage.-^en. 25* 

139. The women have sodden their own children.— Lam. 2. 

As the final th was changed to if in certain dialects, it is some- 
times difficult to say whether the d has resulted firomi the dialect or 
from this letter-change. Chaucer (it would seem) usea quod both 
for the preterite and for the present tense, and other writers aimilarly 
used quoth. The North- Country varb snathe meaoa to lop timber- 
trees (Ray), and snod means close-shaven, but the verb is more ge- 
nerally vrritten with a d in all its tenses — to sned^ to cut 
Another letter-change in the Anglo-Saxon converted hto g» 
Pret. Part. 

Sing, all* age ah, P/tir. agon, ought. 

droh droh, drogon dragen, draw. 

sloh sloh, slogon geslagen, slay. 

This letter-change occurs in the MSS. of the thirteentii century, 
biit at a later period seems to have been neglected. We may mdeed 
find the plurals ogen, dragen, sagen, &c. as late as the fointeenth 
century, but then we have also the singulars og, drag, sag^, &c. ; and 

* This is one of the anomalous verbs, which use the forms of the preterite, but 
take a present signification (see No. 38^: p. 157). 


when the ^ was converted into w in the plural, owen, drawen^ somen, 
&€•• we generally £nd it also in the singular, ow, draw, saw, ^c. 

The permutation of s toV has left more traces behind it. The four 
most prominent examples in the Anglo-Saxon are — 

Pret Part. 

Sing» waes were waes, Phtr. wseron, be. 

ceas cure . ceas, curon gecoren, choose, 

forleas -lure -leas, -luron forloien, lose. 

hreas hrure hreas, hruron g^Yaoren, fall. 

The 01d-^[iglish conjugation of was has been already noticed*. A 
corresponding letter-change distinguishes the plural of the preterite 
and the participle of some other Old-English verbs ; pret. sing, les, 
plur. lorin or lore, part, loren or lore. 

140. The lond Use (lost) the armes, changed is the scheld. R. Br. 8. 

141. Here folc heo loren (lost) in [>e se Jnn^ tempest mony oo. 

R. Glou. 50. 

142. Sfl}riht >at I of told, >at |>e lond had A>fi^- 

Had a cosyn, &c. R. Br. 14. 

143. — after he had fair Una lom 
Through light misdeeming of her loyalty 

And fidse Duessa in her stead had borne, &c. F. Q. 1.4. 2. 

144. Lauerde God we biddeth, &c. 

That ure soule beo to the t core (chosen unto thee) 
Noht for the flesce /or lore, 

Lambeth MS. q*. Warton, Eng. Poet. sect. 1 . 

145. That weo beon swa his sunes iborene, 

That he beo feder and we him ieorene. Ibidi 

146. Comewayle hym lykede best, therfore he ehes ther 

To him and to his ospr3mg. R. Glou. 21 . 

147. My heart blood is well uigh/rom (froxen) I feel. Spens. Febr. 

148. — the parching air 

Bums /ror« and cold performs th* effect of fire. Par. Lost. 

Ieorene, ex. 143, is the plural of the participle Ucoren, and i-core, 
ex. 144, merely another form of i-coren. Lese, ex. 140, is a clerical 
blunder for les. 

The permutation of th to J, A to g, and stor, occurs only in the 
past tense and participle ; another permutation, that of/ to h, is pecu- 
liar to the present tense. In Mseso-Gothic, a final/is often changed 
to 5, when followed by an inflexion beginning with a vowel or 
consonant ; lauhs, a leaf (where s is the nominatival ending), is thus 
declined : N. laubs, G. lauhis, D. lauba, A. /au/— the accusative yield- 
ing us the simple word stripped of all its appendages. In the Anglo- 
Saxon it seems necessary that the inflexion should open with a vowel. 
Thus habban, to have, has in its present tense — sing, habbe, htefst, 
hse/6 ; plur. kabba^ ; for its preterite ha/de, and for its participle hce/d. 
Habban is represented by the Old-English habbe, with which we 
must rank libbe to live, derived from lif life, and hebbe to heave^ 
which has for its preterite he/ or hof. 

• No. 38. p. 152. 

203 \' ' 

149. pis is |>e stat of Irlond, as ich hahbe y tolde. ^v^^ B. Glou< 43« 

150. So much we habbeth ever y be in franchise ^ther to, 

pat, &c. R. Glou.47. 

151. The maistres and the messagers 

Habbeth greithed the destrers. Sevyn Sages, 41 8« 

152. Pycars fonden ese ynow and defaut none 

To libbe in plente ynow, but of wymmen one. R. Glou. 42. 

153. Fairer by a ribbe than ani man that libbe. 

Child Horn. Cambr. MS. 

154. »- a stronge axe |>at mony mon bro^te to de|>e 

So strong and so gret, >at an o>er hit sholde hebbe vnne|>e. 

R. Glou. 17. 

155. With his lyft hand he hef (heaved) his gysarme 

And thought to do Philotas harme. Alis. 2297. 

Several verbs whose bases ended in k, as make, take, &c., appear 
generally to have dropped the k, at least as early as the fourteenth 

1 56. pe Roma3me8 laie sone a doun, he made emty place. R. Glou. 50. 

157. Now duellis William eft fiille bare mat (makes) many wone 

Of gode men er non left, but slayn er elkone. R. Br. 75. 

158. — what devylle alys you two 

Sick nose and cry thus to mayt Townl. Myst. 264. 

159. It is a tokjm that it mase 

Of noveliy 
A mervelle it is, good tent who taae 

Now here in by. Townl. Myst. 124. 

160. Wee'v meet neaw lean o horse-steyler whooa wur meying off with 
tit 08 hard os he cou'd. — Collier's Tim Bobbin. 

161. The lordis bad that thai suld nocht him slay 
To pyne him mar thai chargyt him to ta 

Thus gud Wallace with Inglissmen was tane, Wallace, 2. 141 . 

162. There be four of us here have taen a thousand pounds this momins:. 
-IH.IV. ^ 

163. — the dule tey aw bad luck far me. Tim Bobbin, 1. 

164. Wy loo* the (look thee) Meary, I thought so pleaguy hard ot I cou*d 
think o nothing at aw. — Collier's Tim Bobbin. 

In modem English we use made for preterite and participle^ and 
occasionally taen also as a participle. 

In the northern dialects have apparently did not change its t; to 5, 
as in ex. 149, 150, 151 ; and as early as the fourteenth century v 
was very generally dropt : pres. sing, ha'e or ha, hast, hath ; plur. ha'e 
or ha ; pret. hadde ; part, had; inf. to ha*e or ha, Vid. hast, ex. 83, 
93 ; hath, ex. 84, 107 ; han, ex. 88 ; hadde, ex. 82, 97. The con- 
traction ha is also common. 

165. You ha done me a charitable office. Winter's Tale, 4. 1, 

166. He shall ha the grograns at the rate I told him. 

B. Jons. Every Man in his Humour. 
Give also in certain forms dropt its t;. 


167. The cowne Y wold that ye had sene 

In the nownes ye had me the coppe gtne. 

Hunting of the Hare, 266. 
See also ex. 39. 

Kithe to show, and graitke to prepare, have for their preterites 
kidde and graide, and for their participles kid, graid. The conjuga- 
tion of these verbs has nothing in common with that of seethe, sod, 
sodden ; the th in these cases seems to be absorbed, or as it is some- 
times (»lled, assimilated, just as luidde is formed from hafde. 

168. His craftes gan he hithe. Tristr. 1. 26. 

169. Tristrem with gret honour 

Kidde that he was hend, &c. Tristr. 3. 11. 

170. But Florentyn kydde that he was slegh, &c. Oct, 1 135. 

171. I am ded if that this ihing he kid, Ch. Sherds Tale, 252. 

172. I shalle gragth thy gate, 

And fiille welle oraejm thy itate. Townl. Myst. 47. 

1 73. — now ar we lyght arayde— 

Bot loke oure gere be redy gragde, Townl. Myst. 214. 

The preterite clad seems to have been formed from clothe in like 


Vol. II. FEBRUARY 13, 1846. No. 42. 

H. A. WooDHAM, Esq. in the Chair. 

The following work was laid on the table — 

"Sophoclis Tragoediae Superstites. Recensuit et brevi annota- 
tione instruxit Gulielmus Linwood, M.A. JEdh Christi apud Oxo- 
nienses Alumnus. Londini, mdcccxlyi." 

A paper was then read : — 

*' On the Derivation of Words from Pronominal and Prepositional 
Roots." By the Rev. Richard Oamett. 

The languages commonly called synthetic agree uniformly in this 
leading feature of being resolvable into a comparatively small number 
of elements, usually denominated roots. In Hebrew there are few 
derivative words which are not capable of being referred to their 
parent stem ; or when this cannot be done within the limits of the 
Hebrew itself, the root wanted may generally be supplied from the 
Arabic or some other cognate dialect. We here speak of the Semitic 
roots as they are usually given by grammarians, and do not now 
enter into the controverted question whether they are primary or in 
reality compounded. In Welsh also there are few derivatives which 
may not be satisfactorily accounted for either from the radicals of 
that language, or from the Armorican and Gaelic dialects. In like 
manner the Indian grammarians have reduced the whole of the San- 
scrit language to a comparatively small number of d*hatoos or roots ; 
and there is no reason for doubting that in a great majority of cases 
the secondary and composite forms are rightly referred by theYn to 
their originals. There may be room to question their conclusions 
in particular instances, especially vrith regard to pronouns and par- 
ticles ; and it may be also suspected that a number of ostensible 
roots are in reality mere varieties of form or collateral descendants 
from some unascertained primitive. 

These roots are commonly regarded as mere abstractions, that is, 
not actual practical words, but words in posse ; and they are gene- 
rally explained, either by an abstract noun in the locative case, or a 
"verb in the third person ; indeed they are almost universally repre- 
sented to be roots of verbs, and consequently more nearly related 
to the verb than to any other part of speech. Bopp and Pott, who 
frequently question the positions of the Indian grammarians, do not 
dissent from them in this general view of the subject ; except that, 
instead of deriving pronouns and simple particles from verbal roots, 
they consider them, or the elements out of which they are formed, 
as a class apart, neither descended from verbs, nor in any way re- 
lated to them. With respect to the non-derivation of those elements 
from verbs, they are probably in the right ; but whether, on the 

VOL. II. z 


other hand, verbs and other parts of speech may not occasionally 
be derived from them, is a different question, which a small amount 
of research will enable as to decide in the affirmatiTe. . Proofs might 
be multiplied from many languages ; we shall at present content 
ourselves with a few examples from the Old High- German. 

Aba. llie Old-Grerman preposition corresponding to the Sanscr. 
apa, Gt. cito, is aba, only occorring in this form in the oldest mo- 
numents of the language. From this we have the adjective ah-uh, 
sinister, perverse, i. e. deviating, branching into several derivative 
nouns, along widi the verb ahakam, to abominate. A verb more 
directly formed from the root may be inferred frrom the participial 
form aband, evening, i.e. declining, which again is enlarged into the 
verb abanden, vesperascere. 

Abar, Afar, Avar. This word, evidently a comparative form of 
the preceding, is in Gothic a preposition, with the sense c^ Lat.^^^ ; 
but in Old- German it is an adverb, conunonly denoting again. From 
it the verb avaran, to repeat, is directly formed, together with a 
number of nouns in all the dialects ; among which may be specified 
Goth, afar, series, and Ang.-Sax. itfara, ettfara, a descendant. 

Obar, Ubaji. This preposition, found in nearly all the Indo- 
European dialects, forms in O. H.-Gkrm. the verbs obaran^ to put 
off, prolong, and ga-obaran, to surpass, overcome. Compare Lat. 

Aku, without. Mod.-Germ. okne. Indanon, afterwards enUmen^ 
to deprive. 

In — ^forms the verb innon, bearing the^ various meanings of to 
annex, bring, receive, admit, &c. along with the nouns vmod, viscera, 
innate, indigena, and several others. From the comparative form 
innaro, inner, is derived innaron, to insinuate ; and with the prefix 
er, erinnem, to remember. 

Uz, out. From this come the verbs uzon, to renounce ; ga-uzon, 
to remove, exclude. From the comparative uzaro is derived the 
present Germ, atissem, to express, enunciate. The Engl, utter is 
evidently of cognate origin. 

NiDAR, below, beneaUi. Nidatyan, to humble, condemn ; gani- 
daron, to cast down ; with many nouns and adjectives. 

Nah, near, after. Nahen, to approach ; zuonahen, to hasten, come 

Sahan, with, together. Samanon, to gather, congregate ; with a 
multitude of derivatives. 

SuNTAR, apart. Suntaran, to separate. 

The above list might be greatly enlarged ; but enough has been 
given to show, not merely the abstract possibility, but the fact of the 
derivation of verbs and other parts of speech from simple particles : 
analogies will readily suggest themselves from the Greek and other 
languages, but they are too obvious to be here dilated upon. It 
may perhaps be objected that all the above instances are of compa- 
ratively recent date, and that no similar principle of formation can 
be traced in the earliest stages of language. It is apprehended that 
yfe know too little of language in its infancy, either to affirm or 


deny this propoaitioa on direct and positive grounds : the utmost that 
we can expect to accomplish is to deduce probable conclusions from 
the data and the analogies within our reach. It is however conceived , 
that there is no inherent improbability in the supposition that verbs 
and other words might equally be formed from similar elements at a 
much earlier period. 

Terms expressive of local relations must have exbted in every 
regularly organized language at least as early as some other classes, 
and the powers of combination and symbolical application inherent 
in the human mind could be as easily exercised on words expressing 
separation and connexion in space, as upon any other attributes 
cognizable by the senses. That those terms are themselves of the 
highest antiquity is admitted by the best philologists ; indeed Bopp 
does not scruple to characterize them as ** antediluvian." The 
origin of the words themselves is a question which we do not under- 
take to discuss. It is not perhaps absolutely impossible that they 
were primarily onomatopceue, or imitations of natural sounds ; but 
there are many difficulties in the way of such an hypothesis. 
Wiillner, and other writers who have laboured with great ingenuity 
to account for the formation of language by this prqpess, have felt 
the difficulty of dealing with this branch of the subject ; and while 
they allow that pronouns and particles are an original and very im- 
portant part of language, they admit that it is not easy to establish 
a connexion between Uie enunciation of a sound and the idea of a 

Waving therefore the discussion of this point as being beyond 
our means of information, we proceed to inquire whether there is 
any evidence of particles and pronouns having actually become roots 
of verbs and nouns at an early stage of the Indo-European languages. 
We shall begin with a class of languages which have hitherto been 
only partially employed for purposes of general philology, but. which 
it is believed are calculated to throw considerable light on several 
obscure phsenomena. 

The Cymric and Armorican preposition denoting over, upon, is gwar 
or gwor, commonly abbreviated to por in the former language, but 
subsisting in its original form in the latter. The corresponding 
Gaelic term is for, now obsolete except in composition. Now there 
is a large class of words — nouns, adjectives and verbs — ^which may 
be more naturally and obviously referred to this preposition as their 
root, than to any other in the compass of the Celtic languages. 
Thus we have W. gwarad, covering ; 'gwarchdu, to enclose ; gwared, 
to guard ; gwer, a shade, and many similar words. These again 
have their counterparts in Germanic, Latin, and Slavonic words 
commencing with w or v, or in Greek words which formerly had the 
digamma. Many of these terms are referred by Pott, Benfey, and 
o£er German philologists to the Sanscrit varami or varayami (from 
the root vrt), commocdy denoting to cover or to choose. Admitting 
this, it follows that if the Celtic terms are related to the corre- 
sponding Teutonic, &c., they must be equally so to the Sanscrit ;. 
in other words, Sanscr. varami, Goth, warjan, Celt, gwarad, &c.^ all 

z 2 


denoting covering, n^ut be of common origin. The nes^t step jn^ 
the. investigation is to see what probable grounds we have for ref^r* 
ring these termd and their cognates to a local or prepositional rela* 
lion as their original root. 

Pictet, in his 'Affinity des Langues Celtiques avec le Sanscrit/- 
observes that the Irish /nVA and W. ^«^rM= against, are the counter- 
parts of Sanscr. ;?raf I, Gr. vpori, and that Ir, /or, W. gwor or gor, 
correspond to j^ra, para, Gr. vpo and irapa. Among the Celtic prepo-.- 
sitions which have no formal representatives in Sanscrit or Greek, 
he specifies Ir. fa,fo, sub, apud, &c., W,gwa, go=undeT, Against 
the etymology of frith and gwrih there is nothing to object : witk 
respect to for and gor*^ it is to be observed that they, as well as the 
Lithuanian per, always signify over, npon, and therefore are poten^ 
tially equivalent to Sanscr. tqturi, Gr. Wkp, Germ, ubar, &c» With 
respect to fa, fo, &c., it is strange that Pictet did not perceive that 
they bear precisely the same relation to Sanscr. upa, GitVTra, that 
frith, 8cc. do to prati, vporl, with their cognates ; a relation furti]ber 
borne out by the analogy of the Slavonic and Lithuanian po, pod, 
under, after, &c., which are clearly cognate with the corresponding, 
Sanscrit and Greek, and also it is believed with the Celtic. Thus 
we have a strict parallelism throughout : gwa, fa =; »pa ; ^i&ar,/&r = 
tipari, and gwrtk, frith tspraii. 

If therefore the preposition gtoar, upon, is cogoaXt with Sanscr*^ 
vpari, and is at the same time the root of gtmrad, covering ^o^^:- 
which come as naturally from it as $upero does from super-^it follows 
t^t upari and varaim are related to eaeb other, and that an element^ 
amply denoting upomover, may be the primordial one in the Httejci 
word. If this point «ould be once well-established, it would lead to 
conclusioaos important in themselves, and calculated to simplify i& 
no small degree t^e ciAirent ideas of the organizati^a of language. 
We shall at preset hypotheticaUy assume this position, and proceed 
to inqiiire how far the actual phaenoraiena of laagUAge lare f<^UQd to. 
coincide with it. . ; 

As preliminary to the ensuing disoussion we may observe, omcfii; 
for all, that the Cymric ^ir alrish/, is convertible in Welsh to a sipt-*. 
jde guttural g^ c4ch), or to a labial b^ p (m) : in Sanscrit it corre- 
sponds generally to w, occasionally to sk^; to a labial^ gattu^nali ;or 
palatal : in Slavomc to v^, a labial or pa^tal ; iu' German to qUiUif 
gj b, p. Correspondences with other < dialects will • oocacdonaUy b^ 
noticed in the sequeL R is also commutable with oth^ Uquids>i 
generally with /, and is not unfrequ^itly transposed; e. gr. van 
bar, par, may become respectivieljir vro, bra, pra^ &c. We shall also^ 
consider the Sanscrit roots^ v^im^ to colour ; vriti hwi* dJwri, gene- 
rally denoting turning, deflection, v. t.q, va/, to cover ; hval, to 
move to and fro — the corresponding forms to which in other dialects, 
frequently interchange sigiuficatipn8«*HEus etyi^ologically related to 
each other and belonging to the class which we are proposing ta 
examine. If we assume, then that ^u^ar, upon, over^ may becom^i)^ 
the parent stem of verbs and noubs, as the Germ, ubar becomes 
* The Welsh equivalent otirapA \i ger = by, adjotning. 


ubaron, the words most obviously connected with it are those simply 
denoting superposition, covering or elevation. Among these we 
may class gwarad, gtoarch, gwarth, covering ; gwarchdu, to enclose ; 
ffwer, a shade ; gweryd, turf, sward. In the Teutonic languages we 
have Goth, warjan, to cover ; O. H.-Germ. wara, a dwelling ; werjan, 
to dress ; A.-S. wreon, to cover. In Slavonic vrieti, to cover or shut 
up, whence vrata, a door or gate; vr'ch, a summit (comp. Armen^ 
iwerah, over, upon) ; and many similar words. The Sanscrit words 
derived from var (vn), denoting clothing, equipment, armour, and 
other modes of covering, are pretty numerous; one of the most re- 
markable is umd, wool, which it is curious and instructive to trace 
through the cognate dialects. The initial r or w vocalized in uma, 
and dropt in lana, reappears in Slavon. vVna, Lithuanian wilna, Goth. 
nnilla, where n is assimilated to the preceding liquid. The Welsh 
gwlan presents the fullest form of the word, as Gael. oUan, and Gr. 
eplov the weakest. The Latin villus, vellus (for vUnus, velnus ?) are 
probably related. The antiquity of the term and the attribute meant 
to be denoted by it are sufficiently evident. The English flannel, 
from W. gwlanen, which might have been a Gaelic form, is a good 
example of the change often made in adopted words. 

Passing over for the present the numerous formations in gwal, 
vol, bal &c., believed to be connected with the above, we may next 
observe, that there is an easy and obvious transition from the idea 
of covering to that of defence or protection. Connected with this 
we have in Welsh gwared, to guard (whence Ital. guardare, Fr. gar- 
der) ; gwarant, security ; gwersyll, a camp ; gwerthyr, a fortification 1 
In Teutonic, tt?ar;a«, werjan (O.H.-G.), to defend; gawer, defen- 
sive armour ; A.-S. wer, a wear or embankment ; with a multitude 
of similar words in many languages. Allied with the idea of defence 
is that of prohibition, examples of which are W. gwarddu, to forbid ; 
Ghrm. wehren, to keep off; wamen, to warn. From the notion of 
protecting, the transition is also easy to that of watching, observing, 
beholding, seeing ; as may be seen in the Ital. guardare, to guard or 
watch, to observe, to look'; Germ, warten, to beware, to perceive ; 
analogous to which is Lat. tueor, to defend, to behold. A simpler 
form occurs in the A.-S. war, wary ; Germ. ge-iraAr, observant ; 
with which the Gr. opw, to guard, opauf, to see, may possibly be 
connected. The Welsh gwyliaw, to watch ; gwyled, gweled, to see ; 
appear to be from the same root, substituting / for r ; as may be in- 
ferred from Bret, gwere, Irish faire, watch, where r is preserved. 
Another modification of the same idea is that of endurance, conti- 
nuance ; as may be seen in the German warten, to watch, also to 
expect, wait ; and in a more simple form in O.-Germ. weren, to abide, 
endure ; wirig, permanent ; and in a metaphorical sense, A.-S. weorig, 
weary, tedious. 

Pott and other German philologists also refer to the same root 
Oerm. war, Lat. verus, true; q.d. covered, protected, secure. If 
we admit this, the W. ^iwr, Gael, fior, true; Slavon. viera, faith, 
belong of course to the same category. Again, what is covered 
may at the same time be concealed, whence A.-S. wreon, to hide ; 



Dan. vraa, 0.-£ng. wro, a secret corner. Comp. Lat. velare, reve- 
lare. . ' 

The next dass of words wbich we propose to consider as coa^ 
jiected with the root in question, is that involving the idea of crossing, 
deviating, turning, &c., hoth literal and metaj^orical. A relation 
between this and the former class is easily established if we keep in 
mind that what lies or passes over a surface may cross it, or deviate 
from what is assumed to be its proper direction, or go beyond its 
natural limits. Thus transire flumen may be indifferently rendered 
to go over the river, or ttcross it, or beyond it ; and he who thu« 
crosses a river deviates at the same time from the natural directiaa 
of its current, and may also turn from it by passing further. The 
most original Celtic form appears to be the Breton gwara, to bend ; 
whence gwarek, a bow (compare Lat. arcus) ; gwarogt a yoke. Thfi 
Welsh ^Ttt^yr, oblique, curved; gwyraw, to bend ; Irish ^r, crooked, 
slightly deviate in form, while the Engl, wry transposes the liquid. 
The German furnishes the full form quer, across, athwart ; and the 
weaker werraut to disturb, confuse ; garwerran, to overturn ; wir^t, 
deflected, distorted. If we regard the Sanscrit vrit as connected with 
the simpler form vn, we are enabled to connect with this class the 
Lat. vertere, to turn; Germ, werden, to becmne, q, d. to turn out; 
Slavon. vratiti, to turn ; Lithuanian tversti, to turn, roll ; A.-S. 
ivrcBthiany to wreathe, entwine; and many otl^^ words. The list 
might be extended to some hundreds of t&noA, by including all the 
varieties of form caused by a substitution or modification of radicals, 
a few specimens of which will be given in the tables. 

The secondary and metaphorical ideas connected with the relation 
of turning, are too numerous to be specified individually. A multitude 
of words bearing the literal significations of roll, twist, throw, varie- 
gate, corrupt, surround, shake, and the moral or metaphorical cmeS'Of 
err, deceive, pervert, transgress, &c., referable more or less direcdy 
to the class under consideration, will readily occur to the compa- 
rative philologist. To choose, Sanscr. varayami, O.-Germ. vfeljon, 
Lith. weliti, Gr. alpeojim. may be explained as to set aside, out oi a 
larger number = Lat. seligere. To mil, Welsh gw^il, gwfUfs (vo- 
luntas), Germ. «;o^/^, Lat. volo, Gr. /3ovXoftac, is evidently related, 
as may be seen at once from the Lat. opto^ to wish and to choose. 

The extent of the field of investigation ostensibly connected with 
the particular class* of words under consideration, may be inferred 
from the circumstance that Benfey, in his * Griediisches Wuiael- 
Lexicon,^ traces to ^em nearly a thousand Ghreek vocables ; and had 
he been fully aware of the resources derivable from the Cymric and 
Armorican dialects, he might easily have found many move, l^iese 
vdialects satisfkctorily explain many phaenomena otherwise not easily 
accounted for ; as for instance gvmr, gtvyr, oblique, curved^ show at 
once the possible cbnhexion between Germ, quer; hstUvariuSi varus, 
Engl, wry, Gr. yvpos; to say nothing of Lat. curvus, Qb.^. con oar, 
turn, twist; Gr. eifpo^, alvry ; with a multitude of words moxe or 
less deflecting froni the original type, but easily reducible to it ac- 
cording to recognized analogies. 


We have all along treated the word gwar ia the light of a simpie 
and independent radical ; there is however every reason to believe 
that it is in reality a comparative form of gwa (gwo, ^o), as Sanscr. 
iquuiia otupa, and Goth, u/ar of uf. To speak more strictly, ^ar 
is a combination of two prepositional elements, gwa + ar, the latter 
having in itself the sense of upon, wer, in aUL the Celtic dialects* 
Each of these elements is the parent of other words i thus gwa is 
enlarged into gtpadn, base, foundation (comp. Oerm. boden) ; gwad^ 
d8W£if, dregs ; gwael, low, base (Lat. vUisi) ; gwaa, a servant, vassal 4 
while ar becomes W. aros^ abicUng, dwelling ; Gkel. ardy lofty (Lat. 
ardnaui) % airde, height ; ardaighim, to elevate^ &c. That the Saiiscr. 
vpari, Goth. tf/ar« should be compounds is easily conceivable, if 
we reflect that^i^.-^S. hutan (our but) is composed of three distinct 
dements, 6t*tf^»aii, and abuian (about) of four. If therefore gwar^ 
to cover, turn* &c., is connected with the prepositkm, it is not in 
the strict sense of the term a primary word; and if we are correct 
sn the view which we have all along taken of the matter, the same 
will apply to the Sanscrit vri and the other ostensible roots supposed 
to be connected with it. It is believed that they are all reducible 
to one leading notion, viz. that of covering, as included in the pre- 
position or adverb upon, which again is itself probably of pronominal 

This view of l^e matter is further strengthened by the comparison 
of the collateral element lar in Gaelic, :=^ over, upon, in conjunction 
with W. tra, tras, over, trwg, through, &c.i with the Sanscrit root 
tri, to pass over* and its numerous cognates. Words appar^tly 
including this element abound in every tomch of the lQdo-Bui:opean 
feunily; and they will be found on examinatioa to run p^aUel 
throughout, or neai^ly so, with the cla9s previously examined, in the 
senses oi covenng, preserving, watching, turning, throwing, trans- 
gressing, &c. iSis Qoinoid^ce is easily accounted for if we suppose 
that both classes contain ^e same prepositional element or = over, 
upo»^-giving pretty nearly the same force to each. It is believed 
that the same element, both in the simple form ar and the augmented 
tar, enters into the comparative forms of adjectives and particles, 
and various other formations in which the iii^9i of more, further, 
V;t.q. is induded. 

It will perhaps be thoughit that it is a series of ungrQunded as- 
sumptions to regard the words in question as connected with each 
othen whereas they may be independent roots. To this it may be 
replied, that it is equally an assumption to maintain. that they a^e 
totally unconnected with each other ; and if they ore related^ lis the 
general analogy of their forms would ratiier lead U3 to believe, it is 
clear that they cannot be at the same time collateral and primary. 
Hie scieace of comparative etymology doesnot, likQ arithmetic or geo- 
inetryi rest upon certain and demonstrable pre^use8, but consistsi in a 
series of presumptive dedue^qnsfrpmsuch.analogiesof formandmean- 
ing as can be traced in languages known or believed to be cognate. 
We have no direct evidence that wary, warn, wear, weary, wry, 
wreathe, writhe, are all from the same root; but it is conceived that 


no one who has traced them carefully through all the kindred dialects 
would venture to assert that they are radically and totally distinct. 
An attempt has been made to show that those, and multitudes of 
similar words may be referred to one simple local relation ; and if 
this be really the case, it is obvious that the same principle may be 
applicable in many more cases. Such words as nepata, vepaivia in 
Greek, and samanon, uzon, &c. in German, show that particles may 
and actually do become the parent stems of verbs ; and it is at least 
as intelligible and easy that over should become cover, or cross, as 
that out should come to denote speak, or in, remember. If it should 
be found, on further investigation, that this principle of derivation 
has prevailed to a great extent, it will follow that the doctrine of 
Bopp and Pott, viz. that the pronominal and preposiHonal roots con- 
stitute a class apart, wholly unconnected with the elements of verbs, 
cannot be supported. On the contrary it would seem more probable 
that those roots are in many cases the real primor^lia of the osten- 
sible d'katoos or verbal roots, and that they in fact constitute the 
basis of no inconsiderable portion of the Indo-European languages. 
The following words, constituting a very small portion of the ag- 
gregate, seem directly referable to the Sanscrit roots hvrt, vri, vrit, 
hval, vol, already assumed to be related to each other. The Celtic 
words are Welsh when not otherwise specified. 

gwal, enclosure. 

gwalc, palisade (cf. Ital. palco). 

gwalch, adj, towering, ^6. falcon, 

gwalen, Bret, a ring. 

gwall, defect, error. 

gwar, Bret, crooked, vaulted. 

gwkr, neck (from turning ; cf . SI 

gwara, to fence, 
gwarad, covering, 
gwarant, security, 
gwarch, covering, 
gwarch^u, to enclose, 
gwarddu, to prohibit, 
gwared, to guard, 
gwaremm, Bret, a warren, 
gwarez, Bret, shelter, protection, 
gwarog, a yoke, 
gwarth, covering, 
gweilging, a cross-beam, 
gweili, a surplus, 
gweled, to see. 
gweli, an exposure, 
gwell, better. 

Sliwonic, Lithuanian, S^t. 

gwellt, grass, sward (cf. gwallt, 

hair of the head), 
gwer, a shade, 
gwere, Bret, a watch-tower, 
gwerthyd, a spindle (Ir. fearsaid). 
gweryd, sward, 
gwil, turn off, start, 
gwilc'hu, Bret, to squint. 
gwiU, apt to stray, 
gwir, true, 
gwladychu, to govern (cf. Germ. 

gwores, open, exposed, 
gwrag, curved handle, v.t.q, 
gwregys, girdle, 
gwrith, apparent, 
gwrydd, a wreath, 
gwylchu, to seem or appear, 
gwylied, to watch, 
gwyll, will, 
gwyllt, wild, 
gwyr, oblique, 
gwyrain, to elevate. 

varati, Serv. to deceive, 
variti, SI. to proceed, 
wahrpsta, Lettish, spindle. 

wahrst, to bolt. 

wahrstiht, to roll to and fro. 

wahrti, a door. 


v«kur|tees> verb, reflt to beware. 

\f^oht, to augment. 

waldiKt^ to( govern. 

'ipralgs, cord, rope (from twisting), 

warra, power* 

warren, ^dv, exceedingly* 

warreht, to be powerful, 

^ehrigs, observant. 

weley, Lithuan, late, 

wercziii, I turn over. ^ 

werpju, I spin. 

weru, I close; at'W-==I open 
<cf,. Welsh a-gpri; 3ret. di- 
gori, to open ; . Lat^ a-perio. 

wiUoitt) i sechioe (Lett; wilt, to 

wiirags, Lett, a whirlpool. 

wirs, upon. ; 

wirssua, Litb* a summit, 

wirst, Lett* to rise upwards. 

wirstu, Lith* I overturn^ become 
(of. Sanscr* vriU to tnm» to be- 
coQLe s Germ, werjden). . 

wirtiss a whirlpool, 

wirwe, a cord. 

woloju, I roll aboiijt. 

z'welgiu, I see, loojb. 

z'wairu, L squint* . 


The correspon^ng forms in the pure Slavonic dialects generally 
transpose the liquid, as will appear from the following examples : — 

wlada, Bohem. power, govern- 
ment (cf . W. gwlad, country ; 
Bret. glad, patrimony; Ir.flaith, 

wladnauti, to move, stir. 

wlati, Slav, to fluctuate. 

wlna, Bohem. wool. 

wrat, turn, return* Serv. vrat, 

wrata, a door. 

Some of the pdncipal Teutonic equivalents having been gwen in 
the course of the preceding paper, it will not be necessary to repeat 
them. The Greek forms are reserved for an inquiry which it is 
proposed to make into the poVrers and affinities of the digamma. 
Jlae following Latin words may be referred with more or less pro- 
bability to the same class of roots : — 

wratiti, to turn. 

wratky, giddy* 

wreteno, a spindle. 

vrieti. Slav, to shut. 

vr'gu, 1 throw (cf. Lat. torqueo), 

vr'zu, I open. 

vr*t, a garden. 

vr'tieti, to turn round, 

vr'ch, a summit. . 

vellus, a fleece, 
velum, a veil, covering, 
vertere, to turn., 
vertex, summits ^ ^ 
verus, true, 
volvere, to rolL 
vortex, a whirlpool. 

valeo, to be powerful, 
valgus, bandy-legged, 
vallum, an entrenphment* 
valvae, folding-doprs. ^ 

varioli, small-j)OX (cf. W. brech, 

variegated ; also small-pox}, 
varius, changeable, &c. 

The above words, to which a multitude of similar ones might 
easily be added, correspond pretty strictly with the forms assumed 
as their radicals. There are, moreover, an immense number of 
terms which are referable to^e same origin, by taking into account 
the changes briefly indicated above by elision, transposition, and the 
substitution of elements etymologically cognate. A few exprnples 
will serve to illustrate this portion of the subject. 


The following are cognate forms with the elision of the labial : 

gail, the eye-lid. 

gallt, a steep or cliff. 

gardd, an enclosure. 

garth, a rampart. 

geol, a prison. 

gour, Bret, slowness, leisure. 

gol, a covering. 

golwg, sight. 

gor, Bret, a tumour. 

gorch, a fence. 

gorddi, to impel forward. 

gored, a weur. 

gorel, opening. 

gores, open, exposed. 

goreu, superior, best. 

gori, to brood. 

gormant, exuberance. 

gormu, to force in, intrude (of. 

Bret, gorre, top, surface. 
-— gorrea, to raise. 

— gorrek, slow, idle (in some 

dialects gwarek), 
•— - gorroen, cream. 

— gourinn, lintel of a door. 

— gourzizu, to dday, put off. 

In Breton, words of this description are frequently still further ab- 
breviated by the elision or transposition of the leading vowel, 
glad, patrimony ; Welsh gwlad. 


gwlyb, moisture. 




gwraig (cf. Germ. frau). 


glao, rain ; 
gleb, moist; 
gliz, dew ; 
grac'h, old woman ; 
greg, woman ; 
grisien, root ; 

These and similar forms show that words commencing with a 
guttural followed by a liquid, may correspond to a Sanscrit, Ger- 
man or Slavonic wi e. gr. glad, to Germ, walten ; gloan, to Sanscr. 
umd, Bohem. wlna, Qerm,toolle, A little inquiry will enable us 
to discover a multitude of words commencing with a labial or gut- 
tural followed by / or r, under significations precisely analogous 
to the words already given, and in all probability of kindred origin. 
A few examples from the Lithuanian and Lettish will place this point 
in a clearer light. 

Lith. breest, to increase. 
Lett, brunnas, armour. 

— glahbt, to guard, protect. 
Lith. ^loboju, I embrace. 
Lett, gredsens, a ring. 

— greest, to turn. 

— greests, a coverlet. 

— greest-balki, cross-beam. 
Lith. greju, I surround, enclose. 
Lett, greiss, awry, crooked. 
Lith . greziu, I turn, bore, encircle, 

wind (cf. Bohem. wrtiti, 
wrtati, to turn, shake, wa- 
ver,move,chum,bore,&c.) . 

— grysstu, I turn, return. 
Lett, klaht, to cover. 

Lett, klaidiht, to wander about. 
Lith. klaupju, I kneel down. 

— klesscziu, I tremble. 

— ^oju, I cover. 

— klonoju, I bow down. 

— klydeju, I wander. 
Lett, knihpt, to deceive. 

— krampis, a bolt. 
Lith. krattau, I shake. 

— krauju, I heap up. 

— kreikiu, I strew. 

— kreiwas, crooked; cf. W. 

crwm ; Ger. krumm. 

— kreipju, I turn, return. 

— - priess, prep, against = W. 



It is not meant to be asserted that all the above words are cer- 
tainly connected with the Sanscrit and Celtic roots which we have 
been examining; but the conneidon is theoretically possible, ac- 
cording to known analogies. The probability of its subsistence is 
greatly strengthened by the Persian, in which a Sanscrit or Teutonic 
w regularly becomes a guttural : e. gr. gurazah, hog or boar = Sanscr. 
varaha (comp. hat. porcus, Germ,ferch, £ng. barraw-'pig, Gr. x^^P^s) ; 
gardan-iden, to turn = Sanscr. vHt, Lat. verto, &c. ; garm = Germ. 
wat^m I kirm = Germ. umrm. The Slavonic and Lithuanian lan- 
guages manifest a considerable resemblance to the Persian, both in 
words and characteristic elements. 

It is scarcely necessary to say, that words commencing with bal, 
bar, pal, par, &c. are still more likely to be related to the family of 
words which we have been examining ; indeed the affinity of many 
of them does not' admit of a doubt. This will become obvious on 
comparing such words as bal, peak; balcb, proud; bar, summit; 
bem, a heap; pare, enclosure; Fr.parer, to keep off; Span.jMirar, 
to stop, &c., with the preceding lists and with the Gaelic Gweilging, 
W. a cross-beam (from gwail, superincumbent), becomes in Gaelic 
bairdn. It is in all probability also the etymon of Engl, balk and 
Germ, galge, a gallows. Many similar instances might easily be 


Vol. II. FEBRUARY 27, 1846. No. 43. 

Professor Graves in the Chair. 

"A MS. Vocabulary of Cornish Words" was laid on the table. 
Presented by Henry Batten, Esq., of Penzance. 

Two papers were then read : — 

I . * ' Remarks on certain Doubtful Constructions found in the Works 
of Attic Writers." Communicated by the Rev. G. C. Renouard. 

A question was started by Professor Maiden in his paper, " On 
Mistakes in the Use of Obsolete Greek Words by Attic Writers*," 
respecting the word irpodiXvfjivos, and he proved very satisfactorily 
that it means ' one upon another,' like en iiKKiiXois, as stated in the 
' Etymol. Magn.' and by Suidas long ago. But as nothing is known 
of the origin of the word, we may throw out a hint, that O^Xv/xvos is 
the abbreviated form of a compound daXo-dafiiv-os, ' many-shoot.' It 
seems probable too, that as we meet with TeTpa-BiXvfjLvos in Homer, 
the correct wordns Tpi-OiXvfxvos, especially as in Aristoph. 'Itttt. 638, 
where irpo-OiXvfxros is found, three things are spoken of, Bpvs, irXa- 
TCLvovs and kyfipovs. The wpo seems to have been introduced by the ^ 
half-poets and half-grammarians of Alexandria, who explained irpo- 
SiXvfivos by wpo-pii^os. In like manner wpo has been substituted for 
Tpi in the Scholia on Aristoph. Ne^. 997, and 'Opv. 282, transcribed 
by Suidas in Upoi:i<t>aXos, 

With respect to the passage quoted by the Professor from iEschy- 
lus, 'Ettt. 0)y/3. 220, "EktiXos laOt, fxfih' fiyav hn€p<l>ofiov, he will no 
doubt be glad to know that the dramatist wrote firjl* &yav, irrip* 
^s, <l>ol3ov. For though ayav might follow vtrkp, as shown by Eum. 
> 804, vTrepQvfiofs ayav, it could not precede it. We meet indeed 
with "Ayav vireplipidks aydos ijyvaav in Soph. Aj. 951. But there 
the antithetic verse, T/i'os nor* ip iwpa^e x^tpi Sver/iopM, point? to some 
error which Hermann would correct by reading ^pjc. He should 
have suggested rather 'Ynepfiefipidos a\Bos o Beds ijyvffev. For we 
thus not only recover the nominative, at present wanting for the 
verb, but can see that ayav was introduced here from v. 982, J 
'n'€piff7r€p')(€ 5 wdOos." Ayav ye, Tevicpe, Be this however as it may, it 
is evident that in iEschylus one can hardly dispense with the simile, 
irrip &s, ' like birds,' an animal peculiarly subject to fear, as shown 
by Euripides in Hec. 177, oiKiav fx, Jerr opvtv, Safifiei r^S* e^hrrrf^as : 
where none have seen, what is plain enough, that the poet wrote 
oiKOfV fly iSoT opviv Oajivaiv, rtoyh* e^iirXij^as, For irriiotTbt is a verb 
intransitive; besides, as Polyxena is compared to birds, so ought 
the house to be compared to a bush, as in iEsch. Agam. 1287, 
BdfAvov uts opvis : where Blomfield refers to icarairrr/^as viro Bdfxv^ 
in Homer : while as regards wrepa, * birds,' we may compare hinraro 

* See No. 29. p. 5^ 
VOL. II. ** f^ 


"Lktmep wrepov irpos aiQipa in Eurip. Her. F; 509, and wtrel trrepov 
ijk v6ti}ia in Homer. 

Lastly* with respect to ii^s, Professor Maiden explains it, as the 
old Greek Lexica do, by /3ov\//. For if it were connected with ios, * an 
arrow/ and derived from tta, ' I send/ it would mean : 1. the act of 
sending ; 2. the design, and be iorris. The chief difficulty however in 
this derivation is, that a]l nouns in -vrris are formed from adjectives. 
Hence 16-7^^ has been explained by an anon3nuons editor, whom 
Griffiths has silently followed, . one-ness ; as he probably derived it 
from the obsolete Ids, one (whose feminine fct is found in Homer), 
and had perhaps a recollection of the expression in Holy Writ, 
' and they two shall be one flesh / and of that in Homer, where Venus 
saySr ica2 o'^* oKpira yeUea Xvata El; ehyrfv kyvoatra IrevtaQiivai ^iXorriTif 
— a passage that should have deterred Dindorf from rejecting the 
distich in Eurip. Tro. 674, Kalroi Xkyovtnv, &s fit eixftpovri x**^^ To 
^vfffjieves yvvaiKos els T&v^pos \i')(ps. It is however difficult to un- 
derstand why the Professor should have translated &fi^\ \ovrpa xal 
\i\os obv vfieyaiovv lorrjri yafxtav in Prom. 571, 'I hymned at the 
ablutions and your bed on account of the marriage.' For as hfievaiovv 
is a verb transitive, it must have its object, and hence we must read 
with the anonymous editor, Ic^i/ra, 'At the ablutions and around 
your bed I hymned the oneness of marriage.' 

2. " Contributions to the Study of the Languages of Africa/' 
By R. G. Latham, MJ). 

Hie languages of Africa have drawn far less attention than their 
importance both in philology and ethnography demands . The Semitic 
tongues being generally d^t with as a separate class, and as Asiatic ; 
the isolation of the Coptic, and its supposed points of difference with 
other languages having generally been insisted upon ; and the Ma* 
lagash of Madagascar being disconnected with the languages of 
continental Africa in order to be associated with those of Polynesia — 
a very triffing amount of investigation, if we except that of the 
Berber dialects (which have only lately begun to attract attention), 
represents our researches upon the number,' structure, affinities, and 
classification of the numerous tongUes of continental Africa. 

The reason of this lies less in the deficiency of our data, than in 
the extent to which they are fragmentary and dispersed. With no 
eollecti(m of grammatical results analogous to those which W6 pos* 
sess for the Indo* European class of languages ; with no well-arranged 
list of comparative vocabularies, such as the 'Asia Polyglotta'^ fur- 
nishes for the more unknown tongues of Siberia and Mongolia ; 
with not even the amount of speculation bestowed upon the struc- 
ture of the languages in question, which those of America have 
found at the hands of Duponceau, Ghdlatin and others— -the study 
of the numerous dialects requisite for a proper African ethnography 
has been more incomplete than it is for any other portion of the 
world of equal magnitude. This statement is verified by turning to 
the pages of either Adelung's ' Mithridates,' or of Dr. Prichard's 
'Physical History of Mankind.' The details upon Africa are in 


' both cases disproportionately small^ and the classification is pre-emi* 
nently irregular in respect to the value of its divisions ; and this 
naturally. The pioneers in this department of literature have been 

The current doctrines concerning the affinities of the African lan- 
guages are, perhaps, as follows : — 

1. That the line of demarcation between the Semitic tongues and 
those of Northern Africa, such as the Coptic and Berber, is broad ; 
but tiiat it is not so broad as the limits between the Semitic and^the 
true so-called Negro languages. 

2. That the Coptic may have a few miscellaneous affinities with 
the Semitic tongues on the one side, and with some of the remaining 
North African ones on the other ; but that it has at present no defi- 
nite ethnographical position. 

3. That grammatical affinities of the Berber dialects are to be 
sought for in the Semitic tongues ; but that their glossarial relations 
are at present undetermined. 

4. That, without determining precisely what modem Abyssinian 
tongues are or are not descended from the Semitic of Old Ethiopia, 
the isolation of such (whatever they may be) in respect to the true 
African — and especially the so-called Negro — slanguages is to be ' 
insisted on. 

5. That a marked peculiarity of grammar separates the great 
group of languages allied to the Caffrxurian from those of Africa in 
general, and also from the Semitic dialects. 

6. That the remaining languages, spoken chiefly by the tribes to 
whom the term Negro is most particidarly applied, may be in any 
degree whatever of relationship to one another : t, e, that isdiation, 
like that of the Basque language in Europe, may be a common phse- 
nomenon, or that one large group may contain the majority of the 
languages of Africa. 

Over and above these doctrines, we have a few good observatbns 
upon several special affinities ; as a set-off to which we could abo 
record more than one. theory of the most egregious absurdity. 

In respect to their classification, the principles of the two above- 
named works — ^Adelung's and Dr. Prichard's — coincide. It is the 
same as that adopted by Gallatin in his arrangement of the Ab- 
original languages of the United States; by which only the smaller 
and the more definite groups are recognized, whilst speculations as 
to their value are wisely and: conveniently abstained from. The 
advantage of this method is, that it leaves the after-labourer in the 
same field nothing to undo. 

Hie question that most naturally presents itself is that of the 
amount of our materials. Althou^ primary and important, this 
must be dealt with briefly and in a general way ; the geographical 
arrangement being the most convenient. 

^ 1. The class of languages akin to the now- Arabic dialects of 
Alg^ft smd Morocco have lately received a large share of illustrar 
tion. Under the names of Berber^ Kabyle, Amazirgh, &c. they 
jhave.been studied by French, Swedish, English and Ai^erican phi- 


lologists. The conquest of Algeria accounts for this ; whilst the 
labours of Venture, Delaporte, Newman and others give us hope 
that the true relations of the Berber will not much longer remain a 
mystery. We have both a grammatical and a glossaricd knowledge 
of this group. 

2. Nubia and Dongola. — For the banks of the Nile, between 
iEgypt and Ethiopia, our data are imperfect. In an ethnographical 
view, however, this desideratum is comparatively unimportant ; since 
the. affinities of the proper Nubian have been shown to be with the 
languages of Kordofan, and the parts farther south and west. 

3. For Kordofan and Darfur our data consist in vocabularies. 
Of these the most important are the tabular ones of Ruppell. Iso- 
lated glossaries, such as the Shangalla of Salt, and the Qllmamyl of 
Caillaud, illustrate this group. 

4. Numerous as are the languages of Abyssinia, we have reason, 
according to Dr. Beke, to believe that, in some degree or other, we 
possess specimens of them all. The Galfa is known grammatically 
through the grammars of Krapf and Tutschek. Of the allied Danakil 
we have the vocabulary of Isenberg. The vocabularies of Beke take 
us as far southward as Yangaro or Gingiro. 

5. South of Abyssinia, both on the sea-coast and inland, our 
knowledge is lamentably fragmentary. The Somauli dialects in- 
the neighbourhood of Cape Gardafui are known to be Galla, but the 
southern limits of this group are undetermined. From these parts 
down to Delagoa Bay, we have, with the exception of two MS. vo- 
cabularies of the Sowaielj and the Makooa languages, in the pos- 
session of Mr. Leigh and the Asiatic Society respectively, nothing but 
short glossaries ; a probable exception being made for some inac- 
cessible data in Portuguese, for the languages of Sofala and Mozam- 
bique. The reasons that have been given for believing that even 
up to the Galla boundary, the languages on this side of the con- 
tinent are Caffre, being at present inconclusive, indicate the great 
value of any new lists that could be added to our vocabularies north 
and south of the Mozambique coast. 

6. For both the CaflFre and the Hottentot languages of the Cape 
our data are sufficient for ethnological purposes. Boyce's * Kaffre,* 
and Archbell's * Bichuana Grrammar,' exhibit the characteristics of 
these languages and mutually illustrate each other. 

7. Fr;om the Orange river to the Portuguese possessions of Ben- 
guela and Angola, &c., the dialects of the country are wholly unknown. 
The ^ammatical affinities however of the Congo and ^gola^ lan- 
guages with the Cafifre — affinities which have long been recognized 
— ^make it probable that they belong to the same group. 

8. To the Portuguese possessions on the western coast of Africa — 
Benguela, Angola, Loango, Slc. — ^the same remark applies which was 
made in respect to the eastern settlements ; viz. that although addi- 
tions may have been made to our philological knowledge since the 
publication of the ' Mithridates,' few are accessible to the reader in 

9. The equator is an important line of demarcation. South of 


this, the more immediate affinities seem to be with the languages 
of the Cape ; north of the equator, they are with those of the coast 
of Guinea. This is the*current doctrine; and that some such line 
of demarcation really exists is very probable. It is the opinion how- 
ever of the present writer that its breadth is exaggerated. 
. 10. From the Graboon to the Bight of Benin.— For this tract our 
data are more fragmentary than they ought to be, considering our 
relations to the countries in question. We have no grammar for 
any of the languages on the Cameroons, the Calabar, the mouths ot 
the Niger, or the kingdom of Benin ; whilst the vocabularies are 
few, fragmentary, and frequently to be found only as MS. 

11. For the country between Benin and Dahomey, both on the 
coast and inland, we have, besides vocabularies, the Yebou Ghrammar 
of D'Avezac, and the Yorriba Grammar of Crowther. 

12. For Dahomey we have but fragmentary vocabularies. 

13. For the kingdom of Ashantee we have full vocabularies, but 
no grammars beyond those enumerated in the ' Mithridates.' 

14. For the coast between Ashantee and Sierra Leone, we have 
vocabularies sufficient to serve as samples of the languages. For 
the Bullom we have the Grammar of Nylander. 

15. The Mandingo and Woloff languages bring us to the limits 
of the Ghreat Desert, where we meet the Berber and Arab tongues. 
For the Mandingo we have the Grammar of M'Briar ; for the Woloff, 
that of Dard. Besides these, the last volume of the * M^moires de 
la Society Ethnologique' furnishes us with copious vocabularies of the 
Seracolet, Sereres, Bagnon, and Feloop — ^languages which it has hi- 
therto been convenient to consider isolate and unconnected. Never- 
theless there are several tongues in this neighbourhood, of which we 
have, as yet, no specimens. The Susu, of which we have a gram- 
mar, is allied to the Mandingo. 

16. The interior of Africa is less of blank than is generally ima- 
gined. For the central parts south of the Mountains of the Moon, 
it is true that w^ have absolutely nothing. On the other hand, 
however, unless we suppose that, like the Basque of the Pyrenees, 
some wholly isolated language may be spoken on the north side of 
the Jebel Kumri — an assumption which though probable must not 
be made gratuitously — ^the whole belt of country between the Great 
Desert and the Mountains of the Moon, north and south, and be- 
tween the Upper Nile and the Atlantic, east and west, is more or 
less philologically known to us. Thus, beginning with Kordofan 
and Darfur, we have for those countries the vocabularies of RUppell 
and others. These go as far south as Fertit ; whilst there is no 
doubt that the group of languages which they represent is conter- 
minous with the groups represented by the vocabularies of Dr. Beke. 

Further eastward we have the Borgho of Burckhardt, the Beg- 
harmeh of Denham, the Bomou bf Denham and others, the Mandara 
of Denham — our southern limit in these quarters — and the Haussa 
Grammar of Schon. The Haussa language is conterminous with 
the Yoruba, the Mandingo, and the languages of the Ibo and 
A«hantee groups. These bring us to the Atlantic. 


17. For the important dialects of the Foulah language our data 
are scanty and insufficient. 

It is considered that the details of the matirial, of which the aboye- 
given sketch, supplementary to the ' Mithridates/ is a mere general 
outline, are sufficient, if cautiously and carefully used, to justify, 
even in the present state of our knowledge, views more general than 
those which are currently afloat concerning tiie ethnography of Africa, 
as determined philologically ; a subject to which, it is hoped, a fii- 
jture paper may be devoted. 

[To be continued.] 


Vol. II. MARCH 13, 1846. No. 44. 

Professor Wilson, V. P., in the Chair, 

A paper was read — . 

** On English Verbs, substantive and auxiliary." By Edwin 
Guest, Esq. 

The singular of the verb substantive was essentially the same in 
the Anglo-Saxon as in our modern English am, art, is ; but in the 
south of England the plural form was synd or syndon, and in the 
north of England earon. The southern plural disappeared from our 
dialects in the course of the twelfth century ; and the plural of bcr 
which in the Anglo-Saxon was used almost exclusively with a future 
signification, became its substitute, till superseded in later times by 
the northern plural are : — 

1. And his Sarsyns "as ermes" cryde 

'* We heth betraid.*' Octov. 1630. 

2. AUe heo heoth forsworene. and alle heo heoth foriorene. 
Tbey are all forsworn and they are all lost men. 

Lajamon, Battle of Bath. 

3. J7e kyngus knygtes ]>erto 

pat robbar^ be^^ and men quellares & versuore also. R. Glou. 455. 

4 — thou savourest not the things that be of God but those that be of 
men. — Mark 8. 

The plural verb i^eems to have gradually introduced the singular 
forms be, best, beth, which are still used in the west of England, 
though they have never been adopted by our literature. 

The verb be however was long retidned for the expression of fut^ire 
time, and more particularly in the north of England. In three of 
the following examples it takes the northern inflexion s, 

5. Ne see ^e \dX her hors be^ suyftore ]>an joure be 

pat je be\ (ye will be) dede anon, ^yf ^e woIIe> fle. R. Glou. 397. 

6. — if thou may that fulfille 

Alle bees done (will be done) right at thi wille. T. Myst 324. 

7. Bot luke welle Eve my wife 
That thou negh not the tree of life, 

For if thou do he bees ill paide. T. Myst. 7. 

9. Quhair Christ is king quhais time interminabill, 

And hieh triumphand gloir bees never gane. 

Lynds. Complaint of the Papingo. 

In ex. 5, beth is used to express both present and future time. 
This confusion of meanings was in some measure rendered unne- 
cessary in our southern dialects by the very general use of worth 
with a future signification ; sing, worthe, worst, worth, plur. wor]^ef. 

VOL, II. 2 b 


9. Help >i kynde eritage, & you worst (^alt be) f>er kyng anon. 

R. Glou. 101, 

10. For Sou^hamtone he js y cleped, & ivory euer mo. R. Glou. 69, 

11. Shal no lewednesse lette. >e clerk >at ich lovye 

That he ne tpor} ferst avanced. Vis. de P. Plouh. pass. 1. 

12. Grote watres waryey ^et rede of monnes blode, 

Cristendom tvory y cast adoun. R. Glou. 132. 

This verb is very rarely found with a present signification in the 
Old-English. Its preterite however is not uncommon — worf, or as 
it is sometimes* more accurately written, waff. The infinitive is 

13. And so it fell upon a da! 
Forsoth as I you tellen mai 

Sire Thopas wold out ride« 
He worth (was) upon his stede gay, &c. Ch. Sire Thopas. 

14. — in a wynkynge I worth, and wonderliche ich mette. 

Vis. de Dowel, pass. 2. 

15. He boughte such a bargayn. he was the bet evere, &c. 

Such a wynning hym warf. Vis. de P. Plouh. pass. 6. 

16. He let ]>e kyng al y worthe & to Rome drowj. R. Glou. 87. 

17. Backe hem no3t, but let hem worj»e. Vis* de P. Plouh. pass. 3. 

18. My ioie is tourned into strife 

That sober shall J never worthe. Gower, Conf. Am. 5. 

When an infinitive preceded by to follows the verb substantive, 
it generally indicates some necessity or obligation. 

19. The Germans in Greek 

Are sadly to seek. Porson. 

20. — a sight, that was to be seen 

Cannot be spoken of. Winter's Tale, 5. 2. 

but sometimes duty, or intention arising from a sense of duty. 

21. I have seen two such sights by sea and land — ^but / am not to say it 
is a sea, for it is now the sky ; betwixt the firmament and it, you cannot 
thrust a bodkin's point. — Winter's Tale, 3. 3. 

22. / am not like other men to envy^ or undervalue the talents I cannot 
reacli, for which reason I must needs bear a true honor to this large emi- 
nent sect of our British writers. — Swift, Tale of a Tub, Preface. 

/ am not to say may be considered as equivalent to " T ought not to 
say," or " I will not say." 

These idioms in our earlier dialect would have been rendered by 
the gerund. This latter form occasionally conveyed a passive sig- 
nification, ** he is to lufigenne** he is to be loved. The infinitive 
gradually superseded the gerund, and when so used sometimes indi- 
cated obligation, sometimes a possibility or mere future contingency. 

23. This vision is ^et to drede (ought to be dreaded) think and gif God 

kepe. R. Br.66. 

24. And bidde of me wat >ou wolt and ich wol \e grante ywis. 

For elles ich were vnkynde, gif it to grante ys. R. Glou. 115. 


25. lU not to teU heaw camm'd things con happ*n ! — Coll. Tim Bobbin, 6. 

26. *Tis yet to know 

(Which when I know that boasting is an honour 

I shall promulgate) I fetch my life and being 

From men of royal siege. Othello, I. I. 

Johnson thought that in the phrase " he is to blame," blame was a 
noun ; and in this mistake he would no doubt have been confirmed 
had he remembered the line — 

27. In faith, my lord, you are too wilful blame. I H. IV. 3. 1. 

But though Shakespeare's contemporaries appear to have considered 
blame as an adjective, yet the phrase "he Is to blame" must be 
ranked with the idioms we are now discussing ; the analogies of our 
language point too clearly to its origin to leave us in any doubt 
about its character. 

If the following sentence be correctly printed, the infinitive was 
sometimes used without the to. 

28. Its not teU, but 1st marvel strangely an yo leet on a wur kneave in 
this.— Tim Bobbin, 2. 

It was shown in a former paper*, that the verb is entered into 
construction with all the personal pronouns, / is, thou is, we is, &c. 
These phrases followed by the infinitive were used to denote future 

29. — come not near the old man — keep out che vor ye, or Pse tryf 
whether your costard or my bat be the harder. — Lear, 4. 6« 

30. — hing the pan ore th' fire ith reken creauk 
And he wesk sile and dishes up ith neauke. 

Yorkshire Dial. (a.d. 1697.) 

31. Vs think on (I shall think) ot teaw looks o bit whisky, &c. 

Collier 8 Tim Bobbin. 

32. Ise plainly tell ye, ye are breeding up your family to gang an ill 
gate, &e.— W. Scott, Rob Roy. 

33. Eigh forseure it war long o him, bud thouz hear, &c. — Cars. Craven 
Dial. 1. 

34. rU nifle em fray him, &c. he*8 never trail his awn gallows at his 
back as long as I can help it. — Cars. Craven Dial. 1. 

35. — Ise vara weay, for that's ill warke 

Ise flaid weese net get there before 't be merke. 

Yorksh. Dial. (ad. 1697.) 

* No. 38. p. 151. 

f Shakespeare puts this phrase into the mouth of a Kentish peasant, but there is 
reason to doubt if it were ever used south of the Thames. In the north of Essex 
It was certainly known as late as the sixteenth century. 

It seems probable that some of the broken phrases which Shakespeare assigns to 
his two foreigners Parson Hugh and Dr. Caius, may have been borrowed from the 
popular idiom we are now considering : — Caius. By gar he is de coward Jack 
Priest, he it not shew his face, &c. P. Evans. — Ay, and her father is make her a 
pretty penny, &c. In other cases there seems to be confusion between their is and 
the verb has. 



36. Quotli I with a' my heart I'll do*t^ 

I'll get my Sunday's sark on, 
Ab meet you on the holy place, 

Faith we'se hae fine remarkin. Bums, Holy-fair« 

37. Aweel, aweel, said the Baillie, somewhat disconcerted, ipe*se let that 
be a pa8»-over, &c. — W. Scott, Rob Roy. 

38. By the masse and she burne all you^sh bear the blame for me. 

G. Gurton's Needle, J. 2. 

From the root is was formed in the second person singular ist* ; 
and it would appear that thou'st as well as thou's was used to denote 
future time. 

39. If ^^otM^ be silent, I'se be glad. 

Thy maining maks my heart tull sad. 

Lady Ann Bothwell's Lament (Mrs. Grant?). 

40. Alack o dey, theaw knows boh little oth matter, boh theawst hear, &c. 
—Collier's Tim Bobbin, 2. 

41. Come Tum, sed he, egad iftle geaw with us theawst see sitch gam os 
tha newer saigh eh thi live ; beside theawst howd the riddle, &c. — Collier's 
Tim Bobbin, 2. 

But this verbal form will admit of more than one explanation, and 
the difficulties connected with it require a rather careful examination. 
We learn from Gill's ' Logonomia Anglica ' that in his time the 
Lincolnshire men used Fst and thou'st for / will and thou wilt, and 
from Collier's little work that the same forms were prevalent in 
Lancashire during the last century. 

42. Whau! sed I, Ist go see (I'll go see). — Collier^s Tim Bobbin, 5. 

43. ril oather have a ginny for hur or hoost newer go9a (she'll never go) 
while meh heeod stons o meh shilders. — Tim Bobbin, 5. 

44. Yoan stown that tit sed he, on yoast gooa back wimmy before o jos- 
tice. — Tim Bobbin, 6. 

45. 1st naw have one boodle t'spere o my ohyde sylver. — Tim Bobbin, 5. 

46. I think eh meh guts Ist stink like a foomart while meh neme's Turn. 
—Tim Bobbin, 2. 

47. Sed hoc, whot dunneh meeon mon ? yoast nana put (you wo*nt put) 
Yorkshar o me, &c. — Tim Bobbin, 5. 

Were these the only examples we had to deal with, a ready mode 
of explanation would present itself. In our northern dialects, to 
before an infinitive very commonly elided its vowel, as in ex. 45 we 
have fspere for to spare. Hence we might infer that Ist go, thoust 
go, &c. were merely difi^rent modes of writing the phrases Ps fgo, 
thou*s fgo, &c. But in the following examples st answers to should, 
or as it was usually written in our northern MSS. sud, and the fore- 
going explanation is no longer applicable. 

48. Hoo towd me — an if I went whom agen Pst be (I should be) e 
dawnger o being breant. — Tim Bobbin, 7. 

49. Odd ! boh yoarn bowd, Ist o bin (I should have been) timmersome, 
&c.— Tim Bobbin, 3. 

* No. 38. p. 151. 


50. It wur weel for yo ot e coud'n sleep at aw, for Ist neer ha lede (I 
ihould never have laid) meh een together I m shure. — Tim Bobbin, 7. 

51. What coud onny mon do ?— doo, hi o gon (I should have gone) starke 
woode. — Tim Bobbin, 1. 

Now in certain cases should is equivalent to shall, and in ex. 28, 
Ist marvel might be rendered either " I should marvel," or " J shall 
marvel." In the second person singular also st indicates future 
time (vide ex. 39, 40, &c.). Hence vee might conjecture that the 
northern auxiliary sud was contracted into st, and then, by virtue of 
the false analogy afforded by the inflexion of the second person sin- 
gular, was gradually employed to indicate future time in all the 
persons. Perhaps however it would be safer to conclude that we 
have here, as in so many other cases, a confusion of forms, and that 
st represents both constructions, so that Ist might answer either to 
/ sud or to Fs t\ On this hypothesis thou*st might be considered 
as the representative either of thou sud, of thou *s t\ or of thou ist, 
according to the circumstances under which it occurs. 

In the preceding examples we have found the infinitive sometimes 
preceded by to and sometimes not. Originally the to was prefixed 
to the gerund but never to the present infinitive ; as however the 
custom gradually prevailed of using the latter in place of the former, 
the to was more and more frequently prefixed to the infinitive, till 
it came to be considered as an almost necessary appendage of it. 
Many idioms however had sunk too' deeply into the language to 
admit of alteration, and other phrases to which the popular ear 
had been familiarized, long resisted the intrusive particle. The to 
is still generally omitted after the auxiliaries and also after certain 
other verbs, as bid, dare, see, hear, make, &c. But even in these 
cases there has been great diversity of usage.^ 

52. Eilred myght nought to Hand )>am ageyn. R. Br. 39. 

53. — whether feith schall mowe to save him ? Wiclif, James 2. 

54. My woful child what flight maist thou to take. 

Higgins, Lady Sabrine, 4. 

55. — never to retourne no more, 
Except he wotdd his life to loose therfore. 

Higgins, King Albanact, 6. 

56. He said he could not to forsake my love. 

Higgins, Queen Elstride, 20. 

57. The mayster lette X men and mo 

Towende. Octovian, 381. 

58. And though we owe the fall of Troy requite,- 
Yet let revenge thereof from gods to lighte, 

Higgins, King Albanact, 16. 

59. I durst my lord to wager she is honest. Othello, 4. 2. 

60. Whom, when on ground she grovelling saw to roll, 

She ran in haste, &c. F. Q. 4. 7. 32. 

On the other hand we have the phrase " we owe requite" in ex. 58, 
and Shakespeare wrote ** you ought not walk." Indeed, even at 
the present day, the custom of our language can hardly be considered 


as fully settled in some of these cases, and therefore we need be the 
less surprised to find conflicting usages in other constructions at an 
earlier period. 

Shall primarily signified to owe, and like its synonym, it signified 
secondarily that which ought or is fitting, or is settled to be. 

61. For by the faithe I shall (owe) to God I wene, 

Was never straunger, &c. Ch. The Court of Love. 

62. Ne shulde take upon him no maistrie^- 
But hire obey and folwe hiie wel in al 

As any lover to his lady shal (ought). Ch. Frank. Tale, 22. 

63. — he seide, ban ye here ony tbinir that schal (is proper to) be etun? 

64. The conquerour is laid at Kame dede in graue, 

I1ie Courthose befor said Normandie salle (is to) have. R. Br. 85. 

65. Bot Henry David sone ^at his heyr suld (was to) be 

Contek for to schonne to Steuen mad feaute. R. Br. 111. 

In the last two examples we may consider shall as expressing future 
time. This sense it formerly took in many cases in which the mo- 
dem usage of our language would not tolerate it. 

66. — the sande is now cum to within a 4 or 5 fote of the very hedde of 
them. The sande that cummith from Tinne workes is a great cause of this, 
and in tyme to come thaul (will) be a sore decay to the hole haven of Fowey. 
— Lei. Itin. 3. 19. 

67. Whan he cam to Marseille & ouer \>e se suld (would) wend, 
Philip saub his wille and after him gan send. R. Br. 87. 

68. — but whanne eroude schulde (would) bringe hym forth, in that 
night petir was slepynge betwixe twei knightis, &c. — Wiclif, Deedis, 12. 

69. — lever he hadde wende 

And bidde vs mete, gef he shtdde (might) in a strange lande. 

R. Glou. 34. 
Shulde in ex. 69 is the past tense subjunctive. 

The use of shall to denote future time may be traced to a remote 
antiquity in our language ; that of will is of much later origin, and 
prevailed chiefly in our northern dialects. 

70. But be I ken'd heir walloway ! 

/ wiU be slane. L3md. Pari, of Corr. 3. 1. 

71. I will win for him if I can, if not / wiU gain nothing but my shame 
and the odd hits. — Hamlet, 5. 2. 

72. Rome — I will retume againe to thee 
When lecher jester ingle bawd Fll be. 

Fynes Morrison's Itinerary, p. 3. 

Writers however who paid much attention to their style generally 
used these terms with greater precision. The assertion of will or of 
duty seems to have been considered by them as implying to a cer- 
tain extent the power to will or to impose a duty. As a man has 
power to will for himself only, it was only in the first person that 
the verb will could be used with this signification ; and in the other 
persons it was left fi'ee to , take that latitude of meaning which po- 
pular usage had given to it. Again, the power which overrides the 


\(rill to impose a duty, must proceed from some external agency ; 
and consequently shall could not be employed to denote such power 
in the first person. In the first person therefore it was left free to 
follow the popular meaning, but in the other two was tied to its 
original and more precise signification. These distinctions still 
continue a shibboleth for the natives of the two sister kingdoms. 
Walter Scott, as is well-known to his readers, could never tho- 
roughly master the difficulty. 

As die auxiliaries let and do resemble each other in several pecu- 
liaries of their syntax, it may be convenient to range them together. 

The construction of let with a noun as object, followed by an 
infinitive, — 

73. He tok his suerd in hand, )><? croyce telle hefaUe. R. Br. 18. 
has been common in our language at every period of its history. 
But in the Old-English, when let governed a pronoun which was 
used in a general and indefinite sense, the pronoun was often omitted, 
as it was also after other verbs,' such as bid, make*, &c. 

74. And Cordeille J^e kyndom feng as >e ryght eyr, 

And telle hire fadur burie (let them bury her father) . R. Glou. 37. 

75. And telle a fair tabernacle in honour of hym rere, R. Glou. 20. 

76. po ]>i8 child was y bore me telle bym clepe Bruyt 

(they let them call him Bruyt). R. Glou. 11. 

77. — Lord it me forbede 

Bote ich be holiche at l^yn heste. lei honge me ellis. 

f is. de P. Plouh. pass. 4. Whit. ed. 

78. Lei hrynge a man in a bote, in middes a brode water 
The wynde and \e water, and waggynge of \q bote 
Make]? )>e man many tyme. to stomble yf he stande. 

Vis de Dowel, pass. 1 . 

79. — this cursed irous wretche 

Tills knightes sone lei before him felcke. 

Ch. The Sompnoures Tale, 356. 
. 80. — yn his baner a reed dragoun 

^e telle ar ere, Oct. 1695. 

Do, to make, to cause, like the last verb, often took after it an ac- 
cusative followed by an infinitive, which latter was sometimes pre- 
ceded by ^0. 

81. ' pou cou])e8t me wisse (show) 

Were that Dowel dwelle>. and do me to knowe. 

Vis. de Dowel, pass. 1. Whit. ed. 

82i Is this Jhesus the jouster qua]? ich. ]>at Jewes diden to deye. 

Vis. de Dobest, pass. I. Whit. ed. 

83. — he spek mid hey men here of Jyis lond 

And bi bet hem faire y now & dude hem to underslonde 

pat, &c. R. Glou. 78. 

84. — a wicked maladie 
Reigned among men, that many did to die. 

Spens. Mother Hubbard's Tale. 

* Vol. i. p. 220. 


i85. — when I die slml envy die with me — 
Which while I live cannot be done to die. 

Hall's Charge to his Biting Satires. 

86. — the lot that did me to advance 
Him to a king, that sought to cast me downe. 

Sackville, Buckingham, 55. 

but more frequently the to was omitted. 

87. Ich wolde be wreke on )>o wreiches. and on here werkus alle 

An do hem hongy by )>e hals. Vis. de P. Plouh. pass. 3. Whit. ed. 

88. God himself werche> 

And send for> seint esprit, to don love sprynge. 

Vis. de Dowel, pass. 5. Whit. ed. 

89. — pat Conscience comaunde sholde. to don come Scripture, 

Vis. de Dowel, pass. 6. Whit. ed. 

90. Wrightes he did make haules and chambres riche. R. Br. 64. 

91. Maccum kyng of >e iles, Dufnald fitz Omere — 

He did \>am mak feaute. R. Br. 35. 

92. Right at Wynchester agayn )>am gan he stand 

pe kyng ]7am bataille, and did \amfle ^e land. R. Br. 21. 

93. He mot not venge Herman- 
He did his ost turne again, and had sorow inouh. R. Br. 1 0. 

94. pe malstrie of him ^ei wan, thei did his folk alle die. R. Br. 38. 

9b, Bot Hakon Hernebald sonne, of best he bare \e voice, 

In stead of kynges baner^he did him here the croice. R. Br. 17. 

96. — schapeth remedie 
To sauen me of your benigne grace 

Or do me steruen (cause me to die) furthwith in this place. 

King James, King's Quhair, 3. 29. 

Jamieson quotes the last example to prove that sterve meant to kill, 
" or do me kill" ! In ex. 95 the pronoun seems to be reflective, 
** he caused himself to bear the cross." 

The pronoun, governed by do, when used in a general and indefi- 
nite sense was very often dropt, just as we have seen it omitted 
after the verb let, 

97. After Edbalde com £thelbert his eam, 
Athelwolfes bro>er, of Egbrihtes team 

He did him coroune kyng (he made them crown him, &c.) 

R. Br. 20. 

98. pe abbot wex alle bind, ]yat did his bones breke 

(that caused them to break, &c.). R. Br. 36. 

99. Athelstan did him bind, both fote and bond. R. Br. 28. 

100. BoJ-e wyndowes and wowes. ich woUe amenden and glase 

And dopeynten ^ portreyn. Vis. de P. Plouh. pass. 4, 

101. And so ich by lyve leelly. lordes fojrbode ellis 
pat pardon and penaunccr and preieres don save. 

Vis de P. Plouh. pass. 4. 

102. — good is that we also 
In our time amonge us here 

Do write of newe some matere . Gower, 1 . 


103. Let sche saide, swiche wordes ben 

Other / 8chal do bete the so (f shall cause them to beat thee so) 
That tho schalt neuere ride ne go. Sev. Sages, 1062. 

104. He estward hath upon the gate above 
In worship of Venus goddesse of love 

Don make an auter. Ch. Knightes Tale, 1057. 

105. This constable doth forth come a messager. 

Ch. M. of Lawes Tale, 715. 

106. Let don him calle (let them cause them to call, &c.). 

Ch. Doctoures Tale, 173. 

] 07. He lette the feste of his nativitee 

Don crien throughout Sarra his citee. Ch. Squieres Tale, 38. 

Notwithstanding the resemblance to our modern idiom, it may 
perhaps be doubted whether in any of these examples do is used as 
a mere auxiliary. ITie phrase '* preieres don save" appears to mean, 
" prayers cause the powers above, the saints, &c. to save ; " and even 
the phrase " do write," ex. 102, may possibly mean, " cause men to 
write ; " or supposing the dropt pronoun to be reflective, as in ex. 95, 
" cause ourselves to write, &c." It is this omission of the reflective 
pronoun which seems chiefly to have given rise to our modem forms 
/ do love, thou dost love, &c., which in their origin must have been 
equivalent to " I make me to love, thou makest thee to love," &c. 

The use however of do, as a mere auxiliary, was well-established 
in our written language at the beginning of the fifteenth century ; 
and clear traces of it may be found 'in the fourteenth, for instance 
in Chaucer. 

108. And thus he did do slen (did cause them to slay) hem alle thre. 

Ch. The Sompnoures Tale, 334. 

109. — Fader, why do ye wepe ? 
Whan will the gailer bringen our pottage ? 
Is there no morsel bred, that ye do kepe ? 

I am so hungry, that I may not slepe. Ch. The Monkes Tale, 745. 

The auxiliary do generally denotes emphasis : **ldo say it, and it 
is true ;" but in some parts of the west of England it seems to be 
used merely as aflbrding a substitute for the ordinary conjugation. 
In Dorsetshire do indicates a continuing action, '* they did die by 
scores," and the ordinary conjugation a single action, ** he died yes- 
terday." (Barnes, Diss. p. 28.) 

The preterite of the \erh gin, to begin, appears to have been treated 
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries as a mere auxiliary. 

110. Al to 8o]?e yt ys ycomc (at Seynt Dunston gan telle (told). 

R. Glou. 329. 

111. He com his earn to socour fro fer (er he gan wonne (wonned). 

R. Br. 17, 

112. After Adel wolf his sonne hight £dbalde 

To yere & a half ^e regne gan he halde (held). R. Br. 20. 

113. Edmunde )>at in his tende yere at Peterburgh gan deie (died). 

R. Br. 35. 

114. Be the hawe-tre he gan come (came) 

And tlioiighte to have therof some. The Seuyn Sages, 897. 

2b 3 


115. And otheris eik the hug^ pillaris grete 

Out of the querellis ^an dohewe and bete (caused them to hew, &c.). 

G. Doug. En. 1 . c. vii. 

This verb was sometimes written can by our northern writers. 

116. For gret defens thai garnist thaim within 

A feUoun salt with out thai can hegyn (begun). Barbour, 8. 744. 

117. £u3m atte the mydday this ferly confalle (befell). 

Anturs of Arthur at the T. W. St. 6. 

118. The gled, the grip up at that bar couth stand (stood) 

As advocatis, &c. Henrysone, The Dog, Wolf and Sheep. 

119. The curate Kittie could confess (confessed) 

And she told on, &c. I^yndsay, The Confession. 

As to the form of the preterite couth, and the orthography of could, 
see No. 38. p. 154. 

Become sometimes meant to hap, to be in a situation to, &c. 

120. The felle bor itcam ^0 come 

The herde him seghth, ai\d was of drad. Seuyn Sages, 904. 

121. You shall have sometimes fair houses so full of glass that we cannot 
tell where to become to be out of the sun. — Bacon. 

and come occasionally had a very similar meaning given to it. 

122. A serpent ere he comes to be a dragon 

Must eat a bat, Sic, B. Jonson, Cataline. 

At an earlier period the infinitive often followed come without the 
interposition of the to, in which case it may fairly rank as one of the 
auxiliary verbs. 

123. Sone was filt paleys and tour 

In com gon (went) the emperour. Seuyn Sages, 958. 

12 1. — amide ward the prcs 

Come ride maister Ancilles. Seuyn Sages, 958. 

125. Sir Jon Giffard com aday, & Sir Jon de Balun there 
Ride vpe tue^e wolpakces, chapmen as hii were 

To the west zate, &c. Rob. Glou. 539. 

126. A grygp cam fie to take Iier prey 

In that forest. Octov. 448. 

127. The kyng of Jerusalem cam dryve 

Ham to awreke. Octov. 1619. 


Vol. II. MARCH 27, 1846. No. 45. 

James Vatks, Esq., in the Chair. 

The following work was laid on the table : — 
** Four Chapters of the Gospel of St. Matthew, translated into the 
language of Fernando Po." Presented by the Rev. Dr. Davies. 

A paper was then read : — \ 

" On certain Initial Letter-changes in the Indo-European Lan- 
guages." By the Rev. Richard Gamett. 

In the various branches of the great Indo-European family of lan- 
guages, we find that multitudes of words differ from their cognates 
in form ; and, to a certain extent, according to definite laws of per- 
mutation. This is more piuticularly the case with respect to their 
initial elements. If we take Sanscrit, Latin, Slavonic, or any other 
considerable member of the group as a standard, numerous instances 
occur in which a collateral language replaces an initial conjunct 
consonant by a simple one, or vice versd, and substitutes a guttural 
for a labial, a palatal for a guttural, an aspirate for a sibilant, or one 
liquid semivowel for another. In many cases those permutations 
are well-understood and easily accounted for, b\it with regard to 
some of them there appears to be a little misapprehension. 

It is usual to account for the substitution of a guttural for a labial, 
and similar phsenomena, by the assumption that one is changed into 
the other. _ This appears actually to take place in a number of 
instances ; as for example in the Neapolitan cchiii from piU, Lat. 
plus: Gaelic caisg from pascha, and many others. But there are 
cases in which there is reason to believe that both the labial and 
guttural are in reality derivative sounds, collaterally descended from 
a more complex element, capable of producing both. The practica- 
bility of the process may be manifested by an obvious instance. If 
we could oi^y compare Gr. dts and Lat. bis with each other, we 
should be compelled to affirm either that the labial was the repre- 
sentative of a dental, or that the words had no etymological con- 
nexion. But a reference to the Sanscrit dwis, at once shows that 
each has taken a portion of a more complex sound ; the Greek ha- 
ving elided the labial, and the Latin .dropped the dental. Bellum 
from duellum is a parallel instance. The grammarians inform us 
that bonus was originally duonus ; and if so, it is very possible that 
the Welsh dain, beautiful, daionusy good, may be representatives of 
the ancient form, minus u, which in all probability emanated from a 
V or w. 

VOL. II. 2 c 


The same observation may perhaps serve to explain certain phae- 
nomena connected with the Greek digamma. This element is sup- 
posed by some to have been a mere aspirate, and by others to have 
corresponded precisely with the Latin v or German w. The former 
supposition appears to be contradicted by the prosody of the Homeric 
poems : and though the latter agrees better with the collateral forms 
in other languages, it is not without its difficulties. 

Priscian, after observing that it had; commonly the force of a 
consonant in prosody, adds, " The JSolians are also found sometimes 
to have employed the digamma as a double consonant, as Necrropa 3e 
Fov vai^os" This view might be confirmed by numerous examples 
from Homer, in which an initial digamma frequently lengthens a 
preceding short vowel. As this never takes place with a LBitin v, it 
is reasonable to presume that there was some difference in their 
respectite powers ; and this presumption appears to be strengthened 
by various phsenomena presented by the Grecian dialects and the 
languages to which they are et3rmologically related. Words known 
to have had the digamma in the time of Homer, in other brandies 
of the Greek language replace this element by a simple guttural or 
labial ; and occasionally it appears to be represented by a sibilant, 
alone, or in connexion with a labial. On this and other grounds, 
Mr. Donaldson (New Gratylus, p. 119 et seq.) argues that the ori- 
ginal digamma must have had a complex sound, consisting of a 
guttural combined with a labial, the former element being also con- 
vertible into a sibilant*. It is the object of the present paper to 
bring further evidence in favour of the general correctness of the 
above theory, from some collateral sources of illuistration which it 
did not enter into Mr. Donaldson's plan to notice. 

The illustration most in point is furnished by the Welsh. In this 
language the digamma, with its equivalents in other tongues, is 
usually represented by gw \ w being nearly unknown in Cymric as a 
primary initial consonant. It was shown on a former occasion that 
the labial element may either be elided, as in W^ywlan, veool; Bret. 
gloan ; or that the conjunct consonant may become a simple labial, 
as balch from gwalch. Precisely the same phaenomenon is presented 
by the various didiects of the Greek. The grammarians and lexico- 
graphers have preserved a number of words in which y or /3 appears 
as a prefix to the vowel initial of the ordinary dialect ; and in almost 
every instance the words thus augmented are known, or may be 
strongly suspected anciently to have had the digamma. 

The correctness of the forms commencing with gamma is admitted 
by Buttmann and Giesius, who agree in regarding the phsenomenon 
as a dialectical peculiarity. On the other hand, Ahrens, in his ela- 
borate work on the Doric dialect, is inclined to consider them as cor- 
ruptions, or errors of Hesychius or his transcribers, who, not under- 
standing the real nature of the digamma, substituted for it the 
character most similar in form. This summary method of deciding 
the point seems rather to cut the knot than to untie it ; at all events 

* Iloefer, in his * Beitrage zur Etymologik,' has taken pretty nearly the same 
view of the suhject. 


it is an unsafe species of criticism to condemn everything as corrupt 
which we do not perfectly understand. We know that in Persian 
and other languages a guttural was the regular substitute for a 
Greek digamma*, and it is olmous that a change which took place 
in a cognate language might be equally admissible in a sister 

As points of this kind are better illustrated by evidence than by 
abstract reasoning, an attempt will be made to support the genuine- 
ness of these and other apparently anomalous forms by instances 
from collateral languages. ' 

Among the Hesychian glosses we find yolvBty olvos^ with several 
derivatives, for which the critics without t^e smallest hesitation bid 
us substitute Foifos. Undoubtedly this was a genuine form ; but if 
we suppose, which is very possible, that the digamma was a double 
consonant, comprising a guttural and a labial, like the Welsh gwyn, 
or the Georgian ghwini, it is obvious that the former element might 
prevail in particular localities as the labial did in others. This view 
appears to be confirmed not only by the Welsh and Breton forms, 
but by the Armenian gini. 

Another remarkable gloss in Hesychius is yiapes^sl^ap, which 
appears from the analogy of other words to have been a Boeotian 
form.' '^Eap is well known to have had the digamma (comp. Lat. 
ver, Icelandic v4r) : but there is also the evidence of the Armenian 
garoun, in favour of the guttural. The Persian hahar presents 
another form of the labial ; the Gaelic earrach is exactly parallel 
with tlie ordinary Greek. Benfey and other German philologists 
suppose a connexion with Sanscr. vasanta ; «, as is frequency the case, 
being softened to r. lliis idea appears to be confirmed by the 
Slavonic vesna, and perhaps by the Cornish guantoin, W. gwanwyn, 
where 8 ox r may have been elided. The Lithuanian wasara, sum- 
mer, appears to be from the same root. 

Ahrens, who is unwilling to admit that the simple guttural could 
become a representative of the digamma, allows that there is com- 
petent authority for it in the word yptvos, a hide or shield ; which 
is also known to have had the digamma. Its genuineness is further 
attested by the Welsh croen, skin or hide. The Bohemian blana 
may possibly be related, / being frequently substituted for r in the 
Slavonic dialects. The direct affinity of the Norse hrynjay a coat of 
mail, is doubtful; it being apparently from the Slavonic brona, 
which is referable to a root implying defence or protection, ana- 
logous to Germ, wehren. 

Many other examples might be given wherein a guttural initial 
in other languages, or in the dialects of Greece itself, corresponds 

* Mr. Donaldson observes, after Burnouf, that Neriosengh, who translated into 
Sanscrit the Pehlvi version of the Yagna, represents the Zend v by the Sanscrit ^/<t; 
or gv ; thus for vdhumandt hdvam, qavanghf he writes ghvahmana, hdguana, qagu- 
amgha, (New Cratylus, p. 120.) It may be further observed that the modern 
Persian occasionally substitutes a labial, e. gr. bad, wind; bist, 20 ; Sanscr. t;in«a^i. 
It may therefore be reasonably inferred that the ancient Persian archetype of those 
various articulations must have had a power bearing some analogy to that which 
we attribute to the digamma. 

2 c2 


with the digHmma. Some of these have been noticed in former 
communicatious, and a few others will be pointed out in the sequeL 
We proceed to adduce evidence in favour of other words where in- 
seriptions or glosses appear to prefix a labial. 

In the Tables of Heraclea, published by Mazochi, the digamma is 
regularly prefixed to the numeral nr and its derivatives r Fefy 
Fe^ilKovra, Fiicros, &,c. This is pronounced by Ahrens to be a re- 
cent corruption, since neither the Sanscrit shash, Lat. sexyHQr Grodiic 
saikg, show any traces of a digaimma. This is true ; there is how- 
ever no lack of evidence for it from other quarters. The fullest form 
extant is the Zend ksvas ; and it is cmious to observe how the com- 
ponent elements of the word appear <and disappear in the cognate 
dialects. The Welsh chwech has preserved the guttuni and labial ; 
the Affghan shpaj^ or spash, the sibilant and labial ; the Albanian 
gia9t, the mere guttural ; while the Armenian toetz corresponds 
pretty closely with the digamma-form of the tables. The Lithua- 
nian szessi agrees closely with the Sanscrit ; the ordinary Gredc l£ 
substitutes an aspirate initial, and the Gaelic se drops the final. 
The Heraclean forms, which doubtless agreed, with the current lan- 
guage of the locality, are therefore not entirely unsupported by ana- 
logy ; and this example may serve, among many others, to show how 
unsafe it is to decide points of this kind upon a narrow induction. 

It is a well-ascertained peculiarity of the iBolic dialect that fi was 
apparently prefixed to words beginning with fi in the ordinary lan- 
guage, as fip6^ov for p6^ov. Some grammarians regard this as a 
merely arbitrary process ; but Priscian more correctly observes that 
it was a mutation of the digamma; and this view is fttUy c*onfirmed 
by the analogy of the cognate languages. An excellent example is 
furnished by fipil^a or (ipiala, the ^olic form of /S/^a, which closely 
agrees on one side with the Gothic vaurt-s, and on the other with 
Welsh gwraidd, Bret, grisien. The Sanscrit hradhna may also be of 
the same family. Another Sanscrit term for root, budhna, has a re- 
markable resemblance to the Welsh bun, also found in Persian and 
in some Slavonic and Finnish dialects. If budhna be a mutation of 
bradhnd, as it possibly may, all the above forms are reducible to a 
common origin. Bp6lov may be compared with the Armenian ward\ 
fipa, fipaUios = pia^ pt^^ios, with the Anglo-Saxon hrad, ready, where 
h represents a more ancient guttural ; fipaxos, a rag, with A.-S. 
hracod, ragged, and perhaps with Welsh brat, i&g, bratiawg, ragged. 
Pprj^is, quoted by Trypho from Alcaeus, shows that fiiitrtrw had the 
digamma ; and this at once connects the verb with Germ, brechen, 
Lsit, frango, and possibly with W. brau, brittle, breuddilaw, to com- 
minute, and Slavon. br*chu, to grind. 

It appears from Herodian and Hesychius that the Bceotian form 
of yvyj) was fiam, gen, fiavriKos ; respecting which Ahrens observes, 
after Grimm, that a comparison of the Gothic quino shows that both 
yvvij and /3ai/a have lining from a more ancient yFai'a, which also 
illustrates the mutations of the vowel. This is so obvious and satis- 
factory a solution, that it is strange that Ahrens did not think of 
applyinjj^ it in those cases where he questions the genuineness of the 


simple guttural. He might also have found an admirable oonfirma* 
tion of it in the Welsh gwen, in conjunction with its synonym benyw, 
which are doubtless according to the same analogy. The Irish has 
also the duplicate forms coinne and bean. The Armenian kin closely- 
agrees with yvvij. The Slavonic zkena (pron. Jena, more GhJlico) 
turns the guttural to a palatal. The Scandinavian kone vocalizes 
the labial : the North- Yorkshire whean is a softening of the Anglo- 
Saxon cwen. 

In like manner the Elean Fparfm for fiiirfm, along with its primi- 
tive Fp^w and several cognate terms> may be referred to the Irish 
briathar^ a word ; Groth. vawrd ; Lithuanian wardas, a name ; Russ. 
govoriti, to speak ; to say nothing of Lat. verbum. Fripvs, speech ; 
the Welsh gair, a word, and Lat. garrio, are reducible to the same 
origin, if we suppose an elision of the labial. From a comparison of 
iipoyxos, frog, a word preserved by Hesychius, Benfey infers that 
rana was originally vrahna : the Cornish kranag, Fr. grenouille, and 
Armen. gort, equally speak for a guttural. The Yorkshire /rosk, 
Germ,/ro8ch, insert a sibilant ; the Danish /ro drops the final; the 
Lettish warde agrees pretty nearly with the Armenian. 

An instance of the compound initial gw being represented by the 
hard labial p, occurs in W. pare, an inclosure, £ng. park ; which 
we need not hesitate to connect with gwarchdu, to inclose ; and 
perhaps with Fepyw, to restrain, Fipicos, inclosure. Another, not 
commonly known, is furnished by Germ, pfennig, £ng. penny. 
Though this is found in most of the Teutonic and Slavonic dialects^ 
it is confessedly not vernacular in any of them ; and many unsuc- 
cessful attempts have been made to account for it. It is believed 
that the true et3rmon is the Breton gwenuek, a diminutive of gtoen, 
white; the coin being, as is well known, originally of silver. The 
Spanish blanquillo, and the Slovak belizh, from bel, white, are of 
exactly paraUel import. The Welsh ceiniawg, together with its 
root ctjtn, white, show an elision of the labial. Another instance 
i^rould appear to be presented by nd^os, given by Scylax as a name 
of the Cretan city called by Herodotus "Oo^i, and on coins Fa^os, 
The genuineness of the reading in Scylax has been doubted, but the 
above examples show that such a form would not be absolutely im- 

A few miscellaneous words, chiefly from inscriptions and ancient 
grammarians, are annexed, with illustrative forms from corresponding 
dialects. They are principally words known or presumed to have 
had, the digamma. 

fialv = 4?w W. chweg, sweet, [cf. A.-B, svac, odor, sapor.] 

fldpves, lambs .... Russ. baran ; Pers. barah ; Armen. garr. 

jSivi^ii) = iviuf .... W. gwaeddi, to shout. 

^a/3w = ?a/w .... W. daw ; Gael, daigh ; Sanscr. dah ; to bum. 

jj/3ett = aJa Gael, ubh ; A.-S. ag ; Lat. ovum. 

Fetnrepos Bret, gwesker ; W. gasper ; Gael, feascor ; 

Manks. feastor [cf. west, western] i Lith. 



fefjhto^Fepyoy .... Grerm. werken; W, gorufff made, did; Bret. 
gra» do [comp. Gr. irpdtraio] , 

Fucari, 20 Ir. fiche, fichit ; W. ugaint ; Pers. bist. 

FoiKos Lat, vicus ; W. gwig, town, hamlet. 

fpls (as inferredl 3^^ . ^^ff the nostrils [comp. Sanscr. 
from the Home- > i - t4. i xt \r i i. n 

ric prosody.) J ^^^"'^^^ ^^^' 9^9^^ ' N.-Yorksh. groon^. 

yciXi = &\is W. gwala, enough. ^ 

7€AXa£(tt.t;. to pluck) Lat. velh ; A.-Sl pullian } 

ytXX/fai = <TVK€i- f W. chwylaw, to turn, revolve ; Slav, valiti, to 

Xi^o'ai ; J roll. 

yeerria = i/iarca . . W. gwisg, apparel ; Lat. v^^/t^. 

yireo, o«cr W. gwden ; Eng, WMy. 

yoi^a = oiia. ..... W. gwydd, knowledge ; A.-S. witan, to know. > 

The application of this analogy enables us not unfrequently to 
recover, at least conjecturally, a form that had been lost. From a 
comparison of galleria, ambulatorium, Ihre ingeniously infers that 
the French aller was originally galler. This conjecture derives a 
collateral support from the Breton haUa, to walk ; bait, avenue ; in 
conjunction with Germ, wallen ; and all the forms taken in con- 
junction lead to the conclusion that the primary Celtic verb was 

Most of the permutations which we have been considering may 
be summed up in the counterparts for wind, in the different branches 
of the Indo-European family : — ^Welsh gwynt, Sanscr. vahanta, Lat. 
ventus, Slavon. vietr, Lithuanian wejisy Beluchi gwath, Irish gaoth, 
Persian bad. These forms not only illustrate the changes of the 
initial, but the appearance and disappearance of the nasal. The 
Greek ave^os is probably from the same root, but with a different 
suffix. In its present form it bears an external resemblance to the 
Gaelic anail, W. anadl, breath. 

The above examples, to which many others might be added, lead 
to the belief that the commonly received theory of labials and gut- 
turals being commutable with each other is not in all cases strictly 
-correct ; but that each has frequently had an independent origin in 
a more ancient complex sound. The general progress of language 
is towards euphony and attenuation of articulations ; it is therefore 
much more likely d, priori that w or v should be modifications of gxo, 
or some similar combination, than that the process should have been 
reversed. Words commencing with qv in Gothic, or cw in Anglo- 
Saxon, appear in other dialects with the simple labial, e,gr. A.-S. 
cwaniaut Germ, weinen ; and in this and similar cases there can be 
little doubt which form is the more ancient. 

The establishment of this theory of an original complex sound, 
divisible in the way we have been supposing, would enable us to 
bring many apparently unconnected words together, and to diminish 
the number of ostensible roots. If we assume a primitive gwal, 
qwal, V. t. q. signifying to turn, roll, &c., it is easy to conceive how 
it might on one side become the parent of the Welsh chwylaw, to 
revolve ; Sanscr. hval, to turn ; A.-S. hweol, wheel; O.-Germ. hwcl. 


crooked; Slavon. kolo*, a wheel, kolievati, to agitate; and on the 
other, of Slavon. valiti. Germ, willzen, Lat. voivere, to roll ; with many 
similar words in most European languages. Formerly the only me- 
thod of connecting aXi>/^€u> and KoXiv^eut together, was by supposing 
that a guttural had been dropped or assumed. But the knowledge 
that the former anciently had the digamma places the matter in a 
different light, and makes it at all events probable that they are in 
reality collateral formations, and that they, together with their cog- 
nate KvXito, oXeoi, to wander about ; elXvto, to, involve, &c., have a 
common origin with the Latin volvo, and the Welsh chwylaw, i. e. 
a root gwal or qwal, or something similar. 

There is another remarkable mutation of the initial w, which 
though of partial occurrence, appears to be well-established. Graff 
observes that this element occasionally resolves itself into ub, e. gr. 
uhisanduSy a low Latin word for wisant, a bison. Other examples are — 
uhandus for wantus, a glove (Ital. guanto) ; uhartellus for quartellus, a 
quarter measure. It would be worth inquiring whether a similar 
principle of formation may not have operated at a more ancient pe- 
riod ; whether, for instance, the Latin uvidua may not be etymolo- 
gically connected with our wet, and the Slavonic voda, water. The 
Celtic, Slavonic and Lithuanian words corresponding with Sanscr, 
upa, upari; Goth, uf, under ; Germ, ubar, over; show no traces of 
a prepositive vowel : the initial u of the latter class of words may 
therefore have been evolved from a consonant according to the same 
analogy. It will not be denied that it was just as possible in the 
nature of things for gwar or war to become ubar, as for wantus to 
become ubandus. The prepositive vowel in ofitKot, a spit, compared 
with Lat. veru, W. ber, mfiy possibly be an analogous formation. 
Compare also ofipifios, o^vs, with their cognates in other languages. 
According to the same principle, the Goth. ubiU may be related to 
W. gwally or Lat. vilis ; while the Norse ill-r may have lost Its 
initial. Further examples of a similar process will be given in 
treating of the liquids. 

* This word, with it» derivative koUua (PoHfh), a wheel-carriage, niAy pciliapN 
throw some light on a disputed point of ethnology (Ovid, Trint,) : — 
" Gens inculta nimis vehitur crepitante coloua { 
Hoc verbo currum, Scytba, vocare soles." 
This remarkable word u perfectly Slavonic, both as to its root and termination. 
The few words of ancient Scythian that have reached ui generally correspond with 
Slavonic, Teutonic, Medo-Persian, or some other Indo-European dialect. We iriny 
hence plausibly infer that the Scythians were not, as Rask supposes, Tscliude« or 
Finns, but more nearly allied to the SlavcSi if not their direct ancestors. 


Vol. II. APRIL 24, 1846. No. 46. 

H. H. Wilson, Esq,, V.P., in the Chair. 

The following paper was read : — 

*' On the Ordinary Inflexions of the English Verb." By Edwin 
Guest, Esq. 

Our ordinary verbs may be divided into two classes, those which 
form the past participle in n, and those which form it in d. We are 
told by grammarians that the former of these two classes is the more 
ancient, but the notion appears to be chiefly founded on the fact, 
that verbs of late formation or of late introduction into our language 
generally* made their participle end in d. The assertion sometimes 
ventured upon, that all the verbs which can be connected with the 
earlier development of our language belong to the first of these two 
classes, will hardly bear the test of examination. Many Anglo- 
Saxon verbs which must have originated in the first necessities of 
language form their past participle in d ; and on the whole it may 
be safer to infer that both constructions took their rise in the infancy 
of our language, and at a period too remote to allow of our arriving 
at any satisfactory conclusion as to their relative antiquity. 

In Latin grammar we find many verbs which in their present and 
past tenses follow different conjugations. This kind of grammatical 
inconsistency is still more prevalent in the Anglo-Saxon and the 
Old-English than in the Latin, indeed so much so, that in arranging 
our Old-English verbs it may be advisable to consider the inflexions 
of the present and past tenses independently. 

In the Old-English dialect, the forms expressing the relations of 
present time are fashioned, for the most part, on one of three pdn- 
ciples ; the verbal endings are added either immediately to the base, 
or by means of an element which generally takes the form of t, or 
of an element which generally appears as e, 
Ind, Sing, lovie take come, 

lovest takest comst. 

love)> take)> com}>. 

Plur, loviej; or lovie take}» or take come)> pr come. 
Subj, Sing, lovie take come. . 

Plur. lovien or lovie taken or take comen or come. 
Imp, Sing, lovie take com. 

Plur, lovief take)> comef. 

Infin. lovien or lovie taken or take comen or come. 

Gerund, to loviene to* takene to comene. 

Part, loviende takende comende. 

* Generally but not invariably ; the Northern participle proven is a well-known 
exception ; and Bellenden and his coi^temporaries use rang as the preterite and the 
past participle of reign, 

VOL. II. 2 D 


We vill first ^ve instaaees illustrative of the indicative mood of 
the t conjugatioD^ confining our attention chiefly to those fohtti 
which have not been retained in our later dialect. 

1 . Do> now al joure wyt )>erto. me wel to consayle 

And ich hopye we sholle Ke lasse recche of >8 Rozneyns tayle. 

,o H.GI0U. 195. 

2. Thus by lawe qua> oure lord, lede ich wol from hennes 

Alle >at ich lovye. Vis. de Dobet, past. 4. 

3. He wente and wone^ (dweUeth) ^e. up in to hevene. 

Vis. de Dobet, pass. 1 . 

4. Thine cause quath Pandolf in rizte and noujt in wou 

. ' yf^auancietk as in God & louieth the inou. R. Glou.,503. 

5. Ich ise wel, quath the king, >at ze ne louieth me nouzt. 


6. Ich shal be ^oure iVende frere. and faile zow nevere 
The wile 3^ lovie\> >ure lordes. >at lecherie haunten 
And lackiei> no^t thure ladies. >at lovyeth >e same. 

Vis. de P. Plouh. pass. 4. 
The second conjugation was rarely used in Anglo-Saxon ; but it 
gradually gained upon the other two, till in the fifteenth century it 
was generally recognised in our literature as the ordinary conjuga- 
tion of the English verb. The plural inflexion eth was commonly 
used by the writers of that agse» and may be oecasiohally met with 
as late as the sixteenth or even the seventeenth century. 

7. — we Minorites most sheweth 

The pure Apdsteles lif. P« j^loufaman's Cxede. 

8. Thei (the CarmeUtes) maketk them Maries n^en and so theimen 

tellen y 

And leieth aa ova Lady maoy a loog taku P« Pleuhman's Crede. 

9. If ploughman get hatchet «r whip to tfaeskrenc 
Miaids&xe^A their cod^e'^ if no water the seen. Tusser« 

10. Grefe islet lyith scaftt hidf a nille est «! Penare wherein hr»deth 
guiles and othervseloi^leSi'^-^Jbiek liin. 3^ 16. r , : / 

1 1 . Wevem AofA^now loiae^ in this Htle ehkch. I^* Itin. ^ 22. 

12. — ^ mark the plage'of thoes which sucketh blood. 

Church. Siege of EdenbrouglH 94. 

13. Strong apprehensions of her beauty Aa^A 

Made her believe that^he is move than woman. v. 

J ; : ' B. and iPi.| Laws of Candy. 

In the last example Weber retains the AaM as **a sli^t inaccu- 
racy," and Giffard passes it over in silence. 

The lingular inflesrioh ^ has i»dy recently icUsappeared from otir 
western dialectii^, and indeed the use of it still lingers inttjse district 
beyond the Parret (Jenning's West Dial. p. i). it seems long 'to 
have kept ^ hold upbnthe vevb have ; FieMing temetimeaputB Aa^A 
into the mouth even of his court ladies and gentlemen. 

The forms which resulted from joining the verbal endings imme- 

* The Shrovetide cock was won by the ploughman, !f he made his appearance 
in the kitchen before the maids were up, and the'kettle filled. 


diately to the base are excee&igly common in our earlier literature ; 
mmL notwitixstanding the care with which our editors have "cor- 
rected" these archaisms, they are readily found as late as the six- 
teenth century. 

14. — "we segeth the," Pandulf sede tbo, 

'• That thou ne berst neuer eft croune," &c. R, Glou. 502. 

15. "Water" he seyde what ^enest ou? ich rede ne com no ver. 

R. Glou. 321. 

16. ^ what thiniut 

That die hleak air, thy boisterous chamberlain 

Will put thy shirt pn warm ? . ^_ T. of Athens, 4. 1 . 

17. I ne wende no|t that eny man my dunte ssoide aiistDnde 

Ac )h)u ne sionst yt nojt one, ac art al dene abpue. R. Glou. 309. 

18. Why standit there (quoth he) thou brutish block. Spens. Feb« 

19. Syre hyssop wy ne g^H us of >yne wyte hrede. R. Glou. ^38. 

20. pe erl Hue com^ ek ajen 30U, >at fals ys je versuore. R. Glou. 455. 

■ 2i. Wery ind wet as bestes in the rain 

Cometh sely John and with him cometh Aleyn. 
, Ch. Reyes Tale, 1:88. 

22. &)untee come/A al of God, not. of the stren 

Ofwhicihthey benengendred. Ch. Clerkes Tale, 224. 

23. And hesreth him (the IbnX come rushing, &C4 

And thif^etk (thinc)^ A.-S.) here <:(meth my mortal enemy. 

Ch. Knightes Tale. 

K 24i c And %y«l> to blowe & su)>>e to bere fhiti R« Glou. 352. 

1 i25. «*^ the pope tend his sonde . . 

To erche bissops & bissops & zifth ech peer 
^- ^' In his histioprklie ^ &. thine to amansi^ flee R. Glou. 502. 

26. — the wathat|insdn maymeyeve) 

And eke thepeine that love m^ yeveih also. Ch^ Knightes Tale. 

iA: :27v — « jrtrtir^aSeynPhylyppesday 

And Seyn Jacob, as yt palfy ]« tCK«t day of May. R. Gbu. 436. 

21. Up itarth a kna^j aiid d&wn th^efaiihtk knight. 

Sir T, Mwe, Boke of Fortune, 
i 25>. — on broker 

As ye se> in nede kelp)* thjere^t oi>er. ^ Hf Glou. 341. 

30. — drowned in Aedepdr'jw 
Of depeidesire tb drinke the eiuiltlesse bloud 
Like to the .wolf with greedyJookes that /<rp/ A 

Into the snare. Sackville, Buckingham, 5. 

In the examples taken from Chancer we have follQwed Tyrwhitt's 
orthography; hut there can he little doubt that Chaucer wrote 
thinkf, comp, yevf, S&c. ^ 

Of "die three sf^junctive forms; thefirst is the only one ^^ch will 
require illustratton. 

31, — we esseth and na more 

That thou «tterie vpe the bok clanliche to restore 
Holi churche thajt thou hast him binome, &c. R. Glou. 500. 

2 d2 


32. — ich for bede vpe mansinge 

That no man ne touchi thulke clerc, &c. R. Gkm. 5QA* 

33. — let hure be knowe 

For ryche o>er well y rented. >auh hue revely for elde 

Ther nys squiet ne knyght. in contreye a boute 

That he nel bowe to .tfaat bonde, to bede hure a^ hosebonde 

And wedden hure for hure welthe. Vis. de Dowel, pass. I. 

In ex. 32, 33, the verbs are mutilated. 
The following examples illustrate tlie inflexions of the imperative: — 

34. Jesu that was with spere y stounge 
And for vs hard and sore y swounge 
Glady* (gladie) both old and younge 

With wytte honest. Oct. 3. 

35. — 30ure fadres honourteth 

Honora patrem et matrem, &c. Vis. de P. Plouh. pass. 8. 

36. And take >e my dorter for mon >ou art y wys 

To Wynne ^et a kyndom. R. Glou. 13. 

37. Whan thou doist almes, knowe not thi left bond what thi right bond 
doith.— Wicl. Matt. 6. 

38. Takith heed that ye do not your rigtwisnesse before men to be seyn 
of hem.— Wicl, Matt. 6. 

39. This vision is jet to drede '^ink and gif God kepe.. R. Br. 66, 

40. For com with me to Bretajme & thou schalt |>ere kyng be. 

R. Glou, 90. 

41. Thanne schalt thou come by a croft, ac com nat ther ymle. 

Vis. de P. Plouh. pass. 8. 

The t form of the infinitive, lovien or lovie, still lingers among the 
dialects of the west of England. Jennings was the first to notice 
this curious fact (Obs. West Dial, p. 7), but his attempt to explain 
how the form originated was (as might have been expected) a f^dlure. 

42« jpow broghtest me borwes, my byddyng to fulfille 

To lyve on me and lovye me. Vis. de P. Plouh. pass. 2. 

43. — that heo )|ider wende 

To wonye and to live >ere. R. Glou. 41. 

44. — I wol fare 
To Jerusalem ouer the flood 

And wonye dare. Oct. 528. 

45. David by bus daies. dobbede kny^tes 

And dude hem twerye in her swerde^ to serve truthe evere. 

Vis. de P. Plouh. pass. 2. 

46. Ze mo we me makie swerie wat owe wille be 

Ac inelle netiere the erche bessop in Engelohd auonge. 

R. Glou. 500. 

47. — - youll come an hdmaky on't ye? eese I knaw you ool, &c. 

Jennings^ Thomas Came. 

* The Anglo-Saxon did not take the i in tl^e singular of the imperatiye; and 
perhaps even in the Old-English, glade would have been a more correct form than 


The infinitiTe in t«, as we have observed, is still in use throughout 
the west of England. But Barnes informs us that in Dorsetshire 
the verb takes tiliis inflexion only " when it is absolute, and never 
with an accusative case ;" can ye zewy ? wull ye lew up theos zeam ? 
(Diss, on the Dorset. Dialect, p. 28.) A tendency to restrict the use 
of this infinitive may be traced as eaidy as the fifteenth century. 
There are only two instances in the Octovian in which it is followed 
by an accusative case. 

The gerund was used as late as the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 

48. He aicode of hii eonsders wat was best to done. R. Glou. 127. 

49. Therof haue thoa no tiling to dome ! 
Arise vp quik and with me go 

And do als tou seat me do. Seujm Sages, 1256. 

50. For Ker nyt in H kyndom so wys mon y wys 

To segge so|> of binges >at to eomene be>. R. Glou. 145. 

But in the later MSS. the n is generally found corrupted into ng. 

5 1 . Treuage als he asked of S. Edmonde Hng 

pe corsaynt & >e kirke he Inrette for to hrennyng 

And- hot he had his askyng, |»e loud he sold destroy. R. Br. 44. 

52. And hopen >at he be to comynge, \bX shal hem releeve 
Moyses o|>er Makemede. Vis. de Dobet, pass. 1. 

53. — and the dragoun stood before the womman that was to berynge 
ahild, that whanne sdie hadde bonm child he sehnlde devomre hir sone. 
and sche bare a knaue child that was to reulynge alle folkis, &c. — Wicl. 
ApocalypSy 12. j ., 

The gerund thus cohnpted seems gradually to have been con- 
founded with the verbal noun in ing. In the phrase " what art thou 
to doynge" — ^what art thou going to do ? — Wicl. Deedis, 22, the 
writer probably considered doynge as the dative case of doyng rather 
than as a corruption of the old gerund done. 

The nd of the present participle was also very generally corrupted 
into ng before the close of the fourteenth century ; but the older form 
was occasionally used in our literature as late as the seventeenth. 

54. Thus she disputeth in hir thought 
And wote not what she thynke maie 
But fastende all the longe daie 

She was, &c. Gower, 4. Berthollet's ed. 

55. — with hys handes two y 

Clappynde togedere to and fro. Octov. 1346. 

56. Als Jame the Second Roy of greit renoun 
Beand in his superexcellent gloir, &c. 

Lynds. Conipl. of the Papingo. 

57. Irf rhime, fine tinkling rhlme Stjhwcmd verse, 

With now & then some sense. B. Jons. Fortunate Isles. 

The great peculiarity of our modem dialect, as distinguished 

from the Anglo-Saxon and the Old-English, is the rejection of the 

vowel of the final syllable*. But this principle will not account for 

such forms as comJ>,/a/|>, helpy, &c. In the very earliest stage of our 

• Fide vol. i. p. 65. 


language we find the inflexion joined immediately to the ^se ; and 
there can be little doubt that we ought to rank these English fonxis 
with the Latin forms fer-t ,vul't, es-t, &c., and with the Sanscrit verbs 
of the second conjugation. In like manner the English verbs which 
follow the t conjugation range themselves naturally with a large class 
of Latin verbs, which are c^efly comprised in the first, second and 
fourth conjugations, with the Greek circumflex verbs, and with the 
Sanscrit verbs of the fourth and tenth conjugations, both of which 
may be considered as interpolating the element ya* between the 
ending and the base. The close connexion between these diflerent 
classes of verbs may be seen in the great number of Anglo-Saxon 
verbs belonging to tEie i conjugation whose correlatives follow the 
corresponding conjugations in other languages. Thus we have 
erian to plough^ arare ; temian to tame, domare ; f union to rattle, 
tonare ; hilian to cover, celare ; plantian to plant, plantare ; borian 
to bore, forare; niwian to renew, novare; lician to {dease, placere; 
monian to admonish, monere ; a-swefian to put to rest„ sopire; and 
we find ^olian to suffer, answering to the Greek radical rXaov, and 
yrsianf to be angry, lufian to love, cwiddian to speak, &c., answering 
to the Sanscrit verbal roots, rush to be angry, iub' to covet, gad to 
speak, &c. Before we finish this more particular notice of the t 
conjugation, we may observe that its inflexions were generally giyen 
to those verbs which were introduced into the language from foreign 
sources chiring the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In 'Lang- 
land's Visions' we find the following among other instances:—/© 
sqffr^yto hondti^l^^eviny, to labonrie, to cov€tye,'to comforty, to 
savy, to conquery, &c. The inconsistent spelling'of the final sylla- 
ble— ie, y^, i^-^is due to the writer of Whitaker's MS. 

V^bs which make the past participle end in rf, fbrm the preterite 
and participle in ^de; td, whenever the present tense follows the t 
conjugation, but in other cases generally form it in de, d. 

Ind. Sing, lovede 






Flur, loveden 


SubJ. Sing, lovede 


Plur, loveden 


Part. loved 


Instances of verbs forming the participle in ed and the preterite 
in de, though common in tibe Anglo-Saxon, very rarely occur in the 

Those verbs which make the past participle end in n, generally 
inflect their present tense like come ; and perhaps we might add, that, 
with one exception, they never inflect it according to the forms of the 

* In the opinion of the writer, this principle applies to the tenth no less thait to 
the second conjugation. But the compass of a note does not allow space enough 
to discuss the question. 

t The Anglo-Saxon yrtian dHFers merely by virtue of a letter-change from 
the Danish verb rase to be in a Tage, and thus immediately connects itse^ with thfe 
Sanscrit root rusJu 


t cbnjugdHon. The exception alluded to occurs in southern MSS, 
(and sometimes in southern MSS. of late date), in which we often 
find the present tense ich stoerie, I swear, used at the same time 
with the preterite swor and participle sworn. 

ITie verbs we are now considering always form the preterite by a 
change in the vowel of the base, llie^ letter-changes are amongst 
the oldest and the most important jof our language. But satisfac- 
torily to discuss their relations, and the place they fill in the history 
and development of our language, would require an examination of 
our vowel- system far exceedmg the limits of this paper. tVe shaft 
at present confine our attention to the persona^ endings of this tense, 
and to tiie change of vowel which in some of these preterites distin- 
guishes the plural from the singular number. 

Verbs whose preterite singular was distinguished by an o, or by 
an a, followed by some nasal, longest retained this change of vowel 
in the plural, the o being changed to i, as smot^ smiten, and the a to 
H, as ran, runnen, 

58. Smoof, Aud the men that heelden him scomiden him & tmyten 

him, and thei blindfelden him and amyten him, and seiden 
areed thou Crist to us who is be that smoot thee. — Wicl. 

59. Heo smyten >er a bataile, &c. R. GIou. 12. 

60. Rooi^ And the prince of prestis root and seide to him, &c.^— Wkk 

Matt. 26. 

61. And Biunme of the farisees risen up <^d foughten seyttu^, 

&c.— Wicl. Deedia, 23. 

62. And the Bry tones o ryte faste so l>at>oni Godes grace 
J^QO hadde >e maistry of >e feld^ E. Glou* 50. 

63. £t«fe not ihe consular men & left tkeir places 

So soon as thou sat'st doun. . B. Jons* CataUne. 

64. Droof, And whanne he hadde maad as it were a scourge of smale 

cordis, he droof out alle of the temple & oxen & scheep, 
&c.— Wiclif, Jon 2. 

65. Heo fpnden a vewe geandes, for broide men as yt were 

In to Cornewaile heo drive hem. R. Glou. 21. 

66. Ran, — sche rmt and cam to^Symound Petir & to a uother dis- 

ciple, ^. and thei twejrne runnen tpgidre and thilk othir 
disciple ran before Petir, &c. — Wicl. Jon 20. 

67. J?e^ay?. Anoon thei knewen him and thei runnen thorou al that 

cuntree and hegunnen to bringe sik men, &c. — Wicl. 
Marc 6. 

68. We preieden Tite (i. e, Titus) that as he hegan so also he par- 

fourme in yhou this grace.— Wicl. 2 Cor. 8. 

The proper ending of the second person singular of these prete- 
rites was e. The inflexion st at first belonged exclusively to the 
present tense, but it gradually intruded itself into the preterite, till 
it h» now considered as the regular inflexion of the past ^ease. The 
vowel-inflexion was however used to & much later period than is 
generally supposed. 


69. pom H traison hi)»er mon heor fader >on nlowe 

And |>oni )»i trayson Saxones into this lond >ou drowe, 

R. Glou. 133. 

70. Thi brothers blood that thou slewe 

Askyht vengeauns, &c. Coy. Myst. 38. 

71. And thou, O CassiuSr justly came thy fall. 

That with the sword wherewith thou Caesar slew (slowe) 
Murdredst thyself. Sackville, Buckingham, 16. 

72. Thou tawe thy child y slain before thin eyen. 

Ch. M. of Lawes Tale, 838. 

73. God of l>y goodnesse thou gorme >e worlde make. 

Vis. deP. Plouh. 116. 

74. — have >is for >at >o >at )k>u take. Vis. de P. Plouh. 10. 

75. po )>ou versoke such travail, to be in God seruise 

And wra»edest so much God, thou ne dust nojt as the wise. 

R. Glou. 428. 

76. Thys chyld thou neuer hegate, Octov. 847- 

Our language has always been more or less subject to conflicting 
usages. Even in the Anglo-Saxon the same verb sometimes took 
duplicate forms. Thus sendan, to send, has for the third person sin- 
gular of its present tense both sent and sende]^, just as in Latin alo 
has its two participles alius and alitus. There was also much un- 
certainty in the use of the » conjugation. This conjugation was un- 
known, during the Old -English period, to our Northern and Eastern 
dialects*, and as Northern forms gained ascendency in our litera- 
ture, it gradually disappeared from the dialects of our Southern and 
Western counties. Chaucer never used it, and Langland only occa- 
sionally. It has long been unknown to our written language ; in 
another generation the last relic of it will have vanished even from 
the language of the people. 

* The forms of the t conjugation are sometimes found in the later Northern MSS., 
but were no doubt borrowed from the Southern literature of the day. 


T7 Mh,^rr '. ; 

Vol. II. MAY 8, 1846. \ ^ r ..C^Nc^*?, 

Rev. Richard Garnett in the Chair. 

A paper was read : — 

" On the Origin of certahi Latin Words.'* By Professor Key. 

The word castra, by the very fact of its being a plural with a 
translation as a singular, tells us that camp is not its original signi- 
fication. The best mode of tracing a word to its original source, is 
to compare it with other words in the same tongue which have a 
sinular termination. Now the singular caatrum has a common end- 
ing with several Latin words, as rostrum, rostrum, clausirum, plau- 
strum. Of these the first three are evidently deduced from the 
several verbs rado, rodo, claudo, and as regards form, plaustrum 
also claims kindred with plaudo. The logical connexion between 
these two words is not self-evident, for although it must be admitted 
that the movement of a waggon is accompanied with great noise, 
yet this noise is not the object for which it is made, and therefore 
was but ill entitled to supply a name to the machine. Possibly 
however in the narrow roads of ancient Italy it was found important 
that a vehicle should have some artificial mode of making a noise 
in order to give notice of its approach to other vehicles moving in 
the opposite direction, and thus prevent two carriages entering a 
road whose width was not sufficient for them to pass each other. 
Even in the present day in the narrow cross-roads of France, each 
cart is for the same purpose often provided with a horn. Nor is the 
use of bells in waggons to serve a like object unknown in England. 
Be this suggestion correct or not, the example of the other words 
just quoted points our attention to the Latin verb cado. But again, 
a connexion of meaning does not readily present itself. The ideas 
of a camp and of falling are not directly related to each other. 
However, as has been just stated, it is not probable that camp was 
the original meaning of the word. The phrases movere castra and 
ponere castra have no intelligible sense if castra meant walls and 
ditches. But the simplest form of artificial defence against an enemy 
is an |Lbattis, iJxat is a wooden fence, formed by felling trees upon 
the spot. Now there is a close connexion between felling and 
falling, indeed the very terms are nearly identical, and what little 
difierence there is between them disappears when we call to mind 
that the phrase to fall a tree is no less common in use, though not in 
dictionaries, than the more favoured phrase to fell a tree. Still 
there remains an insuperable difficulty in the ^ct that the suffix 
£mm denotes always an instrument. Nor is it probable that an army 
when leaving one of these hasty fortifications would move away the 
trees which they cut for the occasion. They would rather trust to 

VOL. II. 2 E 


the probability of finding other trees for their purpose in their next 
position. Castrum, if connected with cado, must have signified the 
instrument for falling the trees, that is the axe. Axes would be 
required in very considerable quantities, and are precisely what the 
army would be called upon to carry with it, and they would be the 
very first articles taken from the impedimenta when the troops de- 
sired to encamp. Thus the power of the suffix trumf the connexion 
with cado, the use of the word in the plural, the peculiarities of the 
two phrsaesponere c. and movere c, and the sense of the word, are 
reconciled with each other. It may at the same time be useful to 
notice the double relationship between the English words fall and 
fell and the Latin cado and caedo. The last of these words is the 
right term for felling timber, and it is in all probability only a fac- 
titive form of the preceding verb cado. Some connexion between 
the words is strongly suggested by the allied significations of the 
very similar verbs occtdere * to die,' and occidere ' to kill.' But we 
may perhaps proceed a step further, and assert that the two Latin 
words cado and caedo are the Latin analogues respectively of our 
English verbs fall and fell. The forms at first seem to have no 
similarity beyond the vowels. But if we call in aid the Greek irijmt> 
(now acknowledged to be formed upon the same model as pifivia 
ytyyofiai and the Latin sisto, viz. by reduplication, as wt-Trcr-w 
from a base irer), we shall have a triple form pervading the three 
tongues precisely parallel as regards the initial consonant to the 
fourth and fifth numerals. 

wiffvpes (^AeoL), quatuor, (fidvor) four. 

TTci/rc (Tre/iTT-ros), quinque, (fiinf) five. 

7ri-7rer-w, cado, fall. 

On the other hand, the convertibility of the final consonants d of 
cad and / of fall is more familiar in the Latin than in most languages, 
and the numeral series again furnishes an example, the decern of the 
Latin (as Bopp and others have shown) appearing in our own tongue 
with an / instead of a d, viz. in e-leven, that is en-leven. But the 
very form of our English verb /a// is not unknown to the Latin and 
Greek tongues. In a recently published Greek Lexicon* occurs the 
passage — S^aXXw, to make to fall (like h^t, pedes fallere, Liv. 21. 
36). — Thus the moral notion of deceiving is in reality, as might be 
expected, only secondary in the Latin verb. But the same root fall 
may be traced perhaps in another Latin word. The substantives 
fors, sors, ars, mors, gens, mens, appear to have had in earlier times a 
disyllabic nominative, fortis, sortis, artis, mortis, &c. being formed 
by the addition of a suffix ti to a verbal base. In the case of the 
last four the required verbs present themselves without difficulty : 
ajo-w, mor-ior, gi-gen-o, me-min-i. As regards the first of these four 
verbs, we need not confine ourselves to the Greek language, as the 
substantive artus, like all other nouns with a suffix tu, clearly 
points to a Latin verb. Now we would suggest that fors and 
sors in like manner are to be deduced from the verbs falUere 

* Liddell and Scott's quarto edition. 


and soli-re. As regards the former, it is almost a law of language 
that words signifying chance are deduced horn, words having the 
sense of ' to fall ;' chance itself, for example, being formed through 
the French cMance from the verb cheoir, that is cadere. On the 
other hand, as the Roman practice of casting lots was to put small 
tablets into a narrow-necked pitcher of water and then give to the 
vessel a rapid circular motion, so that a tablet was expelled through 
the narrow neck, the idea of ' lei4)ing out ' may naturally have 
given to the lots a name derived from soli-re*, 

Prehendo has been noticed by Bopp in his • Comparative Grammar/ 
(p. 88, note), who suggests the possibility of its connexion with the 
Sanscrit root grah, through the ordinary interchange of guttural and 
labial letters. This derivation has the serious inconvenience of not 
accounting for the three letters end^ It seems a more natural proceed- 
ing to look upon the first syllable as the preposition prae, robbed of 
its quantity, and therefore of its diphthongal form, in consequence of 
the next syllable beginning with the unpronounced h. The notion 
moreover expressed in the verb agrees with the ordinary signification 
oi prae in composition, for the common use oi prehendo is in the sense 
' to take hold' of a thing by something that projects, as to take hold 
of a man by his arm, by his sleeve, &c. The second syllable of the 
word is just as much entitled to a vowel a as to a Vowel e, seeing 
that ascendo, incendo, are compounds of scando and cando. Unfor- 
tunately the Latin language exhibits no root in the form hand. The 
deficiency however is supplied if we may have recourse to our own 
tongue in the substantive hand, which moreover is often used as a 
verb ; and certainly the sense of our English noun is precisely in 
agreement with the meaning of the Latin prehendo. Still it would 
be more satisfactory to find what we are in search of within the 
limits of the Latin. Now the noun manus, as regards all but the 
initial consonant, stands in the proper relation to our own hand. The 
vowel is the same, and the addition of a i after the n is precisely 
what the idiom of our language demands, as is seen in the words 
sound, thunder, compared with the Latin sona-re, tona-re. The disap- 
pearance of the letter m from manus has its parallel in the Latin 
mere-re contrasted with earn in English. Here again the addition of 
an n after the r is a common occurrence, another example of which 
appears in the Latin maere-re contrasted with the Gothic maurn-an 
and English mourn. The fact that earn rather than deserve is the 
earlier signification of the Latin verb beginning with mer will ac- 
count for the use of the perfect tense meritus est as a present, he has 
earned, therefore he deserves. 

Obsoleo is commonly treated as a compound of ole-o 'grow'f. 
But those who support this view have two points to explain ; first, 
how the signification superadded to the simple verb is in agreement 

* The signification of the French «or^tr, ' to go out/ so evidently identical in 
origin with the Latin sortiri, is a strong argument in favour of the view here taken. 

t Jbolere and exolescere stand in a very different position from ob^oleseere, be. 
cause the power of the prepositions ab and ex lend so material an aid to the signi- 
fication of those verbs. 



with the si^ification of the preposition ; and secondly, a question of 
form, why the 8 has been interposed. That the prepositions which 
end in b at times attach to themselves a sibilant must be admitted ; 
but the examples are confined to those cases where a tenuis con- 
sonant commences the verb, as in asportare, ahstuli, absconcb*. 
These two objections standing in the way of the usual derivation, it 
behoves us to look elsewhere, and to ask ourselves whether the s 
may not be an essential portion of the simple verb. Unfortunately 
the sense of the Latin verb soleo seems to be very different from 
what we should desire ; but here again to be accustomed cannot 
well be the primitive meaning of the Latin word, because it is not 
a suffieiently simple, nor a physical notion. A very little con* 
sideration of the words which denote custom will show us that they 
originally denoted the act of sitting, which as contrasted with stand- 
ing, denotes a greater degree of permanence. He who does not 
mean to remain says what he has to say standing, and that done 
goes off. On the contrary, he who requires much time to finish a 
matter, takes his chair and sits down. Hence it is that the Latin 
assiduus, * sitting at it,* has obtained the meaning of permanence. 
The German language too in its substantive sitte ' custom,' has a word 
of similar origin. Now the Latin solium * a seat,' like studium, odium, 
imperium, should be connected with a verb. The proposed translation 
of solere supplies such a verb. But the very conjugation of sotere, in- 
dependently of its radical syllable, tends to express a permanent idea, 
since the third conjugation is particularly employed to express action, 
the second to express a state, jacere * to throw,* jacere ' to lie,* sidere 
' to take a seat,' sedere ' to remain seated.' Nor is the active verb cor- 
responding to solere wanting in Latin, for consulere in the older wri. 
ters is written consolere or cosolere\ ; and its sense of deliberation is 
in the closest relationship to the idea of sitting together. But in feet 
the words containing the syllable sed in the sense of ' sit,' are closely 
related with those which appear in the form sol. The vowels e and 
are at times interchanged, and the same is still more true of the 
consonants d and /. Hence sedeo, sedes, sodalis, sella, subsellium, 
solium, consolere, are all of one origin. A similar interchange of 
letters establishes the connexion of metior, modus, modulus, modius, 
meditari, melos, fieXeraw. But to return to the verb obsoleo, our 
signification of the simple 'verb, together with a very ordinary sense 
of the preposition, give us an equivalent in power to the Latin verb 
supersedeo. The awkward point is, that the passive supersedeor 
would be more applicable. But here again the analogies of the 
Latin language furnish a solution. Pendeo is in power a passive as 

* Ahsens may appear an exception to those who suppose the verb esse to be en- 
titled to a participle ent. The essential part of the Latin substantive verb is mwr 
admitted to be the syllable es, so that the true parUciple should have been esens, 
in analogy with regens, and the fuller form abesens would naturally be compressed 
into ahsens. The same view accounts for the s in praesens and Di Consentet, 

f A recently proposed etymology for consulo is, that it is a diminutive from a 
verb conso, whence censeo. But the diminutive verbs which end in ulo are of the 
first conjugation, and besides this, the alleged verb conso seems to be an unsafe 
foundation to build upon. 



well as perfect of pendo, nndjaceo the same ofjacio, -so that oh-toUo 
may fairly signify ' I am superseded/ that is, a new surface has been 
spread over and consequently concealed the old one. 

In dealing with consulere, the attention is almost necessarily 
drawn to the substantive consul, which, like the verb, has for its 
older form consol or cosoL This word has been the subject of 
Niebuhr's remarks in his Roman History; but he. treats the latter 
syllable as utterly unimportant. This seems contrary to the prin- 
ciples of etymology. The right course here as elsewhere is to col« 
lect the different words of the same termination. There are two 
such : exul and praesuL The latter is commonly derived from stUio, 
as though it denoted the leader in the religious dance of the Salii. 
Without altogether denying this derivation, it may be asserted that 
in a majority of the passages where it occurs, the sense ofpraeses is 
much better suited, as may be seen in the Lexicon of Forcellini ; and 
in the two passages in the ' De DivinatiQue,' where the other sense 
is preferred, the reading is doubtful. Then in reference to emil or 
exsul, the notion is precisely that of one who has no fixed abode in 
which to reside, cut nulla est sedes, just as exlex is one who has no 
law to protect him. Lastly, in the word consul the second syllable 
seems to admit a satisfactory interpretation in the same sense. The 
authority of the Roman kings was divided between the two leading 
officers of the republican constitution which supplanted the monarchy, 
and one of the consequences was that the solium or throne formerly^ 
occupied by the single sovereign, became now the joint seat of two 
chief magistrates*. They were therefore consules in the physical 
sense of that word, as well as in the sense of men deliberating to«- 
gether for the common welfare. In reference to their military duties, 
the suitable title was praetor ^^prae-i-tor, or (rrparrfyos, but the 
former was better adapted to denote their civil position. 

Pluma, — Following the same course of investigation, we place 
together for review such words as lacruma, fama^ spuma, flama, 
squama, rima. The first three are clearly connected with verbs, 
viz. BaKpy-eWf/a-ri, spu-ere, and therefore naturally suggest a search 
for verbs whence the others may be deduced. Such are ipXey-eiv 
(connected with the Latin /ttty^-re,/a^rfl- re, &c.), squale-re, rige-re. 
The loss of a y before m has its parallel in the double form of examen 
for exagmen and mfulmen for fulgmen ; and secondly, the loss of the 
/ in squama between a and m is no more than is familiar to an En- 
glish ear in calm, qualm, balm, &c. Moreover the suffix in question 
is well known in the Greek language, as in nprf, ^ripri, &c. But 
with what verb is pluma connected ? Now the Latin pulmo corre- 
sponds to the Greek TrXcv/xoiK, according to the well-known principle 
which allows the letter / and other liquids to precede or follow their 
vowel almost indifferently. But this very syllable rrXev proves to 
be a verbal base, irKevfuav being only another form of irvevfiutv, and 
therefore deduced from the verb trve-eiv, or rather irycF-cir, to 

* just as the two Proctors at times are compelled to compress themselves into 
the seat usually occupied by the Vice-chancellor. 


bre&the. So much for the question of form. The second question 
10, does the notion of breathing accord with the peculiar significa« 
tion of pluma ? This question may perhaps be answered in the 
affirmative, seeing that/?/tima means in Latin, not the whole feather, 
for which pefma or ratiier pinfui is the proper word, but only the 
downy portion which is sent flying by the slightest puff of wind. 

Jus, — The fact that a neuter noun in us is of monosyllabic form 
should not prevent a comparison of it with other neuters, such as 
ffsnus, decus, frigus, pondus, &c., since such monosyllables often owe 
their brevity to a contraction. The Latin crus for example seems 
beyond all doubt to be the equivalent of the Greek okcXos, the X 
beoomhig very readily a p when brought close up to the k, as in 
KaXvwTio compared with KpvvTut, or (tkoXo^P compared with the Latin 
cnup. But such neuters as genus, decus, &c., are the majority of 
tiiem traceable to verbs. We have therefore two principles to guide 
us in an examination of Jus, viz. the resolution of it into two syl- 
lables, and this done, the*detection of a verbal base in the result- 
ing first syllable. Now the t consonanSf as the Romans called it, 
ii^ich commenced a syllable, is often the corrupted produce of the 
sound di, fc^lowed by a vowel. The most familiar examples are 
Jupiter from Diu-piter or Diespiter, and Janus from Dianus, Hiis 
would give us dius, the first syllable of which is nearly related in 
form to the Greek ^c-w * bind.' The Latin dica-re * to bind,* in the 
legal sense, is the very same word, as also our English tie, tight. Of 
these four words, two have lost the guttural in orthography, and all 
but one in pronunciation, so that we need not be surprised at its dis- 
appearance in the supposed dius for dicus. Nay, the very same de- 
gradation has occurred in the French Her from ligare, itself only a 
dialectic variety of dicare, according to that interchange of d and / 
which has been more than once adverted to in this paper. That the 
sense of a legal or moral binding is conveyed in the term Jus ' right,' 
will be readily admitted, and other arguments in favour of the view 
present themselves in the form and signification of the Greek hicri, 
and the Latin licere and lex. The word lis also may possibly belong 
to the same root, seeing that its original nominative must have been 
litis to justify a plural genitive litium, and thus, like mors and the 
words already spoken of, it seems to point to a verb as its origin. 
It may be difficult to connect the meaning of lis with that of ligare, 
but as regards form there is no difficulty. The guttural of this root 
we have already seen is apt to disappear, and there must have been 
a time when the letter a formed no part of the verb ; in other words, 
the verb must at one time have belonged to the third conjugation in 
the form ligere. Such a passage from the third to the first conju- 
gation has occurred repeatedly in the Latin language. For example, 
all those verbs of the first conjugation which form their perfects and 
supines in what is called an irregular manner, in ui ttum, owe those 
forms to an earlier verb of the third conjugation, and in truth such 
forms as sonunt, &c. occur in the fragments of the older writers. 
Most probably the process was this : from such verbs as son-ere, 
plec-ere (plectere), were formed in the first instance nouns like 


8onu8, plica, and then from the latter the denominative verbs sonare^ ^ 
plicare. But to return to the verb ligare, there are several words in 
the Latin language which bear evidence in favour of an earlier form 
Itg-ere, viz. limen, lictor and lignum. To begin with the first of 
these, the syllable men is well known as a neuter suffix attached to 
verbs, and the meaning of lijnen readily connects itself with the no- 
tion of the verb we have been discussing, for there were two limina 
to a door, the limen superius or lintel, and limen in/erius or threshold. 
Both these pieces of wood fulfil the office of what an English car- 
penter calls a tie, that is, a horizontal piece of timber employed to 
keep the other timbers^^more particularly those which are vertical, from 
follmg in or bulging out. The noun lietor has also a suffix which is 
commonly attached to verbs, and as to the meaning, it is sufficient to 
call to mind the ominous words / lictor colliga manus, by which the 
dictator or consul called upon his attending officer to peiform one of 
his ordinary duties, and indeed that very duty which is implied in the 
symbols of his office, namely the fasces and secures, to say nothing of 
the rope around those fasces, by which the hands of the offender were 
bound together, and which would be first in requisition. The word 
lignum remains. This has a form parallel to that of signum, which 
in all probability comes from dicire * to point or show,' for such 
seems to have been the earlier meaning of that verb. Its older form, 
we know, was deicere, so that the essential syllable was letter for 
letter the same with the base of the Greek ^eiK-vvfii. This root is 
admitted to be the same with that of the German verb zeig-en and 
noun zeichen, to which the English words show and token respectively 
correspond. The words dei-cere, ^eiK-vvfju, and zeigen, zeichen, and 
token, in their initial letters obey the well-known law of Grimm, of 
which we have another familiar example in decern, ZeKa, zehn and 
ten. But the letter 8 also occasionally supplies the place of the 
other dentals in the present root, so that we have in Greek 0*17-/10, 
t. e, tTey-fia, in Latin signum, and in English show. The derivation 
of signum from a verb suggests the same course for lignum. Now 
this word is commonly used in the sense of firewood, and the ordi- 
nary term for a load of firewood, is a cord of it, that is, as much as is 
bound together on one timber-waggon. 


Vol. II. MAY 22, 1846. No. 48. 

Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq., in the Chair. 

Egidius Benedictus Watermeyer, Esq., was elected a Member ol 
the Society. • 

A paper was then read : — 

" On certain Initial Letter-changes in the Indo-European Lan* 
guages," continued. By the Rev. Richard Gamett. 

In a former paper an attempt was made to illustrate some of the 
affinitfes of the Greek digamma, on the theory of its origination in 
a fuller or more complex sound than the one usually attributed 
to it. It is at present intended to apply the same mode of inves- 
tigation to the liquids, several of which exhibit phsenomena bearing 
considerable analogy to those already noticed with regard to the 
digamma and its various representatives. 

With respect to the letter /, Grimm and other German philo- 
logists observe that it is the least vmable of all sounds, especially 
at the be^ning of words. It is true that in the languages usually 
compared with each other, / as an initial is seldom replaced by any 
other simple consonant. The Sanscrit affords examples of inter- 
change between / and r : e. gr. Idhita and rohita, red ; Ionian and 
roman, hair ; but they are not numerous. If however we take a 
more comprehensive induction, and inquire at the same time whether 
the ordinary / of the Greek, Latin, and Teutonic languages may not 
pccasionally be represented by a more complex sound, we shall 
discover phsenomena which at all events appear to deserve a careful 
investigation. We may observe as a preliminary to the present 
inquiry, that an Englishman or German is apt to take a limited 
view of the subject, because he only knows of one power of the letter 
/, and naturally supposes that the same is the case in all other Ian* 
guages. This however would be a very erroneous impression. The 
Armenian, for example, has two perfectly distinct elements : one^ at 
least in the modem language, answering to the ordinary English or 
Latin /, and another, which, whatever may have been its ancient 
pronunciation, has now assumed that of gh, guttural. Several 
Slavonic dialects have also two distinct /'s ; the difference between 
them is not however easily rendered intelligible through the medium 
of our own language. The Welsh also possesses a twofold element 
of this class : one secondary, that is, only employed in construct or 
compound words, and not differing in power from the same character 
in our own language ; and another piimary, usually, for want of a 
better sign, written //. 

This character, invariably used at the be^nning of words not in 
grammatical construction, is sometimes erroneously compared to the 

VOL. II. 2 F 


initial H in Span. Uano, lUtmar, &c. It has howerer a totally different 
power, bearing nearly the same relation to a simple / that our th 
does to t : indeed it is sometimes described by Englishmen as equi- 
valent to thl ; but though this combination approximates in some 
degree to the sound, it contains too much of a dental admixture. 
Though the same sound has not as yet been found in any other lan- 
guage, there is no doubt of its great antiquity ; and it is believed 
that the existence of it in Welsh may serve as a clue for the expla- 
nation of certain apparent anomalies in other tongues. 

It is scarcely necessary to say, that when people attempt to ex- 
press articulations difficult or impracticable to their vocal organs, 
they fry to represent them by the best substitutes that they can 
find. Englishmen, when they employed Welsh proper names learnt 
by the ear, were aware that their own simple / conveyed no adequate 
idea of //, and the common resource was to employ fl in the place of 
it. Tlius Shakspeare's Fluellin is merely a Saxon transformation of 
Llewelyn, and the surname Floyd, which has now become fixed, is 
nothing more than Llwyd or Lloyd, adapted, or attempted to be 
adapted, to English organs. Now if we suppose that the sound of 
the Welsh //, or a still older articulation out of which it was formed, 
existed in the parent language of the Indo-European class, and was 
gradually disused by various tribes in the course of their divergence 
from the original stock, it is obvious that substitutes would be em- 
ployed for it, varying according to circumstances. Some nations 
might express it in one way, and some in another, but all would 
endeavour to convey an idea of the original sound as nearly as their 
vocal organs permitted them. 

If therefore we take the known English instances of Floyd and 
Fluellin as a criterion, we might expect to find other and still older 
examples of the same substitution. The following list of words, 
which might be greatly augmented, appears to give some countenance 
to this supposition : — ' 

llab, stroke. . , flap, 

llac, slack, relaxed. flaccidus, Lat. 

llawr, area floor, 

Uawv, palm of the hand. . . . folme, Ger. 

llawr, many fleira, Isl. 

Hetty, dwelling flett, Anglo- Sax. 

luath, Gael., swift fliotr, Isl. ; fleet, Eng. 

Sometimes, by an easy change, b or p appear instead of/. 

llachiaw, to beat, lick plaga, L. ; ptacu, I strike, Lith. 

llawn, full plenus, 

leach, Bret., place plecus, Lith. ; pleck. Lane. 

ledan, broad, Lat. latus. . , . irXarvs ; plains, Lith. 

lyja, it rains, Lith pluit, Lat. 

Xouui, I wash plaujUy I rinse, Lith. 

lein, Bret., summit blaen, W. 

llian, linen hliant, O.-Eng., /»tf linen, &c. 


Sometimes a vowel eeems to be inserted, in order to facilitate the 
pronunciation : — 

llavar, speech palabra. Span. 

Uawv, palm, Gael. lamh, hand waXanrj, 

This resolution into a liquid preceded by a labial is by no means 
the only one which the class of words under consideration appears 
to admit of. It has already been observed, that one of the Armenian 
letters related to / has in more recent times assumed the sound of 
gh. A similar phsenomenon is presented by the Spanish language, 
in which the Latin li not unfrequently becomes a pure guttural, as 
in muger from mulier, and hoja from folium. MoXis and fioyts exhibit 
the same species of affinity ; it is therefore not surprising to find 
words commencing with / in one dialect, in another exhibiting this 
element in connexion with c, g, or k, A few examples will show 
the matter in a clearer light. 

llavar, speech klavre, Dan., to praU, 

llai, mud clay, 

llais, voice glas, Slav. 

llathru, to shine glitter, 

llawd, a youth glott, O.-Swed. 

llavn, blade glafwen, O.-Swed., a lance, 

Iseccan, A.-S., to seize 1 ? • r* i 

laikau.Lith..Ihold..} i'^"^""". G*«l- 

luppu, Lith., I strip. .'. . glubo, Lat. 

There is a still further modification of this element, perhaps more 
extensively prevalent than any of the others. 'J'he Welsh // has a 
sort of sibilant sound, easily reducible to si by organs unable to 
pronounce it or the English th, as is notoriously the case with most of 
the Indo-European nations. Accordingly we find that words with 
this initial frequently reappear in Gaelic and Teutonic under the 
form sit or, in the modern German, sckl, as will appear from the fol- 
lowing instances : — 

llaciaw, to beat slacair, Gael. 

lladyr, theft '. . slad, — 

llai, mud slaib, — 

Hath, rod, lath slat, — 

llovyn, lock of hair .... slamhagan, — 

llwyvan, an elm sleamhan, — 

llu, host, army sluagh, — 

Uivaw, to grind schleifeUy Germ. 

llawg,. swallowing .... scklucken, — 

Harp, rag slar/wa, O.-Swed. 

The above examples, to which many others might be added, ap- 
pear to establish the fact, that words with the initial / are liable to 
have this element modified by a labial, guttural or sibilant prefix. 
It is not perhaps possible, with our present means of information, to 
lay down any single rule, capable of accounting for all those modi- 
fications. It might be conjectured that the forms with prefixes are 

2 f2 


the more original, and that the Welsh // for example represents 
several distinct classes of conjunct consonants, in the same way as 
the Spanish llamar, llama and llaga are respectively to be referred to 
clamare,Jlamma sjidplaga. It is however a serious objection to this 
theory that the same root not unfrequently appears under all the 
different forms, and has sometimes a twofold aspect even in the 
same dialect. 

Thus besides llab, a stroke or blow, we have the forms clap, flap, 
slap ; Germ, klopfen, to beat ; Slavon. klepati : along with the Germ. 
htu, lukewarm, we have W. clauar ; Gr. x^<op<'' '* Bclg« flo^uw ; 
O.-Swed.yfw, to thaw ; and along with W. llwfr, E. lubber, appear 
the Ov^Swed. flepr^ GaeL sliobair, in the same sense. Again, it might 
be supposed that the simple liquid sound is the original one, and that 
the labials, gutturals and sibilants are distinct prefixes, bearing some 
analogy to prepositions, and having formerly a distinct meaning 
which cannot now be traced. This is undoubtedly possible, and 
might be supported to a certain extent by actual examples. We 
know that the Anglo-Saxon blinnan, to cease,^ and Germ, bleiben, to 
remain, are no simple verbs, but compounds of bi-linnan and bi-liban ; 
and in the Slavonic dialects an immense number of words, com- 
mencing with si or vl, require the removal of the initial in order to 
arrive at the real root.. 

There are however many cases in which it would be unsafe to 
apply this solution. Supposing the Armenian lou or lov, a flea, to 
be a genuine original form, it is not likely that it should be trans- 
formed into floh, blocha, pulex and i//vXXu, without any visible reason 
or change of meaning, by means of a prefix with which it could very 
well have dispensed. Again, the Arm. lusel, to hear or listen, has 
in other languages the counterparts klu, hlu, shlu, sru, while in the 
Pali and in certain Greek forms, the supposed radical liquid entirely 
disappears, e, gr, Pali suyafh, he is heard = Grr. aicoverai. It appears 
much more likely, d priori, that all these forms are organic modifi- 
cations of the same primitive root, than that they should be com- 
pounds, made out of different elements, in languages closely related 
to each other. 

If one might venture to hazard a conjecture on a point respecting 
which there is confessedly no evidence beyond that afforded by an 
inductive comparison of forms, it would be a suggestion analogous 
to that lately proposed respecting the digamma and its cognates, 
namely, that none of the known forms are, strictly speaking, ori- 
ginal ; but that all have branched out of some still older element, 
capable, according to known phonetic laws, of producing them all. 
It has been shown that the archetype of the digamma, whatever it 
was, has given birth to labials, hard and soft, gutturals, palatals, 
and sibilants ; and that the Welsh // has within the last few cen- 
turies been resolved into^ : it is therefore very possible that it may 
itself be the descendant of a stronger and fuller sound, capable ai 
being modified in various ways. The comparison of a few cognate 
forms may serve as a groundwork for an attempt to reduce the 
varieties to one standard. 


The Latin Us, litis, corresponds pretty accurately in form with 
W. Hid, anger, strife ; and with these the Anglo-Saxon flytan, to 
scold, quarrel, and the Lettish kUda, strife, may very well have 
affinity, according to analogies already pointed out. In like manner 
locus agrees regularly with Bret, leach, with which Lith. plecus and 
hanctLsh. pleck appear to be cognate. But further, Quintilian has 
preserved two remarkable archaie forms, stlis and stlocus, initial 
combinations 'of which there is only one other example in Latin, 
viz. stlatarius, apparently connected with latus. Now, assuming a 
primitive articulation bearing some analogy to the Welsh //, but with 
a certain admixture of the guttural element, it is not difficult to 
conceive that Jlytan might be evolved from it in the samc^ way as 
Floyd has sprung from Lloyd ; kilda, according to the analogy of 
O.-Swed. glqfwen from W. llavn, and stlis, like slar/wa from W. 
llarp. The insertion of the dental may be explained on the prin- 
ciple of euphony, the combination si not being tolerated in Latin. 
A parallel instance occurs in Fr. esclave, Esclavonie, where the gut- 
tural is not radical, but inserted to prevent the collision of s and /. 
Benfey compares Germ, streiten, to strive, and Sanscr. srini, an 
enemy; if the latter is really cognate, it would furnish another ar- 
gument against the originality of the dental in stlis and stlocus. 

The synonyms for milk show a still greater variety of forms, all 
of which are however reducible to one origin. Lat. lac; W. llaeth, 
blith; Gael, bligh; Gr. yXdyos, yoAci ; Slav, mliek; A.-S. meolc; 
Lat. mulgeo, I milk; Lith. melzu; Gr. d/x^Xyoi. Respecting the 
interchange of b and m as initials, compai*e Sanscr. bru, Zend mru, 
Bohem. mluwiti, to speak ; Sanscr. mritas, Gr. (ipoTos, a mortal ; 
with many others. 

The above examples, selected from a much greater number, show, 
it is conceived, that Pictet was far from being justified in broadly 
stating that the Celtic / accurately corresponds with the Sanscrit 
one (including of course the other cognate dialects) in every situa- 
tion. It is believed, on the contrary, that few elements are capable 
of a greater variety of modifications, for the view we have just taken 
by no means exhausts the subject. Many instances might be given 
of / being completely vocalized, or converted into an articulation of 
a class totally distinct from its own ; but they do not so properly 
belong to the present division of our subject, which professes only 
to treat of the modifications of initial sounds. It is presumed that 
enough has been advanced to show that the scale of permutations in 
the Indo-European languages, as laid down by Grimm and Pott, 
will admit of being considerably extended beyond the limits which 
they have assigned ; and that it is very unsafe to fix upon Sanscrit 
or any other known language as a model to which all others are to 
be referred. It is believed that there are numerous phaenomena in 
language of which neither Sanscrit, Greek, Teutonic, nor all in con- 
junction, can furnish a satisfactory solution ; and that the real ori- 
ginal articulations of speech have in many cases yet to be ascertained. 
This can only be attempted by a copious induction of all known 


varieties of cognate forms, and all that we can rationally expect to 
achieve is an imperfect approximation to the truth. 

The following examples may serve as further illustrations of the 
subject. In some instances the affinity of the words in juxtapoa- 
tion is only conjectural. 

llachar, gleam, glitter .... flicker. 

"»«»*'• *° "" {«S*Skv.; occidere. 

llavyn, a slice sliver, Prov. 

llag, lazy, remiss flag ; slug , 

llai, dusky, blue blau ? Germ. 

llai, little klein} — 

llain, strip of land slang, Prov. 

llaiv, a shearing clip, 

11 ^1 ifloc'h, Bret. 

llanc, a youth |«J^^^^.^ , g^^ a footman. 

Haw, a hand claw } — 

llawnt, N.-E . lawnd, a lawn cluain , Gkel . 

Ueb, pale yellow gelb ? Germ. 

llech, flat stone flag ; clach, Gael. 

Ueddyv, inclining, sloping . hleo^, A.-S., hill, steep. 

llegiad, a clasping nXkKto ? 

Ueibiaw, to lick, lap slobber. 

Hetty, a lodging kliet, Slavon. 

llethu, to press flat flatten ? 

Uipan, smooth glib. 

Uipa, flaccid flabby. 

llipjrr, smooth glaber, Lat. 

„.., . V fslidder, Prov. 

Ihthraw. to shp j^^y^^ g^^j ,^ ,„^^ 

lliw, colour bleo, A.-S. ; blee, O.-E. 

lluched, lightning bliccettung, A.-S. 

Uumon, chimney dluimh, Gael., smoke. 

Uw; llwv,anoath j-^r^' ?f ™- . 

[ A:/ «tt, Slav., icttr^e. 

Uwg, eruption, tumour. . . . blotch. 

llwry, precipitate flurry. 

llwy, a spoon sl6v, Dan. 

Uyffanu, to hop hlaupan, Goth., to leap. 

"^toliok.T:.^!?'!'.^'^:'} w^"' s^^'^- '» ^''*- 

llym, sharp fleam ? a cattle-lance. 

Uymry, a preparation of \ ^^^^^^,, 
oatmeal .. j flummery. 

The following words, from various languages, are added for the 
sake of further comparison : — 

lam, A.-S., lame doff, W. ; chrom, Slavon, 

lank slank, Belg. ; schlank, Germ. 


feddoju. Lith.. I bury ... . {^J^Jj; '^^ ,^ ^^^^^^ 

leimen, Genn., to besmear, claim, Yorksh. 

lekiu, Lith., I fly fli^gen, Gkrm. 

limpu, Lith., adhsereo .... kleben, Gkrm. 

lippu, Lith., scando climb. 

Xdas, a stone clack, GaeL 

Xawapos, weak clav, W. ; slab, Slavon. 

lisp bloesgi, W. ; blasus, Lat. 

lithe, soft, tender blydd, W. 

leoman. A.-S. . to shine. ... {jj^^Q^^ 

Isetus, Lat blithe, glad. 

There are moreover a multitude of words in which the original 
affinity has been still further obscured by the elision of the liquid. 
Tlie examination of these does not, however, so properly belong to 
the present branch of our inquiries. 


Vol. II. JUNE 12, 1846. No. .49. 

Professor Key in the Chair. 

A paper was read— -■ 

"On Mistakes m, the Use of Obsolete Greek Words by Attic 
Writers.'* Part II. By Professor Maiden. 

Professor Maiden's former contribution on this subject (vol. ii. No. 
29) gave rise to certain criticisms contained in a paper communi- 
cated by the Rev. G. C. Renouard, and entitled "Remarks on 
certain Doubtful Constructions found in the Works of Attic Writers" 
(vol. ii. No. 43). In answering critical observations suggested by 
a preceding paper, the Professor thought it would be inexpedient to 
notice any new matter that might be introduced — otherwise the se- 
ries of replies might become endless — and therefore purposely con- 
fined his attention to the concluding paragraph. 

In speaking of the interpretation of iEsch. Prom. V. v. 557, it was 
stated, ** LasUy, with respect to lorris, Professor Maiden explains it, 
as the old Greek Lexica do, by (iovXii" The Professor wished to ob- 
serve, in the first place, that he didno^ speak of a nominative form lorris 
(except in quoting from Mr. linwood's Lexicon to iEschylus), be- 
cause the nominative does not occur in any old Greek ; but of the da- 
tive form iSrviTi, which does occur frequently in Homer ; and this he 
considered to be not a futile distinction, since he was speaking of an 
obsolete noun, and trying to show that a case of it was used as a 
preposition. In the second place, he did not explain the word by 
]3ov\i). He gave no Greek synonym, but translated loriyri (as used 
by Homer) " by tibe purpose," " by the device," " by the contri- 
vance." He went on to state, " ApoUonius (Rhodius) uses it, not 
strictly according to Homeric precedent, but without any wide depar- 
ture from it as to sense, treating it as an ordinary noun synonymous 
with fiovX}) :" and he considered that these words implied that he did 
not look upon /3ot;X^ as an exact synonym. Mr. Renouard's friend 
proceeds, " For if it were connected with ios, * an arrow,' and derived 
from 101, ' I send,' it would mean : 1. the act of sending ; 2. the de- 
sign, and be lorijs. The chief difficulty however in this derivation 
is, that all nouns in -orris are formed from adjectives." From the 
way in which this derivation is introduced, as a reason for the ex- 
planation said to have been given of the word, it might be thought 
that the derivation was suggested in the Professor's paper ; but he 
laid no claim to it, nor to the invention of the verb ew. The critic 
proceeds, " Hence lorrjs has been explained by an anonymous editor, 
whom Griffiths has silently followed, one-ness ; as he probably de- 
rived it from the obsolete los, one (whose feminine la \\ is found 
in Homer)." This is a specious etymology. Professor Maiden was 
not aware that it iiad occurred to any one else ; but it had passed 

VOL. II. 2 o 


through his own mind ; and if the word lorriri had occurred only 
with a plural genitive, as in the frequent phrase IdrTfri BeiSy, he 
would probably have explained it accordingly, and have interpreted 
that phrase, " by the union," or ** by the joint will of the gods." But 
though he did not think it worth while to stop to discuss an etymo- 
logy which did not satisfy him, and which he did not know had 
ever been suggested, yet he indicated the difficulty which prevented 
his acceding to it, by observing expressly that the word is con- 
structed " with a singular noun as well as with a plural, as Kaicrjs 
ionjn yvraiicds (Od. X. 383)." The same difficulty is presented by 
the use of the word in II. O. 41, /i^ ^i* ifirfy iorrira, &c. The critic 
goes on to say, " It is however difficult to understand why the Pro- 
fessor should have translated ^/u^c Xovrpa kqI X^xos aov vfievalovv 
loTjyri yafibfv, in Prom. 571, 'I hymned at the ablutions and your 
bed on account of the marriage.' For as vfievatovy is a verb transi- 
tive, it must have its object, and hence we must read with the 
anonymous editor, loriyrrr, * At the ablutions and around your bed 
I hymned the oneness of marriage. ' " The Brofessor did not un- 
derstand why the writer should assert that he translated the passage 
in any particular way, when in fact he never translated it at all. He 
translated the two words Iotuti ya/xwv, ' on account of your mar- 
riage,' but gave no translation of the rest of the passage ; and if the 
writer had looked to the Greek which was printed at length, he 
might have seen that the word or words before Aju0i Xoerpa were 
printed, not as 6t€, when, but as o re (with a space between the 
two parts), the neuter of the relative pronoun os re with its antique 
suffix, which is the reading of two MSS., of the Aldine and Glasgow 
editions, and of Wellauer. If therefore the passage had been trans- 
lated, it would have been rendered, ** Which I sang as a hymeneal 
song around the bath and thy bed on account of thy marriage," and 
thus would have been given to vfietcuovy the object which Sie com- 
mentator says that it requires. But upon examining the passage 
again, it may be doubted whether vjieyalovv, as it is used here, be a 
verb transitive. The verbs in ow or ovv, though generally transi- 
tive, are not so without exception. For example, fjieaovv is always 
intransitive, and k^iffovy is used intransitively by Sophocles (Elect. 
V. 1194) and Thucydides (vi. 87), and irapitrovy by Aristophanes 
(Vesp. V. 565). Now the verb vuevaiovy is used by Aristophanes 
(Pac. vv. 1041, 1078) and by Theocritus (Id. xxii. 179), and in 
this passage ; and as it would seem, not elsewhere. In Aristophanes 
and Theocritus it means ^ to wed," and is transitive (Ar. Pac. wptv 
K€v XvKOs oly hfjieyaioi, and'-Theoc. vfieyauoaovai ?e Kovpas) ; but here 
the sense is quite different The ' Etymologicum Magnum' explains 
the word— -icat vfievaiovv, to qZeiv roy vfxkvaiovy Koi orvyairTeiv ydfji^, 
'llie former interpretation belongs to this passage, and to this pas- 
sage only ; and it appears to be allowable to read 6t€ vfieyalovv, 
and to translate it, " When I was singing the hymeneal song." On 
the whole however the old reading seems preferable, which gives the 
verb an accusative case. 


A9 his attention had been recalled to the subject, the Professor 
wished to point out some other instances, in which it seemed to him 
that Attic writers had departed from the proper use of words be- 
longing to the older language. 

L In the Q£dipus in Colonus of Sophocles, when CEdipus hears 
the ominous thunder which announces his approaching end, he ex- 
claims (v. 1458, ed. Hermann)— 

toy ir6.yr* Apitrroy ^evpo Ofitr^a wdpoi ; 

It is plain that these words express a wish that some one would 
fetch Theseus, that is, cause him to come to CEdipus. A little 
further on in the play he exclaims again (v. 1474) — 

— itW* dts Ta\iirra /loi fioXity 
avQKra xwpas rria^i ris vopevtraria. 

And there can be little doubt that Sophocles used wopoi in the former 
passage as synonymous with wopevaete. This explanation of the 
passage is given in Liddell and Scott's Lexicon. 

Now the verb Jtnopoy, of which only this second aorist is found in 
use, is a word of the very old Epic language. It is not found, it is 
believed, in any poet later than Hesiod, untU we come to Pindar ; and 
although it was used by iSschylus and Sophocles, it was quite ob- 
solete to the living speech of Athens. Not only is it not found in 
Attic prose, but even Euripides does not use it. The universal 
meaning of the word in Homer and Hesiod is gave, or presented. 
It is most commonly used of making a free gift, as a mark of friend- 
ship or esteem. But it appears impossible to interpret the word in 
its genuine old meaning of give or present in the phrase irws ay ris 
^€vpo Brjiria tropoi ; where it is connected with ^evpo, hither. By 
the force of the context it must signify bring, fetch, or send. 

Now it seems probable that Sophocles was induced to give this 
meaning to the wurd, and make it synonymous with nopevaeie, on 
account of its apparent resemblance to Tropevut and iropevofiai, and 
the noun Kopos from which they are derived. TLopos is a passage or 
way through, and wopevu is fetch, bring, convey , cause to pass, and 
the passive tropevofjiai. Journey or travel. Modem etymologists have 
connected ^wopoy with rropos ; and even in Liddell and Scott's Lexicon 
a reference is made to wSpos (in its secondary sense, as " the ways 
and means of effecting an object," the sense in which iropH^v, procure 
or furnish, is derived from it), in order to explain the meaning of 

It happens however that the identity of the syllable wop in the 
two forms is the decisive proof that they are not derived from the 
same root. The noun iropos with its derivatives is one of that large 
family of words, the root of which appears in its simplest form in 
the Latin preposition per. The same root nep is the root of the 
Greek verb neiput, I pierce, lengthening its vowel in the present 
tense ; and nopos is the derivative masculine noun, bearing the same 



relation to ireiput as rovos to reiVw, ^dopos to ffOeipia, \dyos to Xeyw, 
&c. The primitive meaning of itopos is seen most distinctly, when 
iropoi is used for the pores of the skin ; but it is used for any passage 
or way through; and metaphorically for the ways and means of 
effecting an object. Uopevia is a derivative from it in its physical 
sense ; itopl(ia, Avopos, kiropkia^ &c. in its metaphorical sense. But 
although it is a law of the Greek language, that a verbal root, of 
which the vowel is e, changes' e into o in masculine and feminine 
substantives, and in adjective forms, with vowel terminations, it is 
equnliy certain that e cannot become o in a second aorist. In mo- 
nosyllabic roots ending in a liquid, € becomes a in a second aorist if 
it undergoes any change. 'EycFo/xijv and the Attic form ircfjioy 
retain the e ; but according to a more common analogy, the root xep 
would become Trap in a second aorist, as in Arairapeis, 2 aor. pass, 
part, from Afavelpw, Herod, iv. 94, just as Kreivia makes IsKvayov. 
It is true that from ^he root ir€p a secondary verbal form might have 
been derived, in which the vowel would have undergone the same 
change as in the noun iropos^ viz. a form iropita, which would have 
stood in the same relation to irelpta as i^pkta to 0€pw, ox^w to ^x*^' 
GKOTrib} to ffKiirrofjLftit fjtofieat to <l>ipofJiaiy jroviw to irkvofiaty &c. Some 
Lexicons, e. g, Schrevelius, set down iropew as an actual word : but 
even if it occurred, which it does not, such a derivative form could 
never have a second aorist. 

It follows therefore that the second aorist l^vopov is not from the 
root TTc/o, and consequently is not connected in etymology and mean- 
ing with v6pos and its derivatives. In ivopov, wop must be taken as 
the root, the o being the original vowel, and not having been sub- 
stituted for any other ; as dap and ynoX are the roots in the second 
aorists edopov, I leaped, and efwXoy, I came. These verbs have the 
present tenses SpufaKbt and pXtaoKw ; but iwopoy has no present ex- 
tant. If it were necessary to search further for the ultimate root of 
iiropoy, we might be inclined to connect it with the preposition irpe. 
This root may suffer a transposition, as in the forms iropaiif and wSppia, 
which are identical with irpdata. In Liddell and Scott's Lexicon the 
perfect forms itiirptiiTai and weirpwfxiyos are connected with hcopoy, 
instead of being formed from Treparow, according to the absurd gram- 
matical tradition preserved in the old Lexicons. Whether they be 
so connected or not, it seems clear that irhrptarai is derived from 
wp6 as certainly as irpwros is, and that it means, " // is predestined*' 
If hcopoy is also derived from irpo, which is not equally clear, it is 
derived from the preposition in a different meaning. In iriirpwai 
or ireTrpuffjiiyos the radical preposition means before, in relation to 
time : in iiropoy it willtuean be/ore in relation to place ; and iiropoy 
will mean / placed before, or / presented, in the strict etymological 
sense of the verb present. It should however be observed, that the 
negative argument, which shows that enopoy is not connected with 
iropos, is complete in itself, and quite independent of this positive 
speculation as to its etymology. 

II. In CEd. Col. V. 134, Sophocles uses an active form al^vyra in 

the sense in which Homer uses a middle or passive form ^(ofiai, 

— ra 3^ vvv Tiy* ^iceiv Xoyos oh^ky afofO*, 

" but now there is a report that some one is come, feeling no reve- 
rence, whom I, &c." These are the words of the Chorus, who are 
informed that a wandering stranger has trespassed upon the in- 
violable grove of the Furies. "A^o/iac is an old poetic word, obsolete 
in the common language. iEschyhis uses it in Choric passages 
(Suppl. 639, Eumen. 367, 956), and Sophocles himself in C£d. T. 155. 
Here however Sophocles has substituted for it the active form &iia> 
This is remarkable, as diofiai is merely a deponent verb in the older 
poets, and dibf occurs nowhere but in this passage. There are many 
verbs, no doubts in which the active form is found occasionally^ used 
in the sense which belongs more properly to the middle or passive. 
But it is not possible to substitute the active for the middle or pas- 
sive in all verbs indiscriminately. The substitution is most easy 
where the active verb is properly transitive and causative, and where 
the middle or passive verb is immediate. In such a case the causa- 
tive form is used as immediate, and the phrase is generally explained 
by granunarians as if the accusative of the reflexive pronoun, iavroy, 
&c., were understood; and so the active verb becomes equivalent to 
a middle verb in which the action returns directly upon the agent. 
Thus naveiy is sometimes used for TrdvetrOai, and opfjtdy for bpfAaaOai* 
But where the passive or middle verb is constructed with an accu- 
sative case as its direct object, it is frequently impossible to substi- 
tute the active. H^ofielv tovs Xvkovs cannot be used for ^o/JeierOac 
roifs Xvkovs. •The one is necessarily " to frighten the wolves,'^ and 
the other " to be afraid" of them. Ac duyaripes Ikottovto tov 
waripa is very good Ghreek to express, " the daughters beat them- 
selves in mourning for their father ;" but ai dvyaripes licoirroy Toy 
iraripa would express much less filial piety. Or, to take a phrase 
more closely resembling the instance before us, leivoy 7rot€i(r0ai to 
wpdyfia is ** to make the matter terrible to one's self," or " to ac- 
count it strange :" ^eivoy iroiecK to vpdyfia would be, " to make the 
matter alarming to others." Now the root of a(ofiai is &y, the same 
root as in cLyyos, dy-tos, ayosy hy-ii^w, &c., which appears also in 
Latin in the forms sac and sane in sacer and sanctus. Only the 
imperfect present and past tenses of diofAai are found in use ; so 
that no verbal form shows the final guttural ; but the great frequency 
of the change of y into ^ in the imperfect tenses of primitive verbs, 
and the meaning of the word, leave no do^bt as to its root. "A^o/zac 
therefore will mean, " I make to myself sacred," " I account sacred," 
or " I revere" ; and it may be inferred that a^oi, if it had been used 
before the word became obsolete, used by a poet in whose mouth it 
was a living word, would have signified *• I sanctify," or " I conse- 
crate," that is, '* I make an object of reverence to others," as ayl^w 
in later Greek. 


III. There is a slight departure from ancient usage in the other 
passage of Sophocles to -which allusion has been already made» 
(Ed.T. 155:— 

-— eKrirafiai ^fitpav i^kva^ heifiari vaWkfy, 

'J^Ve, AaXce, Ilaiav, 
hjJi^l aol h(6fA€V0Sf ri fioi, i) vkov^ 
9 TepcreXXo/zei^ais &pui£ iraXii^, 

Here old glosses explain hJ^dyLtvos by evXo^Sovfcevos, 0o/3ovfC6Kos, quite 
rightly. The deity invoked is the oracular Apollo, whose response 
the Thebans are expecting ; and the Chorus exclaim, " My fearful 
mind is^ on 6ie stretch, I am trembling with alarm, dreading with 
regard to thee, what thou wilt accomplish for me." In the older 
poets &iofAai expresses the sentiment of reverence or religious fear, 
and IS for the most part constructed with an accusative case of the 
object of reverence, which is generally either a god, or something 
hfldlowed by connexion with a god. Even where there is no accu- 
sative case, the sentiment implied is the same; as in II. !a!, 261, 
d(€ro yap firi Nvicri Oo^ iLirodvfua fy^ot. The claims of hospitality 
are the object of reverence in Od. i. 478, where Ulysses says to the 
Cyclops, kirel {eiVovs oh^ afco €rf M ouc^ 'E<y0e/ievai. And the sen- 
timent is similar, though much weaker, in Od. p. 401, jifir ovy ^nrip 
ifAfjy a^ev rSye, where Telemachus tells Antinous not to be withheld 
by respect for his mother, in whose house he was a guest, from 
giving a portion of the banquet to the beggar, the disguised Ulysses. 
It is worth while to observe incidentally, that the syntax in these 
passages of the Odyssey is different from the syntax of the verb in 
the Iliad. In this passage of Sophocles, the feeling expressed is not 
simply reverence for what proceeds from the god, but fear lest the 
response should be of evil purport. Some approach to such a mean- 
ing is made by Theognis, where he uses the verb to express fear of 
the wrath or retributive justice of the gods : — 

Theog. 736. — Kpori^ri, aov x^^ov d^Sfievot, 

and 280.— /iijSe/itav icaroirii/ diofjievot vijueo'iy, 

Sophocles however seems to depart a little further from the old use. 
The word is used once by Euripides, and strictly in accordance 
with ancient precedent, in Heracl. v. 600, ^vvipitfiely yap aJ^ofiai deay. 
But it is desirable to say a few words, to protest against its being 
obtruded upon him by modem critics in two other passages in a 
false sense. In Orest. v. 1109 (ed. Matth.), we find his Qayeiy oh 
XaZofiai, " I do not shrink from dying twice :" and in Alcest. 338, 
7rp6 Tovrov yap Xiyeiy oh xdiofxai, " for I do not shrink from speak- 
ing in the stead of this man." In both these passages Elmsley (in 
a note on Heracl. 600) proposes to read ohx dCojiai, in the sense of 
** I do not fear,'* and is followed by Monk and Hermann in their 
editions of the Alcestis. In the Alcestis indeed the Scholiast in- 
terprets the words as oh^ d^ofiat, and they had been so edited by 


Barnes; and in the Orestes two MSS. (but onl^r two) have the 
same reading. However, the more common reading is the true one. 
Monk is right in remarking that x<i^o/iai is used by Homer only in 
the physical sense of retreating or withdrawing (as ava\d}^ofiai is by 
Xenophon in the Anabasis) ; and Euripides has put a metaphorical 
meaning upon th^ word, for which we have no earlier authority. 
But the metaphor is a natural one, and does not imply any misun- 
derstanding of the earlier use of the word ; and it is important to 
observe, that the passages of Xenophon show that the word was still 
living in the language, and therefore a poet could deal with it freely. 
But the reading ovx dl^ofiai would make Euripides use the obsolete 
verb di^ofiai simply for /ear, where not the slightest sentiment of re- 
verence enters into the feeling. Matthise, who retains the old read- 
ings, has perceived distinctly the state of the x^ase, and explained 
clearly the objection to the proposed change : " Equidem causam 
nuUam video, cur oh xaJ^oiiat rejiciatur : in retrocedendo certe inest 
notio etiam timoris, ut, qui modus verbis timendi jungi possit, eum- 
dem nihil mirum sit etiam retrocedendi verbis jungi. Latini etiam 
poetse dicunt non refugio dicere, et Apoll. Rh. iv. 190, firfKin vvv 
\al^€aQ€ -^ — 7rarpi}v^e vietrOau "AieaOai autem non tam est timere, 
re/ormidare, quam vereri, etiam U. X. 26*1. Soph. CEd. T. 155." 

IV. The neuter noun IXtup is used by Homer eight times, always 
in the sense of " a prey," " that which is taken ;" as in Od. e. 473 : 
^eidui, fA^ OfipefftTiv IXciijO koI Kupfxa yiruffiai, *E\wpiat the plural of a 
derivative form eXwptoy, is used once in the same sense, II. A. 4« 
Another plural form iXiapa occurs also once, but in a different sense, 
in U. 2. 93. Achilles says that he has no desire to live :— 

aiire /ii) "Efcrbi/o 
irpwTOS €fif vvo ^ovpl rvweU cltto Ov^ov oXifftrfj, 
U-arpoKKoio h* eXwpa Met^oiTia^eut AiroTitrtji* 

Here zktapn may mean " the capture," that is, " the slaughter," as 
eXecK, though properiy meaning " to take," is used also for " over- 
coming and slaying in battle ;" and then the sense of inroriay will 
be the same as in Od. y, 193, wpiy vatrav ^vtitrrijpai vtrepfiatriiiy 
iiirorloai : and in II. X. 271, 

— vvy 5' &dpoa iravT airoTlffeis 

KTf^e* €fiwv irdptay, ovs iicrayes ^yxe'i Owav ; 

or ikwpa may mean " the penalty for shying,** and avorlcr^ be used as 
in II. r. 286, Tififly dvoTiyifAey. On account of the plural form of 
iXutpa, the latter meaning seems to be the preferable one, according 
to the analogy of ^oiaypia) fioixdypia, Awoiya, and Xvrpa, fAiivvrpa, 
&c. in later Greek. But in either way eXwpa has not the same 
meaning as ^Ktap, or the meaning that a plural of i^tap would have. 

Some grammarians refer this p)ural form i\wpa to a singular no-^ 
minative eXtapov ; others consider it merely as the plural .of ^Xwp ; 
and Messrs. Liddell and Scott are of this opinion. There is however 
reason to think that the former hypothesis is more in accordance with 


the analogy of the language. "EKtttp, riic^iapy triKiap i^nd eiX^wp are 
neuter nouns in ufp, belonging to the old Homeric language ; and 
if we set aside this form e\«iipa» none of them is declined ; I mean 
that none of them is found in any form but the nominative and ac- 
cusative singular. T^Kfiiap is manifestly the same word as rix^ap 
in the later poets (see Buttmann's Lexilogus on TeKfjuop and tckijlcU' 
petrOai), which also is not declined : and it seems that in all of them 
the cd may be considered as a peculiar lengthening of the vowel in 
the nominative and accusatiye (as in the anomalous form v^wp with 
the cases idaros, vEan) which could not extend itself to other cases. 
We consider the f^ as a peculiar anomaly, because we think that 
it may. be laid down as a ge;^eral rule, that the vowel in the final 
syllable of the stem or crude form of neuter nouns of the third de- 
clension is short. It might have been said that the final syllable is 
short ; for there is only one word in which it ends in two conso- 
nants, viz. yaXaicr, the stem of the noun yaXa, yaXaicros, The real 
exceptions to this general rule are very few, if any. Several appa- 
rent exceptions are produced by contraction. Thus the genitives 
&r6s, (TTYiTos, ilpos, are contracted from ovaro$, tniaros, iapos, Kparos, 
the genitive of icapri or Kapa, is contracted from Kopiiaros. Aovpof 
results from the transposition of ^opv-os, ^iJs, il>b>r6s, for light, be- 
longs only to the later Greek, and is so declined by a false analogy. 
As the nominative ^cJs is the contraction of ^ctos, the only genuine 
forms of the genitive are ^aeos, ipdovs. It does not appear how late 
it is before the cases <l>(,yr6s, 0ci»rf, occiu:. The derived adjective 
i^tafeirds is found first in the colloquial Greek of Xenophon's Memo- 
rabilia (iii. 10. 1. iv. 3. 4). The Attic forms <ppiap, i^kaTos^ a well* 
Kipas, icipdTos, a horn; and trredTiov, a derivative of arkapy trriaros, 
suet; are probably to be considered as exceptions peculiar to the 
Attic dialect, as we find ^eidra in Homer (ical ^e/qra fxaKpa vdovcrtf 
II. ^. 197), and the ordinary form of declension of K^pas is icepds; 
Kipd'OSf Kiptas, &c. The only real exception is trraU, irrairos, dough ; 
and after the examination which we have instituted, it will not be 
very rash to conjecture that this may have been originally trrdi, 
irrdiros. At any rata the principle is so general, that it becomea 
very unlikely that iXtap could be declined as ^Xwp, IXoipos, and so 
make a plural ^Xwpa» It is remarkable certainly, and in some de- 
gree contrary to analogy, if the w in eXwp be an anomalous length- 
ening peculiar to the nominative and accusative, as in v^utp, tliat it 
should make derivative forms ItXiapoy and eXutpioy ; and in like man- 
ner that viXwp should make the noun iriXwpov, and the adjective 
forms iriXupos and veXwpios, But it must be remembered, that as 
iXiap and TreXtup are not declined, there is no other form of the stem 
extant from which derivatives could be formed ; and we have a clear 
example of the same kind of anomaly in the formation of the more 
recent word aKupla, dross, from aKtSp, (TKaros, dung. With respect 
to this latter word, it may be noted that the lengthening of the 
vowel in the nominative is not anonudous, as the noun is a mono- 


Bopp, in his Comparative Grammar ({ 153, note), suggests that 
in nouns like rjwap, ijwaT'Os, the p and the r both belong to the root, 
so that the root of this noun was originally iivapr. If this is the 
true theory, as the r would necessarily be rejected from the nomi- 
native by the laws of Greek euphony, the lengthening of the 
vowel in the old forms of which we have spoken may be con- 
sidered as a compensation for the loss of the petition before two 
consonants ; but if the nouns were declined, there is no euphonic 
reason for t^e rejection of the r in the cases where it is not a final 
letter. We may observe, by the by, that if the root of trtcSp, aKaros, 
were originally aKapr, the Latin sterc-us will have the sane root ; 
and this resemblance is some confirmation of the hypothesis. 

To return to our subject ; we have pointed out veith certainty, that 
in Homer ^Xtopa differs in meaning from ^\<tip or a plural of iXwp ; 
and we have shown that it is at least highly probable that ^Xtapa is 
not the plural nimiber of ^Xcup, but the plural of another noun derived 
from it. Nevertheless iEschylus in the Supplices, v. 781, undoubt- 
edly uses ^\(apa as synonymous with ^Xtop, or rather eXwpia : — 

KVfflv ^* eireiO* ^Xwpa Kaviyjapiois 
opvKTi Zeiitvoy ohx avaivofiai reXecv. 

These lines are manifestly suggested by the 

avroifs dk eXutpia T€V)(€ Kuveffrriy 
oittH'oiai T€ frdffi 

of Homer. As tiiey are spoken by the Chorus, the fifty daughters 
of Danaus, iEschylus probably thought the plural form appropriate, 
and used IsXwpa merely as the plural of eXiop. 

V. We believe that the tragic poets have made a slight innovation 
in the use of the masculine noun 6ws, ^tards, a man. It is used by 
Homer and the old poets to signify a male person ; but it is never 
used for man as opposed to woman, or man as opposed to child, as 
avijp is ; and consequently never means husband. The tragic poets 
however have all used it for husband. In the Agamemnon of 
iEschylus, V. 1235, Cassandra speaks of Clytemnestra as dr/yovaa 
(fiwrl ^atryavov, *' sharpening the sword for her husband," And this 
is probably the meaning of the word in Eumen. v. 575 : — 

oifK fjv OfiatjJLOs i^taTos ov fcar^icraio-. 

In the Trachiniae, v. 177, Deianeira says, — 

— €1 /ic \pri fieveiv 
iravTwy apitrrov tptoTOs effreptifxiyrir. 

So also in Aj. 807, Tecmessa says, — 

iyvwKa yap 5i) ^biros ftnarrifiivrif 

kal rrjs naXaids \apiTOS eKfiefiXri^errf. 



In like maimer in the Alcestis, v. 487, the Chorus say of Alcestis,^— 

(TV S" ey iifiq, vktf, 
irpoOayovffa (^wtqs oi^g. 

The word occurs so frequently in Homer, that we believe that if 
it had been altogether synonymous with i^yijp, so as to be capable of 
the meaning huAand, we should have had some example of it. 


Vol. II. JUNE 26, 1846. No. 50. 

Profeftsor Kbt in the Chair. 

Ci^. Chapman, Roy. Art., F.R.S., was elected a Member of the 

lihe fodlovingi^tlemen were elected Honorary Members of the 
^Society :"-Profe8sor Zompt of Berlin ; Professor Madvig of Copen- 
hagen ; the Honourable Albert Ghdlatin of the United States ; and 
Heer de Haan Hettema of Frieseland. 

A piqper was then read :*«- 

'* On the Ilelatiye Import of Language.*^ By the Rct. Richard 

The ordinary definition of words In general is, that they are names 
of things. Though this position was maintained by Home Tooke 
^ih greeX ingenuity, it is 6r from being satisfactory. The analysis 
of language idiows that names of materiid objects are uniformly de- 
seriptiTe eptthets, and consequently not original; and there are 
moreover multitudes of words whieh are oatainly not names of 
jihmj^, according to any legitimate meaning of the term. The 
statement that l£ey are pictures of ukas i^^pears still more liable to 
objection ; in fact, it seweely conveys any definite idea to the mind, 
so long as the teraa idea ai^ picture are so vaguely employed as is 
jthe coBe at present. 

In an essay on the subject in a well-known periodical, words were 
defined by the vmter as beii^ indicative of the qualities or attributes 
«if things. Though this might be defended, it is liable to the ob- 
leotion that things are often designated &om qualities which they do 
ma possess. A slight examination of the articles commencing with 
an, ta, UH, m a .Qreek, Latin^ or English lexicon, will supply abun- 
dant exan^ples of this, and a negatwe quality is, as £Eur as property is 
concerned, no quality at all. It is therefore proposed, in lieu of the 
above definition, to state that tliey express the relations of things ; and 
this, it is believed, is strictly a|^licid>le to every word in every lan- 
guage, and under every possible modification. Names of material 
objects exfNress the individttal qualities or the relations of those ob- 
jects ; names of mental &eulties or phenomena are borrowed from 
the sensible properties of matter; and all other words, without ex- 
ception, h^ to denote some category, ciroumstance or mode of xx- 
istenee. This e»stenoe may be either past, present or fdtore, actual 
or hypothstioal ; but in one or other of tiiese waya i^«rtist be at the 
root of all language ; for ex m k ila nikii fit. As the arithmetician 
cannot operate upon mere cyphers, so language cannot deal with 

VOL. II. 2 H 


absolute nonentities, for this Aimple reason, that nullities cannot 
stand in any possible relation towards each other. As the able 
translator* of Sir William Hamilton's Essays well observes, " Not 
only all knowledgCr but even all thought is ontological, inasmuch 
as every judgment, every notion, every thought, has for its ob- 
ject an existence actual or possible, real or ideal. Everything that 
is afl^rmed or denied is affirmed or denied respecting being, and 
being is what is affirmed or denied of all things. As, in ttke re- 
ality of things, besides being there is nothing, in like manner, iu 
the human mind, there is not a single thought which has not 
being for its principle, its foundation, and its object. There is 
ther^ore no question whether our reason can know being ; for in 
reality it does not and cannot know anything else." 

The following remark by the same author is worthy of particular 
attention ; as though not mac^ by him vnth reference to t^at point, 
it appears to constitute the very foundation of the true philosophy 
of language : — " Our knowledge of beings is purely indirect, limited, 
relative ; it does not reach to the beings themselves in their absolute 
reality and essences, but only to their accidents, their modes, their 
relations, their limitations, their differences, their qualities;, all which 
are manners of conceiving and knowing which not only do not im- 
part to knowledge the absolute character which some persons attri- 

oute to it, but even positively exclude it Matter (or existence, 

the object of sensible perception) only falls within the sphere of our 
knowledge through its qualities ; ndnd, only by its modifications ; 
and these qualities and modifications are all that can be compre- 
hended and expressed in th^ object. The object itself, considered 
absolutely, remains out of tfa^ reach of all conception." 

It is of the utmost impor(j(poe to kieep the above observation in 
mind in all speculations upon' the nature of language. We axe in- 
capable of knowing any particle, a^;regate or modification of matter 
as it is in itself ; we only know it in its relations of similarity, diver- 
sity, or whatever eke they may be, towards other objects of our4>er- 
ception. And as we know rektions only, it follows that they are all 
that we can think of or talk about. A further consequence is, that 
no words are in their origin .pf concrete signification. All indicate 
phsenomena which have no distinct independent existence, but only 
a relative one. 

The relations in which the objects of our perceptions stand to- 
wards each other may be and are manifold and various. Tliey may 
.be near or distant, like or unlike, higher or lower, better or worse, 
united or separate, or in any conceivable degree of affinity or non- 
affinity. Now, of objects standing in such rektion towsurds each 
other, the word descriptive of that rektion may become the name by 
whidi any one of them is popularly designated. Tliey may be cha- 
racterized from what they d(o or do not do to each other, or from 
iny possible shade of resemblance or contrast. Of course, the most 

* M. Louis PeiMe : ' Fragmena id€ Philosophie par M. W. Hamilton.' Pref, 
p. 68. 


obviou» and prominent relations arre most Kkely to be fixed upon \ 
but this is by no means necessarily the case : a terrestrial object, for 
instance, -might receive its name from the sun, the moon, or the 
polar star, if any relation, real or supposed, could be traced between 
them. Either term of the relatk>n may acquire its appellation from 
it : strpposing A and B to be considered with reference to each other; 
A might be designated from some phsenomenon connected with B, or 
vice versd; or either of them might be characterized from something 
derived mediately through A or B from G or D. In scholastic lan- 
guage, such names may be either subjective or objecttvCy a point which, 
though hitherto greatly overlooked, is of the utmost 'importance in 
tiie analysis of language. A few examples will place the matter in 
a clearer light. 

In most Indo-European languages the numeral or adjective one 
forms various compounds and derivatives, often bearing apparently 
opposite significations. Thus, from the Irish aon we have aonach, 
s waste or moor, also a Mr or great assembly ; aonta and amUugadh, 
celibacy, ako a joint vote or consent; with another derivative, 
aontumadh, marriage. In Welsh, untref(un, one -|- tref, town or habi- 
tation) means, of the same abode, townsman ; while untuawg (un, 
one, tv, side) does not denote on the same side or allied, but one- 
sided, partial \ Germ, einseitig. In like manner the Latin unicus 
implies soli^Jde or singularity, and imtVa9 association or community. 
The concord of tins discord is easily found, if we consider that the 
term one may either refer to one as an individual, or in the sense of 
an aggregate. In its first acceptation aonach denotes solitude, im- 
plying that wastes or moors, are commonly^ destitute of population ; 
in its second it denotes aggregation, dr the meeting of a multitude 
of people with a general unity of ^nnpose. In like manner, the 
words other, another, may either express difference or addition, ac- 
cording as they are taken in a disjunctive or conjunctive sense. 

In Anglo-Saxon the abstract noun atnta or nemetta means leisure, 
idleness, and its adjective amtig, idle, vacant, empty. The Old- 
German emazzig, modem emsig, is the same word, but with a totally 
opposite meaning ; namely, busy, industrious, occupied. The clue 
to this may be found in the Latin vdcare^ which, taken absolutely, 
denotes being vacant or idle ; but when joined with negotio or some 
similar word, is equivalent to occupari, and implies diligence and 
close attention. The same diversity of meaning occurs in trxo\ri 
and €r)(p\a!^€iv, SyoXt; means leisure, idleness and at the same 
time a school, with its manifold occupations, — not because people 
necessarily idle away their time at school, but because they are free 
from manual labour and all similar interruptions of their studies. 
Thus vacans negotio and emsig express vacuity or leisure — ^not abso- 
lute and entire, but from all business; except that in hand ; and, by 
implication, time and power to attend to it alone. Had our word 
emptiness followed the same course as the Latin and German, it 
might very well have acquired the sense of diligence or industry 
along with its present one, the primary idea being the same in all. 

2 H 2 


It may be olxierved^ once for aH, that as every vdtaic current has it» 
positive and negative poki so every rdation has its positive and ne- 
"gative, or subjective and objective aqsect* either oi which may give 
its character and complexion to the word used to express it. To 
borrow Bukr's excellent illustration of negative quantities* a man's 
debts are negative as far as relates to right of fmperty, but positive 
with respect to his oMigation to pay them ; while, witii respect to 
his creditors, the same debts are negative as to actual possession, 
but positive as to light. The word may pass from its positive to 
its negative acceptation, or tfiee vertd i for instance, when we ^peak 
of a deceased merchant's debts, we are snj^osed to meai^the sums 
due from him ; but when we talk ai his good and bad debte, we are 
understood to imply those ow&ig to him by others. 

The following may serve as a fisuniliar example of the same thing 
receiving different names from its different attributes. In Icelandic, 
fyckillf a key, is derived, naturally enough, from fyekia, to riiut or 
lock ; and the German bMUbwI (from $chlie99en)^ tiie Greek cXecs, 
with many other terms in various languages, foUow tibe same anar 
logy. But a key may be employed to open as well as to shut, and 
therefore it is with equal propriety in Welsh called agariad, from 
agori, to open. In otiier languages it is designated if terms im- 
pljring crookedness, from its ustud form ; and it might be equally 
denominated from the idea of access, security, confinement pn^- 
bition, or any other notkm connected directly or indirectly with a 
key or its offices. 

Again, the word iee, as applied to the side of a ship, is referred 
by etymologists — and it is b^eved rightly — to the Anglo-Saxon 
hleo, shelter* as being coveted W protected from the direct action of 
the wind. Dr. Jamieson excepts to this derivation, on the ground 
that it is not applicable to le^shore. A little consideraticm would 
have shown him that there is no real ground for the objection. When 
a ship ascends the Thames with a cross north wind, the Essex side 
is the weather-shore and the Kentish the lee-shc»re—- not because 
they are respectively exposed to and sheltered from the wind, the 
reverse being the case, but with relation to the weather-side and 
lee-side of the ship that is passing. The term is subjective as ap- 
plied to the ship, and objective with reference to the skove^ T^ 
example, with many similar ones, may serve to show, that as rays 
of light may be refracted and reflected in all possible ways from 
their primary direction, so the meaning of a worid may be deflected 
from its original bearing in a variety of manners ; and consequently 
we cannot well reach the primitive force of the term unless we know 
the precise gradations throtigh which it has gone. Had lee-side 
been lost or forgotten, we should have been not a little puzzled to 
give a rational explanation ofvlee-shore. 

There is perhaps no more Ir^arkable instance of the intrinsically 
relative nature of language than the names of the points of the com- 
pass, at least in certain classes of tongues. Everybody admits that 
these points vary according to* locality, and that the north of London 
is not the north of New York. Most people however would sup- 


pote that, with reference lo & fixe^ point, Ofeimwk^ Obseryatory 
for example, the terms for the cardinal dimiona oould not with pro- 
prie^ interchange with eadi other. This may be true aa to the 
Teutonic ]ang«agea» in whidi the preciae original import of the 
tenna ia uneeitaiA. But there are tnnguea in which, p a ra doxi c al aa 
it may aeem, any given point mi^ht bafe beea designated by th(B 
name of any other. In die Semitic languages, and to a great extent 
in the Celtic, east, west, north, south, are respectively equivalent to 
before, behind, left, right. The congruity and propriety of the ap- 
pellations evidently ctepend on the ancient practice of directing the 
view towards the rising sun, specifically for devotional purposes. 
But there was clearly no natural invincible necessity for taking this 
precise point of view and no other. .^^The direction fixed upon might 
just as easily have been the setting sun, the meridian, or the north 
' pole. In the first case every presept designation would have been 
completely reversed. Kedem (front), now east, would have become 
west ; yamin (right), south, would have been transformed to lunih^ 
and so ^ the rest. In the second case all the points would have 
shifted ninety degrees sunwards; in the third they would have 
made a similar move in the opposite direction : thus all might travel 
by just stages round the horizon, and!^^ four different Semitic or Celtic 
tribes might have come to employ the same set of words in four per- 
fectly distinct acceptations. It now remains to show that this u 
not mere theory, but that it has to a certain extent been realized in 

In Moablech's ' Vocabulaire Fran^ais-Oceanien,' art. Nobd, we find 
the following passage: — "The Islam^rs (Marquesans, Hawaiians, 
&c.) turn to the west in order to fij^ the cardinal points; whence 
it comes that they call the norths rig^^de, and the south, left side." 
A glance at the comparative tables in Humboldt and Buschmann's 
great work, ' Ueber die Kawi-Sprache,' will confirm the accuracy of 
^s statement with respect to varioua tribes of Polynesians, western 
as well as eastern. When an Arab visits Java, he turns in the same 
direction as a Javanese to look at the southern cross ; but if asked 
to express this direction in words, the Arab will say that it is right 
(yemen), and the Javanese left (kidulju. In like manner, while looking 
out for omens, the Greek augur faced towards the north, the Roman 
to the south ; consequently Sie left, apitrripa, of the former was the 
western quarter, while the lava of the latter was the direct con- 
trary, llius, while each looked towards the east for auspicious 
omens, they denoted them by names of diametrically opposite im- 
port. As connected in some degree with this subject, it may be 
observed, that our Anglo-Saxon ancestors called the right hand se 
sw^ire, the stronger or better hand, while the Greek apiirripa, also 
meaning better, was applied to the l^. The Saxon simply meant 
to express physical superiority ; while the superstitious Gb'eek, both 
in this case and in that of the Sjrnonymous term ehtityvfios, strove to 
avoid words of inauspicious import. Thus we find that the word 
left has been, in point of fact, employed by difierent races to denote 
east, west, north and south, and that the simple relation itself may 


h9, and is expressed by terms in one language, which in another 
have a totally different meaning. 

The above examples, to which thousands of similar ones might be 
added, may serve to illustrate the positions advanced above, that 
words express the relations of things, and that those relations may 
be indifferently positive or negative, objective or subjective. 



AbTSSTNI A : — vocabularies of languages spoken in Abyssinia and its neighbour- 
hood, 97; the Hh&mara, Fal&sha and Ag&wi cognate tongues, 90; the races 
which speak these dialects probably the original inhabitants of Abyssuiia, 91; 
traditions respecting their early history, 92 ; the G&fat language almost extinct, 
96 ; appears to have had no connexion with the Amharic or with the earlier 
languages, ib, ; the languages of G6nga, K&ffii, Wor6tta, Wol&itsa and Yingaroo, 
93 ; languages cognate with those of K&ffa, WorAtta and Wol&itsa, together with 
a corrupt form of Christianity, prevail to the west of K6fik, 96 ; the languagi! of 
the Sh&nkala or negroes of Agaumider, 94 ; of the Gallas of Guderu, 95 ; lan- 
guages of Tigre and H&rrargie, 96. 

iBschylus^ his use of ecari, 65, and lorarit 66, contrary ta Homeric prieced^t ; 
correction suggested, Sept. c. Th. v. 200, 207 ; the passage Prom. V. v. 571 con- 
sidered, 218, 266. 

Ahrens (F.) mistaken in considering the initial y (which in certain Hesychlan 
glosses takes the place of the digamma) as a cOrruption> 234 ; his criticism-on 
the forms Pe^, Pe^riKovra, &c., 236. 

American languages. See Ethnography of America. 

Aristophanes, his use of the Homeric word irpoOeXv/ivoe, 59. 


Beke (T.) on the languages and dialects of Abyssinia and the countries to the 
south, 89. 

Bopp (P.), his theory identifying the case-endings with pronouns or pronominal 
roots, 166; his views as to the nature of the Greek augment in some measure 
countenanced by the verbal prefix of the Lappish, 184. 

Bruce (J.), the sounds of the words inaccurately conveyed in his Abyssinian voca- 
bularies, 90 ; a curious etymological blunder thence arising, ib» 

Byron, his singular misapplication of the terms ruth and kibet, 58. 


Celtic Languages. See Derivation of Words. 

Chronology : — on the meaning of tht word trdpos as used in the Babylonian 
chronology, 85 ; Rask's hypothesis as to its value, 86 ; according to Professor __ 
Wilson the adpos a merely mythological period, 87. 
VOL. II. ' 2 I 


Cockayne (Rev. O.), luggestioiifl on the critical arrangement of the text of the 
Medea, 21. 

Coleridge (S. T.), hit mistaken use of tq>rut as the preterite of uprise, 191. 

D*Abbadie (A.), his Abyssinian Yocabiilaries, 94 ; his use of the word Rrn'orwui for 
GaUa incorxect, 96. 

Derivation of words. See Onomatopceia and Letter-change :— derivation from pro- 
nominal and prepositional roots, 205 ; Shemitic, Celtic and Sanscrit roots, their 
nature, ib. ; modem philologists disagree with the Hindoo grammarians in de- 
riving pronouns and simple particles from verbal roots, ib, ; verbs, &c probably 
derived from the particles, 206 ; examples from the Old-German, ib, ; derivation 
of verbs, &c. from a preposition representing the Welsh gwoTt over, upon, 207, 
208 ; correlatives of gwar in other Indo-European languages, 208 ; derivatives in- 
volving the idea of covering, warning off, watching, endurance, .&c, 209 ; crossing, 
turning, twisting, corrupting, &c, 210 ; gw<xr probably a comparative and there- 
fore not a simple word, 211 ; words including the Gaelic preposition tar (over) 
abound in the Indo-European languages and express the same secondary mean- 
ings as the derivatives of gwar, ib. ; derivatives of gwar and its correlatives in 
the Welsh, the Slavonic, and the Latin, 213; derivatives which have been 
affected by different letter-changes, 214. 

Derivation of English words, I ; derivation of Cold-Harbour, abandon, 2 ; abash, 
accoutre, afford, 5 ; attercop, 6 ; backgammon, 177 ; boun, busk, pedigree, wanton, 
kickshaw, burnish, 178; bonfire, seldom, butter, fog, badger, 179; penny, 237; 
lee-shore, 278. 

Derivation of irpo9eKvfAvo9, 217 ; of iSrti^, 218, 265; eiropov may be connected 
with vpo, certainly not with vopw, 268 ; the root of £^o/iai probably the same 
as that of ayvb9, &yi09, &c., sacer, sanctus, &c., 269. 

Derivation of the Latin words castra, 249 ; fors, sors, ars, mens, gens, 250 ; prehendo, 
obsoleo, 251 ; consul, exul, prasul, prator, lacruma, fama, spuma, squama^ rima, 
253 ; jus, lis, 254 ; signum, lignum, 255. 

Dialect. See Englbh dialects and Northumbrian dialect : — dialects essentially lan- 
guages, 119; the older dialects the more perfect in their forms, 120 ; what con- 
stitutes a living language, ib. ; climate a probable agent in producing dialects, 
122 ; mountaineers generally affect broad vowels and guttural consonants, 123. 

Digamma, sometimes represented by y or /3, 234. 

Dindorf (W.), his rejection of the distich in Eurip. Tro. v. 674 considered, 218. 

Dutch language : — ^list of works illustrating the Dutch provincial dialects, 128. 


Ellipsis, meaning of the term, 6 ; ellipsis of the verb in English syntax, ib, ; of the 
copula when the predicate precedes the subject, 7 ; Milton's use of this idiom, ib, ; 
copula omitted in other cases, ib. ; in clauses introduced by the conjunction co- 
ptdative, 8 ; verb substantive and indeterminate pronoun omitted, (tJiere are) 
fele of hem, ib, ; infinitive of verb substantive omitted after the verbs do (to 
cause), know, hear, fear, &c., 9 ; cases of ellipsis where the auxiliaries enter 
into combination with the verb, ib. ; have omitted in the past tense infinitive and 
also after may, can, will, shall, &c., I would (have) so done, but, &c., ib. ; Shake- 
speare's use of this idiom, 10 ; supplementary verb omitted after the auxiliaries, 
ib, i verb omitted when the act is referred to or suggested in the sentence, 11 ; 
ellipsis of the verb go after will, shall, &c., ib. ; of have after will, 12 ; other 
cases in which the verb is omitted after the auxiliaries, ib, ; omission of the verb 
go in cases where there ll no auxiliary, 13; Shakespeare's i<]Uom8 desire him 


home, prepare thee for France, &c, ib, ; ellipsis of the verb $ay, though there be 
no auxiliary, ib. ; Milton's use of this idiom, ib, ; change from the first to the 
third person without the introductory phrase " he said/' ib. ; common in the 
Old-English, in clauses introduced by and or ac, 14; in similar constructions the 
verb ask omitted, ib, ; the phrases to tee if, to. know wfiether, &c. omitted in the 
clause explaining the motive, ib, 

English dialects. See Northumbrian dialect : — the settlers in our Midland and 
Eastern counties descended from the Angli of Tacitus, 15 ; monuments of their 
early language, 16 ; the Psalter, Vesp. l,ib,i points in which the dialect of the 
Psalter differs from ordinary Anglo-Saxon, 17; the Durham Bible and the 
Durham Ritual, ib, ; particulars in which the dialect of these MSB. differs ffom 
that of the Psalter, 18 ; possibly the dialect of the first may be Northumbrian 
and that of the Psalter Mercian, ib, ; the Rushworth Gospels show an admixture 
of West-Saxon forms, ib, ; specimens of the Rushworth and of the Hatton Gospels, 
19 ; the northern MSS. of the fourteenth century exhibit a marked change of 
dialect, 77 ; in what this change consists, t6. ; partly in the introduction of Norse 
terms, 78 ; the inscription in Aldburgh church, ib, ; names of Yorkshire pro- 
prietors in Domesday generally Norse, ib, ; in the " Cursor Mundi " and the 
** Metrical Psalter " Norse words and phrases common, 79 ; many Northumbrian 
MSS. claimed as Scotch, 80 ; extract from the ** Metrical Psalter," ib., and from 
the old version of the York Mysteries, ib. 

English etymology. See Etymology and English Verb. 

English syntax. See Ellipsis : — on the use of the collective noun, 69 ; Anglo-Saxon 
nouns conveying an aggregate meaning generally neuter, ib. ; Anglo-Saxon neu- 
ters generally the same in the singular and plural numbers, ib., and may have 
been originally collective nouns, ib. ; how, upon such hypothesis, the individual 
was indicated, ib, ; how indicated in Welsh under similar circumstances, ib. ; 
collective nouns which now require the definite article take no article in 
the Old-English, ib.; singular substantives often used in a collective sense, 
and construed with plural verbs and adjectives in Anglo-Saxon poetry, 80 ; 
Grimm misled by his ignorance of this idiom, ib. ; collective noun joined to a 
plural kings and knight, 71 ; used with a genitive plural or with one of the 
possessive pronouns our, their, &c, their breast, &c., ib. ; with numer&h, fourteen 
foot, ib, ; or with the adjectives many, divers, &c., many baroun, 72 ; the numeral 
and its noun treated as if they constituted a compound, an tuo yer, 73 ; the noun 
sometimes plural, a nineteen years, ib, ; abstract nouns used as collectives, ib, ; 
corporate bodies indicated by the name of their patron, ib, ; a race by that of 
their country, ib. ; these collective nouns agree with nouns and verbs of different 
numbers, 74 ; difficult in some cases to distinguish between a collective and a 
plural noun, ib. ; traces of the old neuter declension in the Old-English, ib. ; the 
Old-English sterre, stede, asse may be northern plurals, 75 ; the participial nouns 
in nd peculiarly apt to take a collective meaning, ib. ; hence probably the 
Anglo-Saxon t^Imt^Xs frynd, fynd, ib. ; Old-English collectives in nd, 76. 

Verbs.substantive and auxiliary, 223 ; verb substantive, its plural forms, ib. ; the 
verb be used to express future time, ib. ; wor'}fe, 224 ; an infinitive following the 
verb substantive indicates obligation, ib, ; the gerund formerly used for this pur- 
pose and sometimes with a passive signification, ib. ; the idiom he is to blame, 225 ; 
the uninflected verb is followed by an infinitive denotes future time, /'* say, &c., ib, ; 
the idioms Pst go, thou'st hear 226 ; To formerly preceded the gerund, and at a 
later period the present infinitive, 227 ; even after the auxiliary verbs, thou maist 
to stande, &c., t^. ; shall, its original meaning, 228 ; used to express future time, 
ib. ; will used for the like purpose, ib, ; modem use of these verbs as auxiliaries, 
ib. ; construction of let with a noun as object followed by an infinitive, 229 ; 
omission of the indeterminate pronoun after let, let hongy me, &c., ib. ; con- 
struction of do (to cause) with an accusative and infinitive, 230 ; the indeter- 
minate pronoun omitted after do, I shall do (them) bete the, 231 ; do &s a. mere 
auxiliary, ib. ; generally denotes emphasis, ib, ; in Dorsetshire denotes a con- 
tinuing action, ib. ; the preterites of gin used as mere auxiliaries, he gan die, 

2 I 2 


they cam begyn, &€.» ib.; idioms become to be, come to be, 232 ; preterite of c 
uied M an auxiliary, he com gon, ib, 
English verb, its ordinary inflexions, 241 ; Old-English verbs expressing present time 
follow three schemes of inflexion, ib, ; the present iDdicative according to the first 
or t conjugation, ib,i according to the secondt 242 : according to the third, 243; 
examples of the subjunctiye,! 6. ; of the imperative, 244 ; the t form of the infinitive 
still lingers in our western dialects, ib., but is now only used absolutely, 245 ; the 
gerund, ib, ; the present participle in ende or ing, ib, ; the Old-English forms eoM^ 
fal^, help)f, ftc. analogous to the hzAnfert, puU, est, &c^ and to Sanscrit verbs of 
the second coBjIugatioD, 246 ; verbs belonging to the t conjugation answer to Greek 
circumflex veibs and to Sanscrit verbs of the fourth and tenth conjugations, ib, ; 
examplet where the correlative verba follow the corresponding conjugations in 
odier languages, ib, ; foreign verbs which were introduced during the Old- 
English period generally followed the t conjugation, ib, ; preterite of verbs 
whose past participle ended in d, ib. ; when the present followed the • inflexions, 
the preterite and past participles took the endings ede, ed, ib, ; in other cases, 
de, d, ib, ; preterite of verbs whose past participle ended in ti, 247 ; sometimes 
changed its vowel in the plural, ib, ; took e as the inflexion of the second person 
singular, 248. 

Anomalies of the English verb arising from die letter-changes, 189; verbs 
ending in d or t formed the third person singular in /, tent for tendeth, ib. ; so 
also verbs ending with a sibilant, rist for riteth, 191 ; the nature of this inflexion 
mistaken by Coleridge, Spenser, and several of our older writers, ib, ; verbs 
ending in d or t often dropped the final letter in the second person singular of 
the present, 192 ; the forms diet, wost, thoit, &c., ib, ; verbs ending in d and 
forming preterite and past participle in de, d, did not generally double the d, 
tende, send, 194 ; in some dialects when the verbal base ended in I, m, n. Id, rd, 
ndf the preterite and past participle took the endings te, t, instead o£de,d, 195 ; 
in certain northern dialects they took these endings in all cases, ib, ; attempt to 
account for these peculiar endings, 196 ; verbs which formed their past participle 
in en often substituted e for en in the Old- English, ib, ; the forms se»t (see*st) 
and luxt (ly'st), 199 ; the preterites shright shrieked, r ought reached, &c., 200 ; 
verbs forming the past participle in n and ending in Id, nd, sometimes changed 
ihe dtot in the preterite, withault (withheld), ib, ; verbs ending in / changed 
f tov before an inflexion opening with a vowel, 201 ; verbs ending in th some- 
times changed th to d in the preterite and participle, ib, ; permutation of s to r 
in the preterite and past participle, 202 ; of/ to b in the present tense, ib, j verbs 
ending in A or t; often dropped those letters, mas for makes, 203 ; kithe, graithe, 
&c., absorb the th in the preterite, kidde, graide, 204. 

Essential anomalies in the structure of tibe English verb, 149 ; the anomalous 
verbs according to Ten Kate's classification, ib, ; the present in its inflexions re- 
sembles the preterite of those verbs which form the past participle in n, ib. ; the 
second person singular in some cases takes the inflexion t, 150 ; the preterite 
generally resembles the preterite of verbs which form the past participle in d, 
ib, ; the verb is used without change of structure for both numbers and for all 
the persons, 151 ; ist, second person singular, 152 ; the preterite sing, tuas, were, 
was, plur. weren, ib,; war, sing., ib,; sing, was, wart, was, 153; wast, second 
pers. sing., a modem form, ib, ; the verbs can, to be able, an, to give, man, to be 
obliged, ib, ; their mode of forming the preterite, ib, ; could now represents coude, 
the old preterite of can, 154 ; ken the causative verb corresponding to can, ib, ; 
begouth the northern preterite of begin, 156 ; the verbs may, to be able, ow, to be 
obliged by duty, dow, to prosper, 158, form their preterite by adding the su^ 
de, ib. ; the northern form deih (for dow) used as a pr«terit9» ib, ; ow sometimes 
used as a preterite, 159; the verbs WQt, to know, mot, to be obliged, ib,, form 
their preterite in ste, ib, ; the verb unss manufactured by our modern editors 
and lexicographers from wiste the preterite of wot, 160 ; mot sometimes used by 
northern writers as a preterite, 161 ; the verbs dar and tharf, to need, ib. ; sin- 
gular confusion between the verbs dar and thar, 162 ; shall changed its vowel 
in the plural till a very late period, 163 ; the anomalous verbs often used their 
preterite with a present signification — -the reason, ib, ; the verb will took in the 


indicative the inilexioiii of the tubjunctive, 164 ; in some dialects had its radical 
vowel broad, pres. sing, wole, wolt, woU, preL wolde, ib. ; in others, narrow, 
pres. wiUe, pret. wilde, ib. ; now takes the narrow vowel in the present and the 
broad in the preterite wili, wotdd, as in the Anglo-Saxon, ib. 

Ethnography of Africa. See Abyssinia :-~ciirrent notions as to the affinities of flie 
African languages, 210 ; Adelung and Prichard recognise only the more definite 
groups, ib. ; materials which have been collected relative to African ethnology, 
220; the equator an important line of demarcation, 221. 

Ethnography of North America : — no American language isolated fVom the 
others, 31 ; their affinities shown by their Yocabularies as well as by their 
grammar, 16. ; the groups of languages called Athabascan and Kolooch and most 
of those spoken in Oregon and California connected with the Esquimaux, ib. ; 
short Yocabulary of the Ahnenin, 32 ; of the Blackfoot, 34 ; its affinities more 
with the Algonkin tongues than with those of other recognized groups, ib. ; nu- 
merals of Fitz-Hugh Sound, 38 ; vocabularies of the Crow and Mandan lan- 
guages, ib, ; both languages appear to be Sioux, t6. ; the Mandan compared 
with the Minetare and other Indian dialects, 39 ; comparative Yocabularies of Che 
Pawnee and Riccaree, 42 ; the Caddo related to the Iroquois languages, 44 ; 
affinities of the Natchez, ib, ; of the New Californian tongues, 47 ; the Sacks and 
Foxes belong to the Algonkin stock, 48 ; the language of the loway Indians 
connected with that of the Sioux, Ottoes, &c., ib. 

Etymology. See Derivation : — the final d of the English weak perfect answers to 
the Anglo-Saxon de and Gothic ded, 50 ; Grimm's hypothesis that ded is a 
perfect of reduplication, and resembles the English auxiliary did, 51 ; the pre- 
terite did not formed on the principle of the weak perfects, ib. ; probably among 
the oldest of the strong perfects, 52. 

Perfects of reduplication common in the Gothic, 52 ; Anglo-Saxon hehi, ib. ; 
English did compared with the Latin dedi, ib. ; their identity maintained, 53 ; 
English do and Latin dare probably the same word, as appears from the Latin 
compounds abdere, perdere, &c. and the English compounds don, doff, &c., 54. 

Euripides : — on the critical arrangement of the text of the Medea, 21 ; Elmsley's 
correction of y. 318 considered, ib. ; in y. 264 eyrifiaro may perhaps be a 
corruption for eyeivaro, 22 ; the passage at Yerse 216 noticed, 23 ; the parallel 
passage in Ennius an imitation and not a translation of Euripides, ib. ; correction 
suggested, 25 ; the passage at y. 529 considered, 26 ; the passage at y. 733, 27 ; 
reading adopted by Porson, 28 ; correction suggested, 29 ; the passage (Tro. 674) 
considered, 218. 

Finnish tongues, connected with the Indo-European fiunily, 180 ; the inflexions of 
the preterite of the Lappish verb, 181 ; Lappish pronouns, personal and posses- 
sIyc, 182 ; formation of the passive Yerb in Lappish, 183 ; the numerals, ib, ; 
case-endings of nouns, ib. ; formation of the superlative according to Indo- 
European analogies, 183; negative prefix of adjectives, 184; present tense of 
the Finnish verb, 185 ; the gerund resembles the old Greek infinitive, ib, ; Fin- 
nish pronouns, personal, demonstratiYe, and interrogative, 185; Finnish nu- 
merals, 186; the distributives, s6. ; certain Finnish words compared with their 
synonyms In different Indo-European languages, 187. 

Friesish language: — ^list of works illustrating the Friesish language, 128. 


Garnett (Rev. R.) on the languages and dialects of the British Islands, 15, 77 ; on 
the origin and import of the genitive case, 165; on the derivation of words from 
pronominal and prepositional roots, 205 ; on certain initial changes in the Indo- 
European languages, 233, 257 ; on the relative import of language, 275. 


Genitive case : — ^its origin and import, 1 65 ; Schlegel's theory with respect to the 
case-endings, ib. ; Bopp regards them as pronouns or pronominal roots, 166 ; 
the Sanscrit genitival ending sya probably the same word as the Vedic pronoun 
tya, ib. ; modes of expressing the genitival relation in the Shemitic languages, 
ib. r the Samaritan </, Ethiopic sa, and the Amharic ya, at the same time relative 
pronouns and signs of the genitive, 167 ; the sign of the genitive and the relative 
pronoun resemble each other in the Coptic, ib., and are identical in the Galla 
and the Yoraba, 168 ; the sign of the genitive agrees with the relative or demon- 
strative pronoun in many of the Polynesian languages, ib. ; in certain Indian 
dialects the genitive ends in ka, ki, or ke, according to the gender of the govern- 
ing noun, 169 ; the possessive adjective of the Slavonic and the definite adjective 
of the Lithuanian and Gothic probably formed by affixing a demonstrative pro- 
noun, ib. ; the Syriac, Ethiopic, &c. prefix a relative, ib. ; in the Afghan the 
genitival prefix da a demonstrative pronoun, 170 ; sign of the genitive identical 
with the relative in the Tartarian dialects, Chinese, &c., 171. 

The construct form of the Shemitic, 172; of the Albanian, Persian, and 
Pehlevi, ib. ; the genitive establishes the same relation between words that the 
relative does between clauses, ib. ; examples of the different constructions above 
noticed, 173. 

Greek language. See iEschylus, Euripides, Derivation, &c. : — misapplication of 
Homeric terms by Attic writers, 57 ; of the word TrpoOeXvfivos by Aristophanes, 
59 ; its real meaning, 60 ; use of SvffKriXos by ^schylus (Eura. 789), 64 ; the 
word probably formed on a false analogy, ib. ; use of eicijri by ^schylus, Eu- 
ripides, &c., 65 ; of loTtiTi by iEschylus, ^6 ; Mr. Linwood's interpretation of 
ISrrfTi, ib,; vrjXirrovs (CEd. Col. 349) probably written for vi^Xtiros, 67 ; use of 
TrSpoi as a synonym of wopevtreie ((Ed. Col. 1458), 267 ; use of &}^ia instead of 
the middle form li^onai ((Ed. Cbl. 134), 269 ; use of li^ofiai ((Ed. Tyr. 157) 
peculiar, 270 ; eXutpa used by ^schylus as though it were the plural of eXiop, 
272; the Homeric 'iXiapa, 271 ; the use of 0a»s in the sense of husband not 
Homeric, 273. 

In neuters of the third declension the vowel of the final syllable of the crude 
noun is short, 272 ; some apparent exceptions produced by contraction, ib. ; 
other exceptions probably Attic forms, ib. ; the exception (rrals, ffraiTbs con- 
sidered, ib. 

Grimm (J.), his mistake as to the discarding of the plural ending as, in the case of 
nouns belonging to " the first strong declension," 70 ; in the case of nouns 
ending in els, 72. 

Guest (E.) on the ellipsis of the verb in English syntax, 6 ; on the use of the col- 
lective noun in English syntax, 69 ; on the anomalous verbs of the English Ian- 
guage, 169 ; on the anomalies of the English verb arising from the letter-changes, 
1 89 ; on English verbs substantive and auxiliary, 223 ; on the ordinary inflexions 
of the English verb, 241. 

Jamieson (J.), his derivation of the word Ue-shore considered, 278. 


Kemble (J. M.) on the North-Anglian dialect, 119, 131. 

Key (T. H.) on the English verb do and the Latin da-re^ and on the formation of 
the English weak perfects, 50 ; on the relations which exist between the verbs 
aller and andare, 143; the Lapp and Finn tongues not unconnected with the 
Indo-European family, 180 ; on the origin of certain Latin words, 249. 


Language, its relative import, 275 ; names of material objects descriptiye epithets, 
ib. ; things known by their accidents, not in their essence, 276 ; no words in 
their origin concrete, f&. ; names either subjective or objective, 277 ; hence de- 
rivatives of the same word often bear opposite significations — examples, ib. ; the 
phrase lee^thore considered, 278 ; names of the cardinal points of the compass 
generally equivalent to before, behind, left, right, 279 ; in different languages 
interchange with each other, ib» 

Latham (R. G.), miscellaneous contributions to the ethnography of North America, 
31 ; on the meaning of the word odpo9, 85 ; bibliographical notice of the works 
on the provincialisms of Holland and Friesland, 128 ; contributions to the study 
of the languages of Africa, 217. 

Letter-change : — the initial letter-changes of the Indo-European languages, 233 ; 
in some cases an actual substitution of a guttural for a labial, &c., in others the 
guttural, labial, &c. the representative of a complex sound, ib, ; the digamma 
sometimes had the power of a double consonant and probably a complex sound, 
234 ; represented by the Welsh gw, which occasionally becomes g or b, ib, ; the 
digamma sometimes becomes y or j3, ib, ; the forms yoivot for oTvos,yiap€S for 
eap and ypivos, a shield, 235; the ^olic forms pp6dov and /3pc^a, 236; 
Boeotian form ^avd for yvvr^, ib. ; the Elean Ppdrpa for prjrpa, ytipbi speech, 
Ppoyxos, a frog, PepKosaxi enclosure, 237 ; derivation of the English word penny 
ib. i list of words which take the digamma or its substitutes, 238 ; results which 
follow from the hypothesis of an original complex sound, ib, ; mutation of the 
initial w to ub, 239. 

A connexion traced between the verbs went and go, and va and alter, by means 
of the letter-changes, 143 ; alter identical with andare, which may be connected 
with vado, 144 ; go probably connected with vado, 145 ; origin of the verb to 
walk, 146. 


Maiden (H.) on mistakes in the use of obsolete Greek words by Attic writers, 57, 

Members elected, 31, 57, 77, 109, 131, 177, 189, 257, 275. 


Northumbrian Dialect: — this dialect supplies important links in the history of the 
Teutonic languages, 123 ; its monuments are supplied by MSS. and by inscriptions 
on stones and coins, 124 ; the fragment of Caedmon and the Durham Gospels 
and Ritual, ib, ; the Psalter, Vesp. A. 1, 125 ; the difference between the dialect of 
the Gospel and that of the Psalter probably owing to Norse influence, 127. 

The vowel system of the Northumbrian dialect, 131 ; the Low-German 
dialects bound together by their peculiar system of consonants, 132 ; the Mseso- 
Gothic on the whole a Low-Dutch dialect, ib. ; the dwellers in the Sette and 
Quindeci communes a High-Dutch race, 1 33 ; the three short and the seven long 
vowels of the Mseso-Gothic, 134; the f and u of the Maeso-Gothic sometimes 
represented by the e and o of the later dialects, 135 ; the e sometimes repre- 
sented by the Anglo-Saxon eo and the short u by ta, ib. ; vowels at the end of 
a word, how affected in Anglo-Saxon, 136 ; the vowels, how affected by the vowel 
of the succeeding syllable, ib. ; Maeso-Oothic vowels and their Anglo-Saxon equi- 
valents, 138 ; the Northumbrian vowels in some respects hold a middle place 
between the older forms and those of the West-Saxon, 139 ; the Northumbrian 
vowels and their West-Saxon equivalents, ib* 



Onomatopceia the probable origiii of langoage, t09 ; animab named firom then' 
peculiar cry, 1 10 ; the name of Hottentot whence derived, t^ ; erica of different 
animals, ib. ; inartacnlate sounds peculiar to man. 111; noises arising from the 
collision or fracture of bodies, t&. ; the 6nal letters tenuea or medfab as the 
sound is sharp or soft, 1 12 ; a final th represents the noise of liquids-^ gnttnral 
M, «, or r, the motion of air«— and resonance generally is indicated by Mt «, ng^ 
or /, ib. I vowel broad or narrow as the sound is grave or high, t^. $ nanow 
vowels indicate diminution, 113 ; final ^ changes to y to denote less intensity of 
action, ib, ; syllable repeated to' denote a continuous sound, ih,; I of r sometimes 
added for this purpose, whence the frequentatives in I, r, 1 14 ; frequentatives in 
<, 115 ; involuntary sounds may repreaent the feeling under whkh they are 
uttered, 116, or the acoompaujring action, 117. 

Orthography :— >the spelling of the words foreignt tovereigm^ ceUetigw, seems to be 
found^ on a fiilse notion of their etymology, 57. 

Rask, his hjrpothesis as to the meaning of the term sonif, 8fi. 


Schlegel (A. W.)> his theory with respect to the case-endings and personal termi- 
nations considered, 165. 

Shemitic languages. See Genitive case. 


Wedgwood (H.), notices of English etymology, 1 ; on onomatopoeia, 109 ; notices 
of English etymology, 177. 

Wilson (H. H.) : —the term <rdpas as used in Babylonian chronology indicates 
merely a mythological period, 87. 





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